Sam Snead

Samuel Jackson Snead (pronounced [sni:d]; May 27, 1912 – May 23, 2002) was an American professional golfer who was one of the top players in the world for the better part of four decades (having won PGA of America and Senior PGA Tour events over six decades[1]) and widely regarded as one of the greatest players of all time. Snead was awarded a record 94 gold medallions, for wins in PGA of America (referred to by most as the PGA) Tour[2][3] events[4] and later credited with winning a record 82 PGA Tour events,[5] including seven majors. He never won the U.S. Open, though he was runner-up four times. Snead was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1974.

Sam Snead
Snead in 1967
Personal information
Full nameSamuel Jackson Snead
NicknameThe Slammer
Slammin' Sammy
Born(1912-05-27)May 27, 1912
Ashwood, Virginia, U.S.
DiedMay 23, 2002(2002-05-23) (aged 89)
Hot Springs, Virginia, U.S.
Height5 ft 11 in (180 cm)
Weight185 lb (84 kg)
Nationality United States
SpouseAudrey Karnes Snead
(m. 1940–90, her death)
ChildrenSam Jr., Terrence
Turned professional1934
Former tour(s)PGA Tour
Champions Tour
Professional wins141
Number of wins by tour
PGA Tour82 (T-1st all time)
LPGA Tour1
Other44 (regular)
14 (senior)
Best results in major championships
(wins: 7)
Masters TournamentWon: 1949, 1952, 1954
PGA ChampionshipWon: 1942, 1949, 1951
U.S. Open2nd/T2: 1937, 1947, 1949, 1953
The Open ChampionshipWon: 1946
Achievements and awards
World Golf Hall of Fame1974 (member page)
leading money winner
1938, 1949, 1950
PGA Golfer of the Year1949
Vardon Trophy1938, 1949, 1950, 1955
PGA Tour Lifetime
Achievement Award
Sam Snead
Allegiance United States
Service/branch U.S. Navy
Years of service1942–1944
UnitSan Diego

Snead's nicknames included "The Slammer", "Slammin' Sammy Snead", and "The Long Ball Hitter from West Virginia", and he was admired by many for having a "perfect swing", which generated many imitators. Snead was famed for his folksy image, wearing a straw hat, and making such statements as "Keep close count of your nickels and dimes, stay away from whiskey, and never concede a putt."[6] and "There are no short hitters on the tour anymore, just long and unbelievably long."[7] Fellow West Virginia Golf Hall of Fame Inductee Bill Campbell has said of Snead, "He was the best natural player ever. He had the eye of an eagle, the grace of a leopard and the strength of a lion." Gary Player once said that, "I don't think there's any question in my mind that Sam Snead had the greatest golf swing of any human being that ever lived". Jack Nicklaus said that Snead's swing was, "so perfect".


Snead was the PGA leading money winner in 1938, 1949 and 1950. He won the Vardon Trophy, for lowest scoring average, four times: 1938, 1949, 1950, and 1955. In 1949, he was PGA Golfer of the Year.[8][9]

Snead was inducted into the Virginia Sports Hall of Fame in 1973.[10] In 1986, Snead was inducted into the Middle Atlantic PGA Hall of Fame.[2] Snead was also inducted into the PGA of America Hall of Fame[2][11] and the Helms Hall of Fame.[12] Snead received the PGA Tour Lifetime Achievement Award in 1998. In 2009, Snead was inducted into the inaugural class of the West Virginia Golf Hall of Fame[13][14][15] and in 2016, Snead was the unanimous top choice for inclusion in the Virginia Golf Hall of Fame's inaugural class.[16]

Personal life

Born in Ashwood, Virginia, near Hot Springs, Snead began caddying at age seven at The Homestead's Old Course in Hot Springs. He worked as an assistant pro at The Homestead at 17 in 1929, then moved to the Cascades Course and turned professional in 1934.[2] During the depression, Snead self taught himself the game of golf from a set of clubs carved from tree limbs. Snead joined the PGA Tour in 1936, and achieved immediate success by winning the West Virginia Closed Pro tournament.

In 1936 he won two matches at the Meadow Brook Club, earning a $10,000 prize. This gave him the money he needed to start playing professionally full-time.[17] In 1944 he became resident playing professional at The Greenbrier Resort in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, and maintained ties to Hot Springs and The Homestead all of his life. During the winter, he was resident playing pro at the Boca Raton Resort from 1956–1969.[18] Each spring he returned to the Mid-Atlantic, stopping at The Masters Tournament on his way back to The Greenbrier.

Snead served in the U.S. Navy during World War II from 1942 to 1944.[19] He was an athletic specialist in Cmdr. Gene Tunney's program in San Diego, and was given a medical discharge for a back injury in September 1944.[20]

Snead appeared as himself in an episode of The Phil Silvers Show, The Colonel Breaks Par, in 1957.[21]

His nephew, J.C. Snead, was also a successful professional golfer, winning tournaments on both the PGA Tour and the Champions Tour.


In 1936, Snead won his first tournament, the West Virginia Closed Pro, contested at The Greenbrier's Championship Course and Old White Course. He shot rounds of 70-61 to rout Logan, West Virginia, pro Clem Weichman by 16 strokes (74-73).[22] Later that summer, he won the first of 17 West Virginia Open championships by beating Art Clark by five strokes at Guyan Country Club in Huntington, West Virginia.

In 1937, Snead's first full year on the PGA Tour,[2] he won six events, including the Oakland Open at Claremont Country Club in California and his second West Virginia Open. In Snead's debut in the U.S. Open hosted at Oakland Hills, he finishes runner-up to Ralph Guldahl (who wins with 19 clubs in his bag).[23] Snead shared the first round lead shooting 69 with fellow West Virginian Denny Shute (1936 and 1937 PGA Champion). In Snead's first of two attempts in The Open Championship, he finished tied for 11th.[24] While working at The Greenbrier, Snead played in the U.S. Pro Tennis Championships. In the first round, he faced eventual winner Karel Kozeluh, losing to Kozeluh by scores of 6-1, 6-1, and 6-1.

In 1938, Snead first won the Greater Greensboro Open, the first of eight times, the Tour record for victories of a single tournament event. Snead's last win at Greensboro was in 1965, at the age of 52 years, 311 days, making him the oldest player to win a PGA Tour event.[25] Snead introduces his first book, Sam Snead's quick way to better golf.[26]

In 1939, Snead won three times. 1939 was the first of four times (although Snead had already come close in 1937, losing to the eventual champion who had 19 clubs in his bag) where Snead failed at crucial moments of the U.S. Open, the only major event he never won. Needing par to win at the Philadelphia C.C., but not knowing that, since on-course scoreboards did not exist at that time, Snead posted a triple-bogey 8 on the par-5 72nd hole, taking a risky shot from a difficult lie in the fairway. Snead had been told on the 18th tee by a spectator that he needed a birdie to win.[19] Snead ended up in fifth place, two shots behind three players who went into a playoff.

During World War II, Snead was prevented in participating in 14 major championships (1940–1945 Open Championship, 1942–1945 U.S. Open, 1943–1945 Masters, 1943 PGA Championship), due to their cancellation. Snead served in the U.S. Navy from 1942 to 1944.

In 1946, Snead won six times including the Open Championship at St Andrews. Expenses were more than 3x the winning purse[27] and like Hogan (who won in his only attempt in 1953) and Nelson (who finished 5th in his only attempt in 1937) he never went back to play in the Open Championship.[28] Snead introduced the book, Sam Snead's How to play golf, and professional tips on improving your score. Also, rules of the game of golf, as approved by the United States Golf Association, and by the Royal and ancient golf club of St. Andrews.[29]

At the U.S. Open in 1947, Snead missed a 30-inch (76 cm) putt on the final playoff hole to finish runner-up to Lew Worsham.[30]

Snead won three times in 1948, including his first Texas Open and fourth West Virginia Open.

In 1949, Snead won nine PGA events including two majors including the Masters[31] and the PGA Championship[32] and was awarded Golfer of the Year. For Snead, it was the third of four second-place finishes at the U.S. Open, the only major championship he never won. Needing two pars to finish in a tie for the lead, Snead took three shots to hole out his ball from the fringe of the green on the 17th hole.[33][34]

In 1950, Snead won 11 events, placing him third in that category behind Byron Nelson (18, in 1945) and Ben Hogan (13, in 1946).[35] Snead claimed that 1950 was his "greatest year" winning "eleven tournaments" including a playoff victory over Hogan in the L.A. Open yet lost the "Golfer of the Year" to Hogan, who won one "tournament".[1] His scoring average of 69.23 was a Vardon Trophy record that stood for 50 years.[36]

In 1952, Snead won ten events including the Masters.[37] At the Jacksonville Open, Snead forfeited rather than play an 18-hole playoff against Doug Ford after the two golfers finished in a tie at the end of regulation play. The forfeit stemmed from a ruling Snead received during the tournament's second round of play. On the 10th hole, Snead's drive landed behind an out of bounds stake. While Chick Harbert, who was playing with Snead, thought the ball was out of bounds,[38] a rules official ruled differently due to the starter not telling players the stakes had been moved after the previous day's play had ended. Afterwards, Snead explained why he forfeited even though Ford suggested they play sudden death for the title. "I want to be fair about it. I don't want anyone to think I took advantage of the ruling."[39] Snead set the record for most PGA wins after reaching age 40, with 17.

In 1953, Snead won three events. He finished runner-up to Ben Hogan at the U.S. Open (the fourth time he would finish runner-up at the U.S. Open).[40]

In 1954, Snead won two events, one of which was the Masters in an 18-hole playoff over Ben Hogan.[41][42][43]

In December 1959, Snead took part in a controversial match against Mason Rudolph, at the Mid Ocean Club in Bermuda. Snead decided to deliberately lose the televised match, played under the "World Championship Golf" series, during its final holes, after he discovered on the 12th hole that he had too many golf clubs in his bag. (A player is limited to 14 clubs during competitive rounds.) The match was tied at that stage. The extra club in his bag, a fairway wood Snead had been experimenting with in practice, would have caused him to be immediately disqualified according to the Rules of Golf, even though he did not use it during the round. After the match was over, Snead explained the matter, and said he did not disqualify himself in order not to spoil the show. The problem did not become known outside a small circle until the show was televised four months later. After the incident came to light, the sponsor cancelled further participation in the series.[44]

Beginning in 1960, Snead hosted television's Celebrity Golf program, emceed by Harry von Zell, competing for charity in nine-hole contests against Hollywood celebrities like Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis and Bob Hope. Snead had appeared with Martin and Lewis in their 1953 comedy film, The Caddy.

On February 7, 1962, at age 49, Snead won the Royal Poinciana Plaza Invitational. He is the only man to ever win an official LPGA Tour event.[45]

His 1962 autobiography was titled The Education of a Golfer.[46] Snead later wrote several golf instructional books, and frequently wrote instructional columns in golf magazines.

In 1965, Snead became the oldest player (52 years, 10 months and 8 days) to win on the PGA Tour (the Greater Greensboro Open).

Snead played on seven Ryder Cup teams: 1937, 1947, 1949, 1951, 1953, 1955, and 1959. Snead was selected to the 1939 Ryder Cup team however the event was never played due to WWII.[47] He captained the team in 1951, 1959, and 1969.

In 1971, he won the PGA Club Professional Championship at Pinehurst Resort.

In 1973, Snead became the oldest player to make a cut in a U.S. Open at age 61.

In the 1974, age 61, he shot a third round 66 at the Los Angeles Open at Riviera Country Club to move into contention. A birdie at #17 in the last round moved him to within one stroke of the lead. Dave Stockton hit a miraculous fairway wood on #18 to deny Sam the victory.

He shot a final round 68 at the 1974 PGA Championship to finish tied for third, three strokes behind winner Lee Trevino. At age 62, it was Snead's third consecutive top-10 finish at the PGA Championship, but his last time in contention at a major.

In 1978, he won the first Legends of Golf event, which was the impetus for the creation, two years later, of the Senior PGA Tour, now the Champions Tour.

In 1979, he was the youngest PGA Tour golfer to shoot his age (67) in the second round of the 1979 Quad Cities Open. He shot under his age (66) in the final round.

In 1982 he teamed with Don January to shoot 27-under-par to win the rain-shortened 54 hole Liberty Mutual Legends of Golf event at Onion Creek Club "The Birthplace of the Senior PGA Tour" in Austin, Texas. This victory would mark victories for Snead that spanned over six decades (1930s–1980s) winning tour and senior tour events.

In 1983, at age 71, he shot a round of 60 (12-under-par) at The Homestead in Hot Springs, Virginia.

In 1986, Snead wrote the book, Pigeons, marks, hustlers and other golf bettors you can beat.[48]

In 1997, at age 85, he shot a round of 78 at the Old White course of The Greenbrier in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia.

In 1998, he received the PGA Tour Lifetime Achievement Award, the fourth person to be so honored.

From 1984 to 2002, he hit the honorary starting tee shot at the Masters Tournament. Until 1999, he was joined by Gene Sarazen, and until 2001, by Byron Nelson.

In 2000, Snead was ranked the third greatest golfer of all time, in Golf Digest magazine's rankings, behind only Jack Nicklaus and Ben Hogan.[49]


Snead died in Hot Springs, Virginia, in 2002 following complications from a stroke, four days before his 90th birthday. He was survived by two sons: Sam Jr. of Hot Springs, and Terry, of Mountain Grove, Virginia, and a brother, Pete, of Pittsburgh, as well as two grandchildren. His wife Audrey died in 1990. His nephew J. C. Snead was also a PGA Tour golfer.

Playing style

During his peak years, Snead was an exceptionally long driver, particularly into the wind, with very good accuracy as well. He was a superb player with the long irons. Snead was also known for a very creative short game, pioneering use of the sand wedge for short shots from grass. As he aged, he began to experiment with different putting styles. Snead pioneered croquet-style putting in the 1960s, where he straddled the ball with one leg on each side. The United States Golf Association banned this technique in 1968 by amending the old Rule 35–1,[50] since until that time, golfers had always faced the ball when striking. Snead then went to side-saddle putting, where he crouched and angled his feet towards the hole, and held the club with a split grip. He used that style for the rest of his career.


Snead holds the following records:

  • Most PGA Tour victories: 82
  • Most PGA sanctioned tour victories: 94
  • Became the first player to win 17 times at an event: at the West Virginia Open (1936–1938, 1948, 1949, 1952, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1966–1968, 1970–1973)
  • First player to win an event in six different decades (1930s–1980s).
  • Became the first player to win 8 times at an event: at the Greater Greensboro Open (1938, 1946, 1949, 1950, 1955, 1956, 1960, 1965)
  • First player to be credited with winning a PGA Tour event in four different decades.
  • Oldest player to be credited with winning a PGA Tour event: age 52 years, 10 months, 8 days at the 1965 Greater Greensboro Open
  • Oldest player to make the cut at a major: age 67 years, 2 months, 7 days at the 1979 PGA Championship
  • First PGA Tour player to shoot his age: 67 in the second round of the 1979 Quad Cities Open
  • Oldest player to make a cut on the PGA Tour: age 67 years, 2 months, 21 days at the 1979 Manufacturers Hanover Westchester Classic.
  • Only player to post a top-10 finish in at least one major championship in five different decades.
  • Became the first player to win PGA and Senior PGA Tour events over six decades (1930s–1980')


Professional wins (141)

PGA Tour wins (82)

Major championships are shown in bold.


LPGA Tour wins (1)

Other wins (44)

Note: this list is incomplete.

Senior wins (14)

Major championships

Wins (7)

YearChampionship54 holesWinning scoreMarginRunner(s)-up
1942PGA Championshipn/a2 & 1 Jim Turnesa
1946The Open ChampionshipTied for lead−2 (71-70-74-75=290)4 strokes Johnny Bulla, Bobby Locke
1949Masters Tournament1 shot deficit−6 (73-75-67-67=282)3 strokes Johnny Bulla, Lloyd Mangrum
1949PGA Championship (2)n/a3 & 2 Johnny Palmer
1951PGA Championship (3)n/a7 & 6 Walter Burkemo
1952Masters Tournament (2)Tied for lead−2 (70-67-77-72=286)4 strokes Jack Burke, Jr.
1954Masters Tournament (3)3 shot deficit+1 (74-73-70-72=289)Playoff 1 Ben Hogan

Note: The PGA Championship was match play until 1958.
1 Defeated Ben Hogan in 18-hole playoff – Snead 70 (−2), Hogan 71 (−1)

Results timeline

Tournament 1937 1938 1939
Masters Tournament 18 T31 2
U.S. Open 2 T38 5
The Open Championship T11
PGA Championship R16 2
Tournament 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949
Masters Tournament T7 T6 T7 NT NT NT T7 T22 T16 1
U.S. Open T16 T13 NT NT NT NT T19 2 5 T2
The Open Championship NT NT NT NT NT NT 1
PGA Championship 2 QF 1 NT R32 R32 QF 1
Tournament 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959
Masters Tournament 3 T8 1 T16 1 3 T4 2 13 T22
U.S. Open T12 T10 T10 2 T11 T3 T24 T8 CUT T8
The Open Championship
PGA Championship R32 1 R64 R32 QF R32 QF R16 3 T8
Tournament 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969
Masters Tournament T11 T15 T15 T3 CUT CUT T42 T10 42 CUT
U.S. Open T19 T17 T38 T42 T34 T24 T9 T38
The Open Championship T6 CUT
PGA Championship T3 T27 T17 T27 T6 T6 T34 T63
Tournament 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
Masters Tournament T23 CUT T27 T29 T20 WD CUT WD CUT CUT
The Open Championship CUT
PGA Championship T12 T34 T4 T9 T3 CUT CUT T54 T42
Tournament 1980 1981 1982 1983
Masters Tournament CUT CUT WD WD
U.S. Open
The Open Championship
PGA Championship WD WD
  Top 10
  Did not play

NT = no tournament
WD = withdrew
CUT = missed the half-way cut
"T" indicates a tie for a place
R64, R32, R16, QF, SF = Round in which player lost in PGA Championship match play


TournamentWins2nd3rdTop-5Top-10Top-25EventsCuts made
Masters Tournament323915264431
U.S. Open041712213127
The Open Championship10012353
PGA Championship3231319263834
  • Most consecutive cuts made – 55 (1937 Masters – 1958 Masters)
  • Longest streak of top-10s – 6 (1948 U.S. Open – 1950 Masters)

U.S. national team appearances


See also


  1. "Sam Snead, Golf Legend". Rob Sinclair reporting for Global Sports in Toronto. November 11, 2012.
  2. "Snead inducted onto the Middle Atlantic PGA Hall of Fame". PGA Middle Atlantic Section. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
  3. Gabriel, Mike (2001). The Professional Golfers' Association Tour : a history. Jefferson, North Carolina. McFarland. ISBN 0786408448. LCCN 00068720. OCLC 1069744188.
  4. "Sam Snead's son keeps his father's memory alive by telling stories". PGA of America. January 31, 2016.
  5. Livsey, Laury (April 16, 2019). "How we got to 82". PGA Tour.
  6. Apfelbaum, Jim, ed. (2007). The Gigantic Book of Golf Quotations. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60239-014-0.
  7. Kelley, Brent, ed. (May 24, 2019). "Sam Snead Quotes". Retrieved July 8, 2019.
  8. "1949 PGA Golfer of the Year Award Plaque from The Sam Snead Collection". November 28, 1949. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  9. "Winners of the PGA Tour and PGA of America Player of the Year Awards". Golf News Net. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  10. "Virginia Sports Hall of Fame & Museum – Sam Snead". Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  11. "Tom Watson Declines Offer to Join PGA of America Hall of Fame". Golf. September 28, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  12. "Helms Hall Hall Of Fame Award From The Sam Snead Collection". Heritage Auctions. September 28, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  13. "Snead, Campbell inducted into W.Va. Golf Hall". USA Today. August 3, 2009.
  14. "West Virginia Golf Hall of Fame – Class of 2009 – Samuel J. Snead". August 3, 2009. Retrieved July 16, 2019 via YouTube.
  15. "Samuel J. Snead - 2009". WVGA. August 3, 2009. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
  16. "Sam Snead". Virginia Golf Hall of Fame. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  17. Moss, Richard J. (June 1, 2013). The Kingdom of Golf in America. U of Nebraska Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-8032-4680-5. OCLC 841906541. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  18. May, Mike. "Golf @ The Boca Resort: Living, Breathing History". Go Golf and Travel.
  19. Barkow, Al (1986). Gettin' to the Dance Floor: An Oral History of American Golf. New York: Atheneum. ISBN 978-0-689-11517-2. OCLC 42892255.
  20. "Sam Snead discharged from navy". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. September 13, 1944. p. 6.
  21. "The Colonel Breaks Par". IMBd.
  22. Kelley, Brent. "Largest Margin of Victory on the PGA Tour". Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  23. "1937 U.S. Open Highlights". USGA. August 17, 2017.
  24. "Cotton's brilliant victory". Glasgow Herald. (Scotland). July 10, 1937. p. 6.
  25. Kelley, Brent. "Oldest PGA Tour Winners". Retrieved March 20, 2013.
  26. Snead, Sam (1938). Sam Snead's quick way to better golf. Garden City, New York: Sun Dial Press. ISBN 9781161629781. LCCN 39000237. OCLC 504827770.
  27. Carter, Bob. "Only old age could stop Snead". ESPN.
  28. "After 51 Years on Tour, Snead Takes It Easy". Los Angeles Times. July 2, 1989. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  29. Snead, Sam (1946). Sam Snead's How to play golf, and professional tips on improving your score. Also, rules of the game of golf, as approved by the United States Golf Association, and by the Royal and ancient golf club of St. Andrews. Garden City, New York: Garden City Publishing. ISBN 9781258142988. LCCN 46004312. OL 2693695W.
  30. "1947 U.S. Open: Snead Recalls Tough Defeat". USGA. May 27, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  31. "Masters Golf (1949)". Pathé News. April 13, 2014.
  32. "Sam Snead Wins PGA (1949)". Pathé News. April 13, 2014.
  33. "Middlecoff Sinks Decisive Putt to Capture Reading Golf With 266". NY Times. Reading, PA. Associated Press. July 11, 1949.
  34. "1949 U.S. Open Highlights". USGA. September 14, 2017.
  35. "Victory Records". PGA Tour. June 3, 2006. Archived from the original on January 3, 2006. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  36. Kelley, Brent. "Lowest PGA Tour Vardon Trophy Scoring Averages". Retrieved March 20, 2013.
  37. "Masters Greats: Sam Snead 1952".
  38. "Ford Gets First Major Golf Win". Reading Eagle. Reading, Pennsylvania. United Press. March 25, 1952. p. 17. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
  39. "Sam Snead Forfeits First in Jacksonville Open". The Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington. Associated Press. March 25, 1952. p. 12. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
  40. "1953 U.S. Open Highlights". USGA. October 10, 2017.
  41. "1954: Snead wins in legendary Masters battle with Hogan". March 22, 2012.
  42. "Historic Leaderboard: 1954 Masters".
  43. "Sam Snead wins 1954 Masters Tournament". Getty Images.
  44. "Sponsor Cancels After Snead TV Golf Incident". The Victoria Advocate. Victoria, Texas. Associated Press. April 9, 1960. p. 9. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
  45. Sobel, Jason (February 7, 2015). "Slammin' Sam the only man with LPGA victory". Golf Channel. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  46. Snead, Sam (1962). The education of a golfer. New York: Simon and Schuster. LCCN 62009601. OCLC 1087094040.
  47. "Golf Detective: Lost Ryder Cup of 1939". Golf Channel. August 11, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  48. Snead, Sam (1986). Pigeons, marks, hustlers and other golf bettors you can beat. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671540734. LCCN 86019516. OCLC 14131378.
  49. Yocom, Guy (July 2000). "50 Greatest Golfers of All Time: And What They Taught Us". Golf Digest. Archived from the original on September 16, 2004. Retrieved December 5, 2007.
  50. "Historical Rules of Golf, 1968". January 1, 1968. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
  51. "1946 / St Andrews". The Open. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  52. Barkow, Al (November 1989). The History of the PGA TOUR. Doubleday. pp. 259–60. ISBN 0-385-26145-4. LCCN 89034228. OCLC 423223896.
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