Saint-Denis (French pronunciation: [sɛ̃.də.ni], or unofficially Saint-Denis de la Réunion for disambiguation) is the préfecture (administrative capital) of the French overseas region and department of Réunion, in the Indian Ocean. It is located at the island's northernmost point, close to the mouth of the Rivière Saint-Denis.
Panoramic view of the city from the heights of Bellepierre
Coat of arms
|Coordinates: 20°52′44″S 55°26′53″E|
|Overseas region and department||Réunion|
|Intercommunality||Nord de la Réunion|
|• Mayor (2014-2020)||Gilbert Annette (PS)|
|142.79 km2 (55.13 sq mi)|
| • Metro|
|295.8 km2 (114.2 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,000/km2 (2,700/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||690/km2 (1,800/sq mi)|
|Elevation||0–2,276 m (0–7,467 ft) |
(avg. 23 m or 75 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Saint-Denis is the most populous commune in the French overseas departments. At the 2016 census, there were 204,304 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Saint-Denis (as defined by INSEE), 147,920 of whom lived in the city (commune) of Saint-Denis proper and the remainder in the neighbouring communes of Sainte-Marie and Sainte-Suzanne.
Saint-Denis was founded by Étienne Regnault in 1669 and became the capital of Réunion in 1738.
The city is located on the north end of the island, and was a port. Saint-Denis was "originally the main port of Réunion, but an artificial harbour at Le Port, on the northwest coast, replaced it in the 1880s, because of unpredictable winds and tides at Saint-Denis." The city includes some of the island's mountains, with a peak elevation of 2,276 meters (7,467 ft) within the metro area, which begins at sea level at the coast line.
The city has many neighbourhoods: Le Barachois, Bellepierre, Bois-de-Nèfles, La Bretagne (Le Cerf), Le Brûlé, Les Camélias, Centre-ville, Champ-Fleuri, La Montagne(Le Colorado, Ruisseau Blanc, Saint-Bernard), Montgaillard, La Providence, La Rivière Saint-Denis (La Redoute), Ruisseau des Noirs, Saint-François, Saint-Jacques, Sainte-Clotilde (Le Butor, le Chaudron, Commune Prima, Domenjod, Le Moufia), La Source, La Trinité, Vauban
Saint-Denis is the most populous commune in the French overseas departments. The population of St Denis has grown substantially since 1954, both in the commune and the metropolitan area. In the 62 years from 1954 to the census in 2016, population has more than tripled. The annual rate of population growth has been lower in the 21st century than in the 20th century.
- Average population growth of the Saint-Denis metropolitan area
- 1954-1961: +3,524 people per year (+5.0% per year)
- 1961-1967: +4,067 people per year (+4.2% per year)
- 1967-1974: +3,014 people per year (+2.5% per year)
- 1974-1982: +1,008 people per year (+0.7% per year)
- 1982-1990: +2,162 people per year (+1.5% per year)
- 1990-1999: +2,164 people per year (+1.3% per year)
- 1999-2006: +2,104 people per year (+1.2% per year)
- 2006-2011: +1,452 people per year (+0.8% per year)
- 2011-2016: +1,284 people per year (+0.6% per year)
- 78.9% were born in Réunion
- 12.2% in Metropolitan France
- 1.0% in Mayotte
- 0.3% in other parts of Overseas France
- 7.6% in foreign countries (notably Madagascar, the Union of the Comoros, and Mauritius); half of them were immigrants and the other half were children of French citizens born abroad (children of Réunionese settlers in Madagascar for example)
Transport and accommodation
The closest airport is Roland Garros Airport, 7 km east of the city in Sainte-Marie, Réunion, which is also the main international airport of Réunion. Air Austral is the regional air carrier, with its Indian Ocean hub located at the airport. The airline has begun serving some cities in mainland France. Five or six other airlines serve the airport. There is a good road network in Saint-Denis.
The hotels in Saint-Denis include Mercure Creolia Hotel, Austral Hotel and Best Western.
A municipal election is scheduled for 2019.
Places of worship
Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Christian churches and temples : Roman Catholic Diocese of Saint-Denis de La Réunion (Catholic Church), Assemblies of God. There are also Muslim mosques.
The University of Reunion Island admits 15,000 students each year, with 6 campus sites in Saint-Denis. Course work is aligned with European standards for university education. There is a school of engineering as well. The language is French, and there are connection with educational institutions in France on the continent of Europe.
IBM has an office in Saint-Denis. The island began organizing to be a digital hub for nearby African nations, relying on its two undersea cables for good internet connections. The potential for services would alter the island's economy, now reliant on sugar, an agricultural product. The University in Saint-Denis has programs to educate the young population in digital skills. New businesses are forming to serve the needs of airlines for software.
Saint-Denis features a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen Am) with two distinct seasons: a hot and humid wet season from December to April and a very warm, less humid drier season for the remaining seven months of the year, with July to October qualifying as true dry season months. The dry season does typically feature relatively light rain, but it is not wet enough to be a tropical rainforest climate. During the wet season, tropical cyclones often affect the city.
|Climate data for Saint-Denis, Réunion (Gillot Airport)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.2
|Average high °C (°F)||30.1
|Average low °C (°F)||23.5
|Record low °C (°F)||18.2
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||278.6
|Average rainy days||13.30||14.33||13.03||11.30||9.60||7.17||8.83||9.60||8.07||7.13||5.93||11.13||119.42|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||210.6||202.3||214.2||221.4||213.9||211.7||220.1||214.1||212.2||210.5||213.3||227.9||2,572.2|
|Source: Meteo France|
Saint-Denis, Réunion is twinned with:
Sentenced to exile in Réunion, the Moroccan Rais Abd el-Krim lived a few years in Saint-Denis from 1926.
Other people connected witn Saint-Denis include:
- Félix Guyon (1831–1920), urologist
- Édouard Hervé (1835–1899), journalist and academician
- Juliette Dodu (1848–1909), resistant to the war of 1870
- Ambroise Vollard (1866–1939), art dealer and gallery
- Raymond Vergès (1882–1957), mayor of the town, founder of Témoignages
- Roland Garros (1888–1918), aviator
- Émile Hugot (1904–1993), industrialist in sugarcane
- Jean-Henri Azéma (1913–2000), poet
- Raymond Barre 1924–2007, politician
- Daniel Sangouma (1965), sprinter
- Gérald De Palmas (1967), singer
- Surya Bonaly (1973), International Olympic Skater
- Willy Grondin (1974), football player
- Daniel Narcisse (1979), International handball
- Valérie Gauvin (1996), football player
- INSEE. "Historique des populations légales" [History of the legal population]. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- INSEE. "Base des aires urbaines". Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- Tikkanen, Amy (21 June 2019). "Saint-Denis". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
- SPLAF (la Population et les Limites Administratives de la France). "Agglomérations et villes de la Réunion" [Towns and cities of Reunion Island]. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Recensement de la population de 2015 - Individus localisés au canton-ou-ville en 2015". INSEE. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ‘‘Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices’’, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, p. 2411-2412
- "University of Reunion Island". Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- "IBM Réunion". IBM. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
- Shapshak, Toby (1 December 2016). "How Reunion Is Reinventing Itself As A Digital Hub". Forbes. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- "Données climatiques de la station de Gillot-Aeroport" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Climat La Réunion" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint-Denis (Réunion).|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Saint-Denis.|