Sèvres (//, French: [sɛvʁ] (
The city hall of Sèvres
Coat of arms
Paris and inner ring départements
Sèvres (Île-de-France (region))
|Coordinates: 48°49′26″N 2°12′42″E|
|3.91 km2 (1.51 sq mi)|
|• Density||6,200/km2 (16,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||27–171 m (89–561 ft)|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
The commune is known for its famous porcelain production at the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, which was also where the abortive Treaty of Sèvres was signed, and for being the location of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.
Sèvres is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, 10.5 km (6.5 mi) to the west of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, with an eastern edge by the River Seine. The commune borders the Île Seguin, an island in the River Seine, in the commune of Boulogne-Billancourt, adjoining Sèvres.
Geology and landforms
Work at Sèvres, including for the construction of the expressway, permitted an update of interesting fossils in different geological layers. For example, in chalk, some types of sea urchins, belemnite beaks, rhynchonellas, and oysters were found; in the coarse limestone, ammonites.
The climate in the departments of the small Parisian crown is characterised by sunshine and relatively low precipitation. The following table allows a comparison of the île-de-France climate with that of some large French cities:
The following table shows the monthly averages of temperature and precipitation for the station of Orly collected over the period 1961-1990:
|Climate data for île-de-France (station of Orly 1961-1990)|
|Average high °C||5.8||7.5||10.7||14.2||18.1||21.5||24.0||23.8||20.9||15.9||9.8||6.6||14.9|
|Daily mean °C||3.3||4.4||6.8||9.8||13.5||16.7||18.9||18.6||16.0||11.9||6.8||4.1||10.9|
|Average low °C||0.7||1.3||3.0||5.3||8.8||11.9||13.8||13.4||11.2||7.9||3.8||1.6||6.9|
|Average precipitation mm||51.9||44.8||50.8||46.6||57.8||50.5||50.1||46.5||52.0||53.2||58.1||53.1||615.4|
|Average high °F||42.4||45.5||51.3||57.6||64.6||70.7||75.2||74.8||69.6||60.6||49.6||43.9||58.8|
|Daily mean °F||37.9||39.9||44.2||49.6||56.3||62.1||66.0||65.5||60.8||53.4||44.2||39.4||51.6|
|Average low °F||33.3||34.3||37.4||41.5||47.8||53.4||56.8||56.1||52.2||46.2||38.8||34.9||44.4|
|Average precipitation inches||2.04||1.76||2.00||1.83||2.28||1.99||1.97||1.83||2.05||2.09||2.29||2.09||24.23|
|Average relative humidity (%)||86||80||76||72||72||71||70||71||77||83||86||86||78|
|Number of days with frost||12.4||10.3||7.0||1.6||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.2||5.4||11.6|
Routes of communication and transport
Sèvres is traversed from side to side by the RN 10, today downgraded and allowing connection of the city to Boulogne-Billancourt and Chaville. It is also the starting point of the RN 118 at the level of the Pont de Sèvres.
Sèvres presents a main traffic artery which supports important transit traffic at morning and evening peak hours. This allows preservation of its secondary residential purpose from suffering the negative effects of through traffic, and on which the development zone 30 was under study, as early as 2007. The city hall has, however, launched a reconsideration on these routes for sharing public spaces in favour of soft links (comfortable pavements, if possible with the development of cycle paths) and the use of public transit where they pass (comfortable bus stops, creation of own sites where technical conditions permit). Since November 2011, fifteen streets have two-way cycle lanes. They are the subject of ground markings and installation of specific signaling panels:
- Avenue de la Cristallerie
- Rue Brancas, between the Rue de Ville-d'Avray and Rue Bernard-Palissy
- Grande Rue, between the Rue de Ville-d'Avray and the Place Gabriel-Péri
- Rue du Docteur Gabriel-Ledermann, between the Rue de Rueil and Rue Jules Sandeau
- Rue Riocreux, between Place Pierre-Brossolette and Rue de Ville d'Avray
- Rue Brongniart
- Rue Léon Journault (between Avenue Camille Sée and Sente Brézin) then Rue Victor-Hugo
- Rue des Bas-Tillets between Rue Benoît Malon and the Rue de la Garenne
- Rue Albert Dammouse, between Rue Avice and the Stade des Fontaines turn
- Rue Rouget-de-l'Isle
- Rue Jules-Ferry
- Rue du Docteur Roux
- Rue Charles-Vaillant
- Rue Jean-Jaurès
- Rue des Verrières
Bus routes 169, 171, 179, and 426 of the RATP bus network, route 469 of the Établissement Transdev de Nanterre [Transdev establishment of Nanterre], route 45 in the Phébus bus network and at night by N61 and N145 of the Noctilien route network. The city makes one minibus available to people with reduced mobility, L'autre Bus [The Other Bus].
Sèvres is served by Sèvres-Rive-Gauche station on the Transilien Paris – Montparnasse suburban rail line.
INSEE has divided the commune into ten islets grouped for statistical information.
The commune of Sèvres includes 16 quarters, named as follows:
|Type of occupation||Percentage||Area|
|Built urban space||62.70%||243.19 hectares (600.9 acres)|
|Unbuilt urban space||13.46%||52.21 hectares (129.0 acres)|
|Rural areas||23.83%||92.44 hectares (228.4 acres)|
In the project planning and sustainable development (PADD) approved 10 May 2007, the commune displays an ambition to maintain its population around its situation of early 2005. It has a commitment to offer every household in the commune the opportunity to live and grow in Sèvres, and a stake in preserving its fabric of facilities and local businesses. Studies conducted in the context of the PLH show that by 2015, this would involve the construction of approximately 40 homes per year (taking into account of the transformation of the former park, of the reduction of the vacancy rate and the loosening of household size) to maintain the communal population.
In 2005, the commune had 24.5% of its total as social housing. These homes are mostly located along the RD 910, around the city centre. The commune displays a desire to preserve this social mix by ensuring a diversity of different types of housing, under the framework of future construction operations. As such, it shows the will to maintain its social housing stock at around 25% of the total stock of main residences. On the other hand, private rental declined between 1990 and 1999. An effort in favour of this type of housing will be always sought in order to maintain the diversity of population profiles. Some areas of the city are poorly provided with social housing, and the development of this type of housing should allow a better balance across the commune.
The main projects are:
- The reconstruction of the Croix Bosset school
- The development of links between the banks of the Seine, the city, parks and woodlands by pedestrian openings designed to develop a frame of soft East/West links. Such as linking Saint-Cloud Park / île Monsieur, between Brimborion Park and the Brimborion tram station, along the Seine, a development project of the entrance of Sèvres and the vicinity of the Museum of Manufacturing by the creation of a pedestrian/bicycle along the Grande Rue, behind the wall of the Museum.
The name of the locality is attested as Savara in the 6th century, originating from the name of the stream which followed the Valley of Viroflay, Chaville, Sèvres. Then in the forms of Villa Savara in the 6th century,Saura, Saure, Savra, Saevara in the 11th century, Severa, Sepera and Separa in the 13th century, Sevra, Sièvre, Saives, Sèvre-en-France-lez-paris from the 14th century, before Sèvres.
- The town of Sèvres existed in 560, when Saint Germain, Bishop of Paris, healed a sick person and built the church.
- The Church of Saint-Romain-de-Blaye, current and several times revised, dates from the 13th century. There was a seigniorial château.
- The manufacture de Sèvres was formed in 1750, by the Ferme générale; they were held by the Marquis de Fulvi who operated at Vincennes.
- In 1756, Madame de Pompadour transferred the Vincennes porcelain factory to Sèvres. It was moved to the location of the Guyarde, the former resort of Lully.
- In 1760, Louis XV bought the factory which thus becomes 'royal'.
- The Pont de Sèvres, which was of wood, was begun in stone in 1809 and finished in 1820.
- In 1815, the inhabitants of Sèvres, along with some soldiers, tried to resist the Prussians who occupied and looted Sèvres, despite the capitulation signed at Saint-Cloud.
- 20 May 1875: After the signing in Paris of the Metre Convention, which decided amongst other things the construction of a new metre standard in a platinum-iridium prototype, it was deposited at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) within the confines of the Pavillon de Breteuil in the Parc de Saint-Cloud. The French government "offered this building" to the BIPM. The main lodge was, then, in a near state of ruin, following the Prussian bombardment of the War of 1870. The renovation was therefore supported by the international bureau.
- The Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920)
A treaty was signed in the large room which currently houses the Museum of Porcelain at Sèvres, it was a peace treaty between the Allies and the Ottoman Empire, to the detriment of the latter.
- The Protocols of Sèvres (21 to 24 October 1956)
Protocols of Sèvres (sometimes referred to as 'agreements') are a secret seven-point agreement recording in writing a tripartite agreement between Israel, France and Great Britain in response to the nationalisation of the Suez Canal by the Egyptian leader Nasser.
- In 1961, the renovation of old town centre, which was unhealthy, accompanied by the deviation of the RN 10, was committed to by the municipality of Dr. Odic, and included the demolition of 1,500 houses and the construction of 1,600 new houses, along with 42,000 square metres (450,000 sq ft) of offices or commercial premises. The municipality of Jean Caillonneau redirected urbanisation at the end of the 1980s to promote the establishment of offices in order to "remake Sèvres as a dynamic and industrious city".
Politics and administration
Political trends and results
Since the elections of 2007, Sèvres belongs to the communes of more than 3,500 inhabitants, using voting machines.
In the referendum on the Constitutional Treaty for Europe on 29 May 2005, the Sevriens mostly voted for the European Constitution, with 69.93% in favour against 30.07% not in favour, with a 24.08% abstention rate (entire France: No at 54.67%, Yes at 45.33%).
At the 2007 French presidential election, the first round saw Nicolas Sarkozy in the lead with 35.58% or 4,750 votes, followed by Ségolène Royal with 26,09% or 3,212 votes, and then François Bayrou with 23.35% or 2,875 votes, no other candidates exceeded the threshold of 5%. In the second round, 56.40% or 6,661 voted for Nicolas Sarkozy with 43.60% or 5,149 voting for Ségolène Royal, a result which was more disposed than the national average. In the second round, 53.06% voted for Nicolas Sarkozy and 46.94% for Ségolène Royal. For this presidential election, the turnout rate was very high. There were 18,455 registered voters in Sèvres, 89.56% or 16,528 voters participated in the ballot, the abstention rate was 10.44% or 1,927 votes, with 0.54% or 90 votes conducted as a blank vote, and finally 99.46% or 16,438 votes were cast.
In the municipal elections of 2014, a list of the Miscellaneous Right led by Grégoire de La Roncière opposed the list led by the outgoing mayor, François Kosciusko-Morizet (UMP), and then by Laurence Roux-Fouillet after the withdrawal of the latter. In the second round, on 30 March, the Miscellaneous Right list gained two more votes than the UMP list (3279 votes against 3277). On 4 April, Grégoire de La Roncière was elected Mayor of Sèvres by the new municipal council.
List of mayors
Since 1971, five mayors have succeeded in Sèvres:
|21 March 1971||1978||Georges Lenormand||PCF||General Counsel (1967-1970 and 1976-1982)|
|1978||13 March 1983||Roger Fajnzylberg||PCF|
|13 March 1983||18 June 1995||Jean Caillonneau||UDF-CDS||Insurance executive|
|18 June 1995||4 April 2014||François Kosciusko-Morizet||UMP||Politician|
|4 April 2014||In progress||Grégoire de la Roncière||DVD||Vice-president of the communauté d'agglomération G.P.S.O.|
Judicial and administrative authorities
The municipality wishes to enhance its environmental richness (forests, banks of the Seine, built heritage, topography, etc.) which is an asset in terms of image for the city and quality of life for its inhabitants: "It should preserve those elements which are the links of a string of parks and gardens which are also involved in large landscape continuity, of opportunities for walks and tours at an intercommunal level".
Sèvres is twinned with:
The commune of Sèvres was a member of the Agglomeration Community of Val de Seine and is a member of the Communauté d'agglomération Grand Paris Seine Ouest since its inception on 27 November 2008, along with the communes of Boulogne-Billancourt, Chaville, Issy-les-Moulineaux, Meudon, Vanves and Ville-d'Avray.
Population and society
In 2012, the commune had 23,572 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, the communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants have a census take place every year as a result of a sample survey, unlike the other communes which have a real census every five years.
|From 1962 to 1999: Population without double counting; for the years following: municipal population.|
Source: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1999 then INSEE from 2004
The population of the commune is relatively young. The rate of people over 60 years age (17.7%) is higher than the national rate (21.6%) while being less, however, than the departmental rate (17.7%).
Like national and departmental allocations, the female population of the municipality is greater than the male population. The rate (52.2%) is of the same order of magnitude as the national rate (51.6%). In 2007, the distribution of the population of the town by age group is as follows:
- 47.8% of males (0–14 years = 22.1%, 15–29 years = 19.2%, 30-44 year olds = 23.4%, 45–59 years = 19.4%, more than 60 years = 15.9%)
- 52.2% of females (0–14 years = 19.1%, 15–29 years = 17.1%, 30-44 year olds = 23.5%, 45–59 years = 20.9%, more than 60 years = 19.4%)
The department manages a middle school (collège) and the region of Île-de-France a senior high school/sixth-form college (lycée) by the name of Lycée Jean-Pierre-Vernant in memory of the Compagnon de la Libération and historian. The college/high school welcomes the international sections of Sèvres (bilingual French/English and French/German) recognised for their excellence. These international sections prepare undergraduate French and OIB (Baccalauréat International Option).
Sèvres also boasts a private institution (school and college): The Jeanne-d'Arc [Joan of Arc] School.
The École supérieure de fonderie et de forge, a private engineering college is also installed on the territory of the commune, in the middle of the technical centre of the foundry industries
History of education
The Maison d'enfants de Sèvres operated from September 1941, under the direction of Yvonne Hagnauer (Goéland), until November 1958 at 14 Rue Croix-Bosset. It then moved to the Château de Bussières, on the opposite bank of the Seine. In 1991 it became the College Jean-Marie-Guyot.
The École normale supérieure of young girls was created in Sèvres in 1881. It then moved to Boulevard Jourdan, Paris, before merging with the École Normale Supérieure, in 1985. It held the old buildings of the porcelain factory, which today houses the International Centre for pedagogical studies.
Cultural events and festivities
Sèvres is home to one of the sites of the Centre Hospitalier de 4 Villes [Central Hospital of 4 cities]. Since 1 January 2006, this centre brings together the Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal Jean Rostand, (which already included Chaville, Sèvres and Ville d'Avray) and the Centre Hospitalier de Saint-Cloud. The site of Sèvres specialises in hospitalisation and consultation in maternity/gynaecology/fertility and medical services.
Sèvres hosts the French Federation of Sport Blowgun (France Sport Blowgun Association), founded in 2004 by Stéphane Jouanneau (Blowgun Long-Distance Vice World Champion).
The Sèvres Football Club senior team is currently coached by Alexandre Matejic, a former professional footballer, and winner of the 2004–2005 Coupe Gambardella with Toulouse FC. Operating in the departmental divisions, Sèvres FC just missed reaching the 4th round of the Coupe de France 2008-2009. Indeed, playing against Red Star (then in CFA) at the Fountains Stadium, Sèvres FC opened the score in the 7th minute through Thomas Millet. The score remained at 1-0 for seventy-five minutes, until the equalisation by Demba Diagouraga, for the team from Saint-Ouen. The Sèvres team, however, collapsed in overtime and lost four goals, giving the 'Greens' a 5-1 win after extra time.
Having been a location which the 2012 Tour de France passed through on that year's final stage, Sèvres will host the departure for Stage 21, the final stage of the 2015 Tour de France, on 26 July, heading towards the year's ultimate finish line on the Champs-Élysées.
Sèvres has been host to the internet radio station GOOM Radio, since 2007.
Within this deanery, places of Catholic worship under the two parishes of Sèvres are:
- Parish of Saint-Romain: Church of Saint-Romain
- Parish of Notre-Dame-des-Bruyères: Notre-Dame des Bruyères.
Reformed Church of France (Sequoia Parish Centre)
Jewish Community of Sèvres
Association of Muslims of Sèvres
It is at Sèvres where the Tinh Tam pagoda is situated.
Income of the population and taxation
In 2007, the communal employment rate was close to 100% (10,369 jobs for 10,607 employable people who resided in Sèvres), which corresponds to the objective which was set out in the blueprint of the Val de Seine, to the horizon of 2015.
Businesses and shops
Local culture and heritage
Places and monuments
|Title||Classified ensemble||Registered ensemble|
|International pedagogical centre||•|
|Title||Classified monument||Registered monument|
|National porcelain manufactory, 4 Grand-Rue: The six ovens||•|
|Sèvres Espace Loisirs, 47 Grand-Rue: Former covered market||•|
|House of Jardies and Memorial of Gambetta (museum)||•|
|National school of ceramics||•|
|Building and gate, 17 Grande-Rue||•|
|Building, 16 Rue Troyon||•|
|Façades, roofs, gate, 14 rue Ville-d'Avray||•|
|Former hôtel, 164 Grande-Rue: Main body, first span of both wings, closing on street, ground of the court, and interior decoration of the chapel, 33 rue||•|
|Title||Classified site||Registered site|
|Wood of Fausses-Reposes||•|
|Wood of Meudon and Viroflay||•|
|Banks of the Seine||•|
|Domain of Saint-Cloud with the Villeneuve-l'Etang Park||•|
|Domain of Brimborion||•|
|Banks of the Seine||•|
|Ponds and their surroundings||•|
|Source : IAURIF|
The Church of Saint-Romain-de-Blaye
The church offers an amalgam of Gothic, redesigned and damaged by the 17th century: Outdoors, there is a clerestory tower which was disfigured. The rounded roof has been largely preserved, but it is much uncovered. The Way of the Cross, painted on porcelain, comes from the Manufacture de Sèvres, and stained glass windows, more than a century old. This church was inaugurated several times.
It was founded by the Merovingian King Dagobert II in the 7th century, it was a Royal Parish under Marie Leszczyńska. The first municipal assembly, created by the edict of 1787, consisted of two members: The lord, namely King Louis XVI, and the priest, as well as nine other elected members. This assembly met in the church at the end of vespers or high mass.
The Church of Our Lady of Bruyères
The Armenian College
This building, located 26 Rue Troyon, was given to the Pompadour for a school for girls. It was rebuilt for Bacler d'Albe between 1816 (cadastre) and 1824 (death of general). Occupied in 1898 by a convalescent home for colonial soldiers, it is currently the Samuel Moorat Armenian College, but it is currently threatened, taking into account its state.
The manufacture of crystals of the Queen
The Manufacture nationale de Sèvres
The current building dates from 1876. This building was classified in the inventory of historical monuments on 30 October 1935. The Manufacture nationale de Sèvres is a public establishment manufacturing ceramic in the tradition of the 18th century.
The Maison des Jardies
National Ceramic Museum
Founded in 1824 by Alexandre Brongniart, director of the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, under the name of Ceramic and Vitric Museum. Anxious to present the history of the techniques of ceramics and vitreous materials, through the world and eras, the latter was one of the collections of ceramics of the most varied. The Museum brings together an exceptional selection of pottery, ceramics and porcelain.
The Pavillon de Breteuil
- The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (International Bureau of Weights and Measures), located in the Pavillon de Breteuil in Sèvres, keeps the measurement standards of the International System of Units (SI): the standard kilogram, atomic clocks, and other metrological devices. The estate on which the Bureau is located is international territory outside of French sovereignty. As such it was not occupied by German troops during World War II.
Tinh Tam Buddhist Temple
Castel Henriette Villa
These stone quarries were dug into the hillside and used for wine storage in 1740, divided into 30 galleries including one called Royal Gallery; converted into a brasserie in 1840, which burned down in 1880 and was rebuilt in 1898.
- Boarding school of the Dominicans:
The presence of nuns who teach at Sèvres dates back to 1788, when an act provided for the education of poor girls by four sisters of charity. At Sèvres, on Rue Gabriel Péri, were formerly the convent, school and boarding school of the Dominican teachers of Most Holy-Rosary of Sèvres, work encouraged by the Holy curé d'Ars, founded by the Sister Marie-Rose of the Sacred Heart Order of Preachers at the end of the 19th century, with Fr. Codant, in 1858, of which novices carried the name of servants of the Sacred Heart and had several foundations, in San Remo for example during the exile from France in 1903, and also an orphanage, Rue Troyon (they returned to France in 1913 and asked for Government permission to reopen a novitiate). During the war an ambulance and infirmary for wounded soldiers was installed in the convent.
- Novitiate of the Assumptionists:
On some old postcards, one can admire the Chapel of the Assumptionists, located at 14 Rue de la Croix-Bosset in the quarter of La Croix-Bosset. This property, acquired on 30 April 1874, was offered to the religious of the assumption at the end of the year 1877 to become the Paris novitiate outside the city. The Oblates of the Assumption also settled in Sèvres and then a community of Assumptionist sisters. Finally, the religious of the province of Paris between 1946 and 1964, a lively workers' mission centre of Saint-Étienne in Sèvres, on Avenue Division Leclerc, a community called La Cloche, close to the Renault factories.
Sèvres and artworks
- Samuel William Reynolds painted Saint-Cloud et le pont de Sèvres (Musée Condé, Chantilly)
- The Douanier Rousseau painted in 1908 a Vue du pont de Sèvres (The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow)
- Sisley, who lived in Grand-Rue, painted the former factory, the bridge and the banks of the Seine, paths
- Corot is painted his famous Chemin de Sèvres (Musée du Louvre)
- Paul Huet painted are tasty and country views as possible (Musée de l'Île-de-France, Sceaux)
- Marie Bracquemond, wife of Félix Bracquemond (Le Chemin des Coutures à Sèvres, National Gallery of Canada) linked to the Group of impressionists and employed at the factory, is painted Sèvres. His most famous work: Sur la terrasse de Sèvres avec Fantin-Latour (leg. Caillebotte).
- Constant Troyon born in Sèvres in 1810, first painter of the Barbizon school are painted Chemin de forêt and the Maison Colas, the Prise de la culée du pont de Sèvres. Constant Troyon's parents worked at the manufacture de Sèvres, his father as a painter decorator, and his mother as a buffer. He was encouraged in the field of the arts by his godfather, Riocreux, the curator of the Ceramics Museum of Sèvres and a floral painter. He lived with his mother at the factory until the age of twenty. He first exhibited three paintings at the Paris Salon in 1833, including the Vue de la Maison Colas and the Vue de la Fête de Sèvres.
- Wassily Kandinsky lived for a year in Sèvres, in 1906-1907, at the Rue des Ursulines and then small Rue des Binelles, became Rue Théodore Deck. He painted the La Vie Mélangée.
- Alain Azémar, a painter from Sèvres, living in the Rue de Caves, a street which was the theatre of many "squats" protest-painted scenes of Sèvres on many occasions. Many of his watercolours were commissioned and are displayed by the city hall.
Sèvres and philately
The French Post Office has developed several times Sèvres à l'Honneur:
On 25 March 1957, a postage stamp was issued with a face value of 30.00 Francs, honouring the Manufacture Nationale de Sèvres, drawn and engraved by Pierre Munier.
Sèvres and television
The city of Sèvres is the scene for the filming of the French television series Fais pas ci, fais pas ça.
Personalities linked to the commune
- Andrew Albicy basketball player
- Demba Ba - Senegalese international football player
- Yamoudou Camara - French football player
- Manu Chao - Hispano-French musician
- Pierre Louis Félix Lanquetot (1880–1974) - French brigadier general
- Benoit Mozin (1769–1857), French composer, died in Sèvres
- Issiar Dia - Senegalese international football player
- Karim Ziani - Algerian international football player
- André Bizette-Lindet, sculptor, died in Sèvres in 1988
- Georges Salles (1889–1966), art historian, was born in Sèvres
Heraldry, logo and motto
|The arms of Sèvre are blazoned :|
Azure a bridge of wood two batteries or on waves argent issuing from base, surmounted by a huchet covered or virole and enguiche sable, to the chief or a branch of laurel and a palm in double saltire sable, displayed two vases azure overloaded each a Fleur-de-lis or.
- At the beginning of the 21st century, the terms of census have been amended by Act No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, called "grassroots democracy law" on the democracy of proximity and in particular Title V "of census operations", in order, after a power transition period from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For municipalities with populations greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is carried out annually, the entire territory of these municipalities is included at the end of the same period of five years. The first post-legal population from 1999, and fitting in the new system which came into force on 1 January 2009, is the census of 2006.
- In the census table, by Wikipedia convention, the principle was retained for subsequent legal populations since 1999 not to display the census populations in the table corresponding to the year 2006, the first published legal population calculated according to the concepts defined in Decree No. 2003-485 of 5 June 2003, and the years corresponding to an exhaustive census survey for municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants, and the years 2006, 2011, 2016, etc. For municipalities with more than 10,000, the latest legal population is published by INSEE for all municipalities.
- Saint-Romain-de-Blaye is the Basilica situated on the banks of the Gironde where Charlemagne's nephew Roland was buried in the 'Chanson de Roland'. A famous hermit named Roman lived there.
- "Populations légales 2016". INSEE. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- "Calcul de l'orthodromie entre Sèvres et Paris". lion1906 de Lionel Delvarre.
- Répertoire géographique des communes, publié par l'Institut national de l'information géographique et forestière, "Répertoire géographique des communes". Archived from the original on 2015-01-08. Retrieved 2015-05-23.
- Jean-Michel Dechambre, Découvrir les Hauts-de-Seine, éditions Horvath, 1980, p.76
- "Histoire du ru de Marivel". Archived from the original on 2015-02-18.
- "Fiche sur Sèvres". Météo France.
- "Climat et historique météo d'Orly (94310)". Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "Orly, Val-de-Marne(94), 89m - [1961-1990]". www.infoclimat.fr.
- "PADD, p.23" (PDF). mairie de Sèvres. 10 May 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2014.
- "PADD, p.24" (PDF). mairie de Sèvres. 10 May 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2014.
- "Fiche communale d'occupation des sols". Iaurif.
- "PADD, p.6" (PDF). mairie de Sèvres. 10 May 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2014.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sèvres.|
- Sèvres city council website
- Unofficial website about Sèvres (in French)
- Another unofficial website about Sèvres (in French)
- Friends of the ceramics museum website (in French)