Roosmalens' dwarf marmoset

The Roosmalens' dwarf marmoset (Callibella humilis), also known as the black-crowned dwarf marmoset, is a small New World monkey native to the Amazon Rainforest, on the east bank of the lower Madeira River, and the west bank of the Aripuanã River, in Brazil.[2][3] It has the smallest distribution of any primate in Amazonia. This marmoset has several unique attributes, which results in it usually being placed in the monotypic genus Callibella.[3][4][5] Some authors, however, argue that the species is better placed in the genus Mico.[6][7]

Roosmalens' dwarf marmoset
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Callitrichidae
Genus: Callibella
M.G.M. van Roosmalen & T. van Roosmalen, 2003
C. humilis
Binomial name
Callibella humilis
(van Roosmalen et al., 1998)
Roosmalens' dwarf marmoset range
  • Mico humilis
  • Callithrix humilis[2]

It was first described in 1998, after it was discovered ca. 400 km (250 mi) south of the city of Manaus. In 1996, Marc van Roosmalen, the discoverer, was given a milk can by a river trader with one of these monkeys inside. He suspected it was a new species, a relative of the pygmy marmoset, but at that point was unaware of its exact origin. Following a lengthy expedition, it was discovered near the town of Nova Olinda in southeastern Amazonas. The species has been subsequently recorded further south, along the west banks of Rio Roosevelt.[8]

Adult Roosmalens' dwarf marmosets have a total length of 38–39 cm (15-15½ in), incl. a tail of 22–24 cm (8½-9½ in), and weigh 150-185 g (5½-6½ oz). It is the second smallest species of monkey, with only the related pygmy marmoset being smaller. The upperparts of Roosmalens' dwarf marmoset are mainly dark olive-brown, while the underparts are pale, dull yellowish. The bare, pale pinkish face is bordered by a whitish ring of hair. The crown is blackish, as suggested by its alternative common name; black-crowned dwarf marmoset. It has claws as opposed to nails, like other marmosets who feed off tree sap. It also has teeth similar to other marmosets.

It is considered unusual among marmosets in that it gives birth to only a single baby instead of twins, the norm for marmosets. Marmosets are often very territorial, though this is not the case among Roosmalens' dwarf marmoset, where it is common for multiple females in a group to have young, instead of one dominant female.


  1. Rylands, A.B. & Mittermeier, R.A. 2018. Callibella humilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T41584A70616532. Downloaded on 17 December 2018.
  2. Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 131. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  3. Rylands AB & Mittermeier RA (2009). "The Diversity of the New World Primates (Platyrrhini)". In Garber PA, Estrada A, Bicca-Marques JC, Heymann EW & Strier KB (eds.). South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer. pp. 23–54. ISBN 978-0-387-78704-6.
  4. van Roosmalen (April 2003). "The description of a new marmoset genus, Callibella (Callitrichinae, Primates), including its phylogenetic status" (PDF). Neotropical Primates. 11 (1): 1–10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2008.
  5. van Roosmalen (April 2003). "On the morphological distinctiveness of Callithrix humilis van Roosmalen, et al., 1998" (PDF). Neotropical Primates. 11 (1): 11–18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2008.
  6. Garbino, Guilherme S. T. (1 December 2015). "How many marmoset (Primates: Cebidae: Callitrichinae) genera are there? A phylogenetic analysis based on multiple morphological systems". Cladistics. 31 (6): 652–678. doi:10.1111/cla.12106. ISSN 1096-0031.
  7. Schneider, Horacio; Bernardi, Jose Antonio R.; Da Cunha, Divino B.; Tagliaro, Claudia H.; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Ferrari, Steve F.; Sampaio, Iracilda (1 January 2012). "A molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationships in the Callitrichinae, with emphasis on the position of the dwarf marmoset". Zoologica Scripta. 41 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2011.00502.x. ISSN 1463-6409.
  8. Garbino, G. S. T.; Silva, F. E.; Davis, B. J. W. (1 October 2013). "Range extension of the vulnerable dwarf marmoset, Callibella humilis (Roosmalen et al. 1998), and first analysis of its long call structure". Primates. 54 (4): 331–334. doi:10.1007/s10329-013-0381-3. ISSN 0032-8332. PMID 23975162.
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