Romanization of Macedonian
The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names in foreign contexts, or for informal writing of Macedonian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of Romanization by North Macedonia's authorities is found, for instance, on road signage and in passports. Several different codified standards of transliteration currently exist and there is widespread variability in practice.
For a number of Cyrillic letters, transliteration into matching Latin letters is straightforward. Cyrillic а, б, в, г, д, е, з, и, к, л, м, н, о, п, р, с, т, у, ф are matched with Latin a, b, v, g, d, e, z, i, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, f, according to all conventions. Cyrillic ц (pronounced [ts]) is mostly rendered as c, in accordance with the conventions for many other Slavic (and non-Slavic) languages. The letter х is typically rendered as h, matching the pronunciation in Macedonian. For the Macedonian/Serbian letter ј, the preferred transliteration is its visual Latin counterpart j (rather than y, otherwise widely used in English for the rendering of the same glide sound in other languages). For other Cyrillic letters, the choice is between a single Latin letter with a diacritic, and a digraph of two Latin letters. This goes mainly for the letters denoting palatalised consonants, and for those denoting fricatives and affricates in the alveolar and palatal range.
This system uses digraphs instead diacritics, making it easier for use in environments where diacritics may pose a technical problem, such as typing on computers. Common usage has gj, kj for ѓ, ќ, either dj or dzh for џ, and sometimes ts for ц. Such a diacritic-free system, with digraphs zh, gj, dz, lj, nj, kj, ch, sh, dj has been adopted since 2008 for use in official documents such as passports, ID cards and driver's licenses. The system adopted for digraph transliteration is ICAO Doc 9303. The Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences and the State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia use similar digraph system.
ISO 9 system
A standardized system of transliteration based on Gaj's Latin alphabet is used since 1950s and defined in ISO 9:1968; this system was also adopted by the Macedonian Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1970,, BGN/PCGN (in 2013), and ALA-LC and is taught in schools in the Republic of Macedonia It uses letters with diacritics ž, č, š for Cyrillic ж, ч, ш respectively (as for many other Slavic languages), and ǵ, ḱ for the special Macedonian letters ѓ, ќ. The palatalised consonants of Cyrillic љ, њ are rendered with digraphs lj, nj (although the academic orthography also permits using ĺ, ń), and the voiced affricates of Cyrillic ѕ, џ with dz, dž respectively. The most recent edition of the Macedonian orthography mentions this system as well as the digraphic system, saying that the latter is used for personal names in official documents.
The palatal plosives ѓ, ќ are also sometimes rendered as Latin đ, ć, following a Serbian convention (đ, ć are the Serbian Latin equivalents of Serbian Cyrillic ђ and ћ, which etymologically correspond to Macedonian ѓ, ќ in many words.) This convention is found in the system adopted by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and the British PCGN in 1981, (before 2013) as well as by the United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographic Names (UNCSGN). According to this system, ѓ, ќ are transliterated as plain g and k before front vowels (е, и), but as đ and ć respectively in other environments. Otherwise, this system is identical to that of ISO 9 (R:1968).
The ISO 9:1995 is a standard that completely avoids digraphs and permits to romanize any Cyrillic text without knowing in what language it is. However, it is rarely used because of having unusual diacriticized letters.
|Cyrillic||IPA||ISO 9 (1995)||ISO 9 (1968), National Academy (1970), BGN/PCGN (2013), ALA-LC||BGN/PCGN (pre-2013)/UN||Official Documents/Cadastre||MJMS/SSO||British System|
|А а||/a/||A a|
|Б б||/b/||B b|
|В в||/v/||V v|
|Г г||/ɡ/||G g|
|Д д||/d/||D d|
|Ѓ ѓ||/ɟ/||Ǵ ǵ||Ǵ ǵ||G/Đ g/đ||Gj gj||Gj gj||Đ đ|
|Е е||/ɛ/||E e|
|Ж ж||/ʒ/||Ž ž||Ž ž||Ž ž||Zh zh||Zh zh||Ž ž|
|З з||/z/||Z z|
|Ѕ ѕ||/dz/||Ẑ ẑ||Dz dz||Dz dz||Dz dz||Dz dz||Dz dz|
|И и||/i/||I i|
|Ј ј||/j/||J̌ ǰ||J j||J j||J j||J j||J j|
|К к||/k/||K k|
|Л л||/l/||L l|
|Љ љ||/ʎ/||L̂ l̂||Lj lj||Lj lj||Lj lj||Lj lj||Lj lj|
|М м||/m/||M m|
|Н н||/n/||N n|
|Њ њ||/ɲ/||N̂ n̂||Nj nj||Nj nj||Nj nj||Nj nj||Nj nj|
|О о||/ɔ/||O o|
|П п||/p/||P p|
|Р р||/r/||R r|
|С с||/s/||S s|
|Т т||/t/||T t|
|Ќ ќ||/c/||Ḱ ḱ||Ḱ ḱ||K/Ć k/ć||Kj kj||Kj kj||Ć ć|
|У у||/u/||U u|
|Ф ф||/f/||F f|
|Х х||/x/||H h|
|Ц ц||/ts/||C c||C c||C c||C c||Ts ts / C c||C c|
|Ч ч||/tʃ/||Č č||Č č||Č č||Ch ch||Ch ch||Č č|
|Џ џ||/dʒ/||D̂ d̂||Dž dž||Dž dž||Dj dj||Dzh dzh||Dž dž|
|Ш ш||/ʃ/||Š š||Š š||Š š||Sh sh||Sh sh||Š š|
- Bulgarian alphabet
- Cyrillic alphabets
- Cyrillic script
- Greek alphabet
- Macedonian alphabet
- Macedonian language
- Montenegrin alphabet
- Romanization of Belarusian
- Romanization of Bulgarian
- Romanization of Greek
- Romanization of Russian
- Romanization of Ukrainian
- Russian alphabet
- Russian cursive (handwritten letters)
- Russian manual alphabet
- Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic
- Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
- Cadastre/ICAO Doc 9303 (page 33, 34)
- Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences/State Statistical Office
- Lunt, H. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian literary language, Skopje.
- Macedonian Latin alphabet, Pravopis na makedonskiot literaturen jazik, B.Vidoeski, T.Dimitrovski, K.Koneski, K.Tošev, R.Ugrinova Skalovska- Prosvetno delo Skopje, 1970, p.99
- Da čitame i pišuvame Latinica, primary school textbook.
- Pravopis na makedonskiot jazik. Skopje: Institut za makedonski jazik "Krsto Misirkov", 2015/2016, p. 167
- Pravopis na makedonskiot jazik. Skopje: Institut za makedonski jazik "Krsto Misirkov", 2017, p. 169
- Romanization System for Macedonian Cyrillic, BGN/PCGN 1981 Agreement
- UNGEGN Working Group on Romanization Systems: Report on the Current Status of United Nations Romanization Systems for Geographical Names, Version 2.2, January 2003
- TRANSLITERACIJA NA MAKEDONSKATA KIRILICA (pdf)
- ISO 9:1995
- British Standard 2979 : 1958, London: British Standards Institution.
- G. Selvelli. Su alcuni aspetti ideologici dei sistemi di traslitterazione degli alfabeti cirillici nei Balcani. Studi Slavistici XII (2015). pp. 159–180.