Romani people in fiction

Many fictional depictions of the Romani in literature and art present Romanticized narratives of their supposed mystical powers of fortune telling, and their supposed irascible or passionate temper paired with an indomitable love of freedom and a habit of criminality. Critics of how Romani people have been portrayed in popular culture point out similarities to portrayals of Jewish people, with both groups stereotyped negatively as wandering, spreading disease, abducting children, and violating and murdering others.[1]

Romani people were portrayed in Victorian and modern British literature as having "sinister occult and criminal tendencies"[2] and as associated with "thievery and cunning",[3] and in English Renaissance and baroque theatre as incorporating "elements of outlandish charm and elements which depict [them] as the lowest of social outcasts," connected with "magic and charms," and "juggling and cozening."[4] In opera, literature and music, throughout Europe, Romani women have been portrayed as provocative, sexually available, gaudy, exotic and mysterious.[5] Hollywood and European movies, as well as popular music and other forms of pop culture, have promoted similar stereotypes.[6][7][8][9][10]

Particularly notable representations of Romani people appear in classics like Carmen by Prosper Mérimée and adapted by Georges Bizet, Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre-Dame and Miguel de Cervantes' La Gitanilla. The Romani were also heavily romanticized in the Soviet Union, a classic example being the 1975 Tabor ukhodit v Nebo. A more realistic depiction of contemporary Romani in the Balkans, featuring Romani lay actors speaking in their native dialects, although still playing with established clichés of a Romani penchant for both magic and crime, was presented by Emir Kusturica in his Time of the Gypsies (1988) and Black Cat, White Cat (1998). Another realistic depiction of Romanies in Yugoslavia is I Even Met Happy Gypsies (1967).


  • 1596: A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare – Which includes the lines "Sees Helen's beauty in the brow of Egypt", Egypt is used to refer to the Romani people of England. In the context that imagining the face of a lover can make the dark-skinned Gypsy look like Helen of Troy, a great beauty.[11][12]
  • 1600: As You Like It a pastoral comedy by William Shakespeare – Shakespeare uses the word "ducdame" (Act II, Sc. 5), possibly a corruption or mishearing of the old Romanichal word dukka me or (I foretell or I tell fortunes).[13][14]
  • 1603: Othello by William Shakespeare – Desdemona's handkerchief a gift to Othello's mother is a gift from a Gypsy "Egyptian charmer" who can almost read the thoughts of people.[15]
  • 1611: The Tempest by William Shakespeare – The only human inhabitant of the mythical island the character Caliban is thought to be named after the word Kaliban meaning black or with blackness in the English Romani language.[16] As the first Romani immigrants arrived in England a century before Shakespeare wrote The Tempest, it is thought he may have been influenced by their exotic looks. In this time Romanies in England were targeted for discrimination.[14][15]
  • 1613: Miguel de Cervantes' novel La Gitanilla
  • 1631: Ben Jonson's play Bartholomew Fair. A comedy set in London's Bartholomew Fair where a band of Romani entertain a crowd.
  • 18th century: William Wordsworth's Vagrant Muse. A young homeless woman is welcomed by a band of Gypsies who take her in and offer her charity and companionship.
  • 1722: Daniel Defoe's Moll Flanders. Moll's earliest memory is of wandering "among a group of people they call Gypsies or Egyptians" in England.

19th century

20th century

  • 1902: E. Nesbit's Five Children and It. The children run into a band of English Gypsies on the road.
  • 1908: Kenneth Grahame's The Wind in the Willows. Toad, owner of Toad Hall, an impulsive and conceited character, buys a horse-drawn English Gypsy vardo. Toad later trades a stolen horse to a Gypsy for food.
  • 1911: Saki's short story "Esme" (included in The Chronicles of Clovis). Features a degrading depiction of a Gypsy child that is used to foreground the heartless nature of the English aristocrats.
  • 1926: D. H. Lawrence's The Virgin and the Gypsy. A young Romani hero is a useful antidote to a rigid social class system.
  • 1930: Hermann Hesse's novel Narcissus and Goldmund. Features a Romani girl called Lisa.
  • 1943–1978: Malcolm Saville's Lone Pine books. A Gypsy family (Reuben, Miranda and Fenella) are friends and allies of the Lone Pine Club's members especially of the club's vice captain Petronella Sterling.
  • 1940: Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls. Featured a Romani named Rafael.
  • 1947: The Nancy Drew Mystery Story The Clue in the Old Album. Some of the main characters are Gypsies.
  • 1956: Dodie Smith's The Hundred and One Dalmatians. After escaping from Cruella De Vil's country house, the dogs are nearly trapped by an old Gypsy woman who wants to sell them. Her horse helps the dogs escape again.
  • 1957: Ian Fleming's James Bond novel From Russia, with Love. Set in a Gypsy encampment in Turkey, features a traditional fight to the death between two Gypsy girls vying for the affection of the same man.
  • 1958: Elizabeth Goudge's The White Witch. Features a description of the lifestyle of the Romnichals of the UK during the civil war.
  • 1963: Hergé's The Adventures of Tintin comic book The Castafiore Emerald. Features several Romani characters and a few Romani words. This graphic novel is very sympathetic to the Romani characters.
  • 1967: Gabriel García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude.
  • 1971, 1972: Martin Cruz Smith's Gypsy in Amber and Canto for a Gypsy.
  • 1972: Rumer Godden's children's book The Diddakoi (also published as Gypsy Girl). Winner of the Whitbread Award. Adapted for television by the BBC as Kizzy.
  • 1975: Roald Dahl's children's book Danny, the Champion of the World. A young boy lives with his father in a traditional English vardo, although it is unclear if the protagonist Danny and his father are themselves Romanichal and admire the culture or prefer the lifestyle.
  • 1978–present: The Star Wars expanded universe books. A race of aliens known as the Ryn possess many stereotypical Gypsy traits, including clan family structures, wanderer natures, reputations as thieves and more.
  • 1981, 1988: Robertson Davies's novels The Rebel Angels and The Lyre of Orpheus. Feature major characters who maintain Romani traditions, including the care and repair of musical instruments, in modern Canada.
  • 1983: Tim Powers' novel The Anubis Gates. Features a band of Romanies led by Egyptian magicians and utilizes quite a few expressions from the Romani language.
  • 1984: Stephen King's novel Thinner. Includes the classic plot device of the Romani curse. It was also made into a movie.
  • 1985: Charles de Lint's novel Mulengro. Contemporary fantasy portrayal of the Romani and their cultural myths.
  • 1986: Robert Silverberg's Star of Gypsies. A sci-fi epic about the King of the Romanies searching out the long lost Romany home star system.
  • 1987: Piers Anthony's Incarnations of Immortality series. The latter half features the Romani in a hugely positive light, most prominent in Being A Green Mother.
  • 1987: John Crowley's Ægypt cycle. Much of the narrative of unfolds from an encounter with a Gypsy fortune-teller, and revolves around the question of why people believe Romanies can tell the future.
  • 1987: Isobelle Carmody's Obernewtyn series. A fantasy fiction novel about the land of men and beings destroyed by what they call the "Great White". This story includes many Gypsies, and how the townspeople are very jealous of their very good living.
  • 1988–present: Mercedes Lackey's Valdemar series. Features a fictional race of people based loosely on the Romani, even to the extent of using Romani language; most prominent in the Vows and Honor books.
  • 1992: Joe Gores's novel 32 Cadillacs. The DKA investigate a network of American Romani criminals.
  • 1995: The Parsley Parcel by Elizabeth Arnold is a children's novel set among Gypsies in the English New Forest and was the basis for a seven-part Gypsy Girl TV series in 2001.
  • 1995-2000: Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials trilogy. Features a nomadic race called the "Gyptians". Gyptians are roughly the equivalent of Gypsies in our universe, with the exception that they use narrowboats in place of caravans. Throughout the books they are portrayed as good and kindly people.
  • 1996-2001: Tad Williams's Otherland series of science fiction books. A Romani character and references to Romani appear as nomads who disregard the borders of an advanced virtual reality cyberspace.
  • 1999: Bernard Ashley's novel Johnnie's Blitz features a Gypsy family.
  • 1999: Ana Castillo's novel Peel My Love Like an Onion.
  • 1999: Thomas Harris's novel Hannibal. A member of a seemingly Romani band of travellers is hired by Inspector Pazzi to pickpocket Hannibal Lecter, in order to lift a fingerprint.
  • 1999: Joanne Harris's novel Chocolat (and the 2000 film based on the novel), features a group of French river gypsies.
  • 1999–2003: In the Star Wars New Jedi Order series of books, the Ryn race are inspired by the Roma.

21st century

  • 2001: Jacqueline Carey's Kushiel's Legacy series of fantasy novels. Includes the Tsingani, based on the Roma.
  • 2001: James Herbert's novel Once. A wiccan called Nell Quick is described as alluring and dressed in the manner of a Gypsy woman. She is noted for her extremely beautiful looks and raven-colored dark hair. The novel never fully explains her origins or if she is connected to the Gypsies.
  • 2003: Louise Doughty's novel Fires in the Dark. A boy from a group of nomadic Kalderash Roma, born in a barn in rural Bohemia in 1927, grows up during the Great Depression and the rise of Nazism, is interned in a camp and escapes to take part in the Prague Uprising of May 1945.
  • 2005: Isabel Allende's novel Zorro. Features a clan of Romanies who ally themselves with the titular hero in post-Napoleonic Spain.
  • 2005: Edith Layton's novel Gypsy Lover. Daffyd, the illegitimate son of a noblewoman and a Gypsy, returns to England from a penal colony in Botany Bay to pardon and clear the name of his adopted father the Earl of Egremont.
  • 2006: Louise Doughty's novel Stone Cradle charts one family's path through persecution and tragedy, asking, can the Romany spirit survive in a century that no longer has space for them?
  • 2006–present: Rob Thurman's Cal Leandros novel series. The lead character and his brother are both half-Romani on their mother's side.
  • 2007: Lisa Kleypas's novel Mine Till Midnight and its companion Seduce Me at Sunrise. Feature two half-Romani male protagonists.
  • 2007: Nikki Poppen's The Romany Heiress. The heir to the Earl of Spelthorne is captivated by the arrival of a beautiful Gypsy shows up on his doorstep claiming to be his deceased parents' long lost daughter.
  • 2007: Colum McCann's novel Zoli. Explores the life of a fictional Slovak Romani artist.
  • 2007: Paulo Coelho's novel The Witch of Portobello. The character Athena's biological mother is a Gypsy.
  • 2007: In Sally Gardner's novel The Red Necklace, the main character Yann and his companion Têtu are Gypsy along with the antagonist Kalliovski.
  • 2007: Deanna Raybourn's Lady Julia Grey series (Silent in the Grave, Silent in the Sanctuary, Silent on the Moor, Dark Road to Darjeeling, Dark Inquiry) feature Nicholas Brisbane as the protagonist. Brisbane is the son of a reprobate Scottish nobleman and a Gypsy woman with the power of sight. Throughout the series, a number of Gypsy characters feature prominently.
  • 2007, 2008: Kate Wild's teenage/young adult novels FightGame and FireFight. Thrillers with a science fiction overtone featuring a young Gypsy protagonist called Freedom Smith.
  • 2008: James Rollins' novel The Last Oracle. Cmdr. Gray Pierce must stop a rogue group in Russia from using autistic savant Gypsy descendants from being used as weapons.
  • 2010: Sonia Meyer's novel Dosha, Flight of the Russian Gypsies. About Romani in the 1950s Soviet Union.
  • 2010: Levi Pinfold's children's book The Django (2010), inspired by Romani musician Django Reinhardt
  • 2011: Stef Penney's novel The Invisible Ones. Ray Lovell, a small-time PI of Gypsy descent, is hired to investigate the disappearance of a Romani woman, 7 years previously.
  • 2013: Cazzarola! Anarchy, Romani, Love, Italy by Norman Nawrocki, features an entire Romani family and camp living in Rome, Italy. Talks about the persecution and discrimination the Romani face in Europe.
  • 2015: Linda De Quincey's novel Roma: Charlie and Poppy. The tale of an orphaned Romany child who is adopted by an abusive mother and falls for his adoptive sister who lifts his spirits as he plans his escape.

Other media

  • Georges Bizet's 1875 opera Carmen.
  • The Cirque du Soleil traveling show Varekai takes its name from the Romani language and the characters represented on stage are loosely based on the nomadic way of life associated with the Romani people.


  • In the Batman series of comics, the character Richard Grayson (a.k.a. Robin and Nightwing) is shown to be of at least 1/4 Romani descent.
  • Twins Wanda and Pietro Maximoff, Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver respectively, of Marvel Comics are of Romani ancestry through their biological mother Magda and raised in the fictional Mount Wundagore. During Marvel's Mystic Arcana the Scarlet Witch was one of the prominently featured mystic characters and depicted her Romani childhood and her encounter with other Marvel mystical characters.
  • Canonical origin of the supervillain Doctor Doom of the Romani people, and was driven to his nominally villainous actions as a response to the persecution of his family. As dictator of the fictional nation of Latveria, Doom has taken a special interest in the welfare of Gypsies, as that is his heritage, and often that race is first to be taken care of in a manner similar to Saddam Hussein showering his Tikriti tribe with benefits.
  • Meggan of the Marvel comics superhero team Excalibur was born to a band of Romanies in England. She was expelled when they saw that she was a shapeshifter, and believed her to be a demon.
  • In the web comic The Science Table Comic, Alex, one of the recurring characters, is a gypsy and is adorned in what is stated by another character as his "Traditional native garbs."
  • Katerina Donlan of Gunnerkrigg Court is referred to as "gypsy" by another character. Tom Sidell, the comic's author, confirmed she is half-Roma, her mother belonging to the gitano ethnical group.

Anime and manga

  • In the anime Blood +, it is implied that the character Haji is Roma. However, he was bought from his caravan at a young age and does not identify as such thereafter.
  • In the anime Cowboy Bebop, the character Faye Valentine claims to be one of the Romani people, though this is later dispelled through her own personal flashbacks.
  • In the anime Kaze to Ki no Uta, Serge Battour is the orphaned son of a viscount and a beautiful Roma woman.
  • In the Code Geass OVA spinoff, Akito the Exiled, the main cast of characters encounter a group of elderly Romani.
  • The Fullmetal Alchemist movie, Conqueror of Shamballa, features Romani women in Pre-Nazi Germany.

Video games

  • The videogame Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King features Romani characters Kalderasha, named after the Kalderash, and his daughter Valentina.
  • In the videogame Psychonauts, a rival gypsy circus curses the main character's family to die in water. The main character and his family are also Romani.
  • In Assassin's Creed: Revelations, courtesan NPCs are replaced by Romanies which act as moving hiding spots and can be used to distract guards.
  • The Crimson Skies character Nathan Zachary has claimed Romani heritage.
  • The four protagonists of Mother Russia Bleeds are all referred to as Romani (their background is vague, but they were apparently raised in an impoverished gypsy camp somewhere in Russia).
  • The videogame Bohemian Killing features a gypsy protagonist guilty of murder, who has to try and convince the jury he didn't do it.


  • The character Willa Monday on the TV show The Finder is Romani.
  • 2013 series Hemlock Grove features a family of Romani.
  • 2002 episode of The Twilight Zone features a female Romani.
  • In the television show Criminal Minds, the fourth-season episode "Bloodlines" depicts a family of Romani who kidnap little girls to marry their sons.
  • 2007 episode of House, in which House must treat a 16-year-old Romani boy with respiratory distress.
  • An episode of Dennis the Menace featured a group of Romanies who visited Dennis's town, were accused of theft, and almost inveigled police Officer Murphy into marrying one of their women, to whom he had offered bread at dinner.
  • In the first season of Car 54, Where Are You, Maureen Stapleton plays a Romani matriarch telling fortunes from a storefront in Toody and Muldoon's precinct. Stereotypical jokes abound. She lifts a guy's wallet, the father is a layabout, the children don't go to school, they pack up and move to another storefront in short order, etc.
  • On the television series Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, the detectives investigate a missing Romani boy (Season 13, Episode 9).
  • On the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Romanies in 19th Century Romania place a curse on the vampire Angelus to punish him for the murder of a teenage Romani girl, by restoring his human soul (and by extension, his conscience) and forcing him to feel guilt for his crimes. Angel was doomed to misery until he could enjoy a moment of pure happiness. It is later revealed that these Romanies were members of the Kalderash tribe and that the character Jenny Calendar, actually Janna of the Kalderash, is a member of the tribe.
  • Greek television series Whispers of the Heart (Greek: Ψίθυροι Καρδιάς) was about a rich architect who falls in love with a young beautiful gypsy girl. It aired in 1997 and it is one of the most popular, Greek television series.
  • The BBC television series Peaky Blinders revolves around protagonist Tommy Shelby and the Shelby crime family who are of Romani heritage. It also features the Romani Lee family which includes main character Esme Lee, who marries one of the Shelby brothers.
  • In Jim Henson's Fraggle Rock, the sentient anthropomorchi Trash Heap refers to herself as a 'gypsy Trash Heap' when she performs her only act of magic.
  • Lark Rise to Candleford, Series 2 Episode 1 — A BBC costume drama. The village is haunted by the spirit of a young English Romany girl who drowned in the local lake.
  • In the HBO series Carnivàle, the characters of Sophie and her mother Apollonia are said to be Roma.
  • The Chilean telenovela Romané features the life of the Romani in the north of Chile.
  • Ashes to Ashes Series 2 2009 Episode 2 — A British television police drama series set in the 1980s. A police officer tries to clear her name when she is involved in the accidental death of an English Romanichal. She uncovers a premeditated plot to murder him. The episode does include some stereotypical elements as the plot unfolds; namely the plot device of an old Romani clairvoyant and friction between the police and the Romani camp. However these stereotypes are turned on their head as the local doctor who was obsessed with the victims wife is found guilty of poisoning and elements of police corruption. A supporting principal character is revealed to be part Romani.
  • In 2002 the WB television series Charmed aired the episode "The Eyes Have It" which depicted Romanies, referred to as "gypsies", as practicing a magical craft similar to those of modern-day witches. Much like the star witches in the series, Romanies possess supernatural powers and pass down family Books of Shadows.
  • The Canterville Ghost (1974) Television dramatization - Based on the (1887) short story by Oscar Wilde. An English gypsy group are suspected of kidnapping a girl but are innocent and join in the search.
  • In The Andy Griffith Show, episode 182 in the sixth season is titled "The Gypsies". A family of Romanies (one of whom is played by Jamie Farr) places a curse on the town of Mayberry.
  • In the MacGyver episode "Thief of Budapest", MacGyver helps a Romani family escape from the KGB.[17]


Romani characters are frequently depicted in werewolf films, including Maleva the fortuneteller (Maria Ouspenskaya) in The Wolf Man and the Romani clan of female werewolves in Cry of the Werewolf.

2014-2019John Wick (franchise)USDir. : Chad Stahelski. John Wick (aka Jardani Jovonovich), is a Belarussian Ruska Roma.
2012The Dark Knight RisesUSRomani villain - Bane.
2011Sherlock Holmes: A Game of ShadowsUSDir. : Guy Ritchie. Madam Simza (Sim) Heron - 'a mysterious Gypsy' of the French Romanies or Manouche.
2010The WolfmanUSRomani fortune-teller.
2009Drag Me to HellUSDir. : Sam Raimi. Horror. An ambitious bank worker incurs the wrath of an elderly Romani woman, who places an ancient curse on her.[18]
2009FreedomFranceA Romani family travels the French roads during the Second World War. They learn that a new law forbids them from being nomadic.
2008KhamsaFranceThe main character, Marco/Khamsa is half-Romani, half-Algerian. Most of the main characters are his Romani relatives, who live together in a camp in the city.
2008Filth and WisdomUK
Ukrainian Rom lives in London
2008Stone of DestinyUKScottish nationalists bury the Stone of Scone in a field. They return to find a Romanichal camp, and one barters with the Romany leader for the stone.
2006Children of MenUK
Features a gypsy woman called Marichka in the refugee camp. At one point when she is trying to help the mother and baby escape, Marichka and the woman engage in a tug of war with the baby, recalling the stereotype of gypsies stealing babies. Based on the P.D. James novel.
2006TransylvaniaFranceItalian girl pursues a gypsy violinist across Europe.
2006The Indian and the NurseCzech RepublicRomani nurse and non-Rom in love.
2005Fullmetal Alchemist the Movie: Conqueror of ShamballaJapanRomani character Noa is pursued by Nazis.
2003Japigia Gagi Roma StoriesItalydocumentary by Giovanni Princigalli who lived one year in an illegal camp of Roms of Romania emigrated in Italy
2003HolesUSRomani friend.
Max becomes friends with Swing, a boyish Romani girl, who shows him nature and takes him to exuberant music evenings.
2001Gypsy WomanUKStarring Jack Davenport and Neve McIntosh.
Johnny Depp plays Rom love interest of mysterious chocolatier Juliette Binoche.
2000The Man Who CriedUK
Johnny Depp portrays Rom in France.
2000GeppettoUSTV Remake.
1998Train de VieFrance et alA group of fleeing Jews meet up with a large group of Roma.
1998Black Cat, White CatSerbiaRomani central characters.
1998The Red ViolinCanadaThe Romani takes the red violin across Europe from Vienna to Oxford over a century.
1997Gadjo diloFranceFrench lives with Romanies in Romania.
1997The HunchbackNew ZealandTV adaptation.
1996ThinnerUSMan cursed by Romanies after killing one.
1996The Hunchback of Notre DameUSAnimated adaptation.
1995HauntedUKStarring Aidan Quinn and Kate Beckinsale, an old Romanichal fortune reads the palms of two characters.
1993Latcho DromFranceThe journey of the Romani people told through musicians and dancers of India, Egypt, Turkey, Romania, Hungry, Slovakia, France and Spain.
1992Bram Stoker's DraculaUSDracula's henchmen are gypsies.
1988Time of the GypsiesYugoslaviaTelekinetic Romani in realistic community at home, and in Italy.
1988The Raggedy RawneyUKStarring Dexter Fletcher and Zoë Wanamaker, about a young soldier who falls in with a gypsy camp.
1986Tras el cristalSpainDir.: Agustí Villaronga.
1983Angelo My LoveUSAll-Romani cast; dir.: Robert Duvall.
1982Corre, gitanoSpainRomanies from Granada and Seville.
1982The Hunchback of Notre DameUK
TV adaptation.
1979TsyganUSSRRomani's child was adopted by a Russian woman; after 17 years, a single old Romani man appears in the village and gains the respect and love of the boy, disturbing the peace of the family (Цыган).
1978King of the GypsiesUSGypsies in New York City come into conflict with modernity as they use ancient traditions to select their new king. Starring: Judd Hirsch, Eric Roberts, Susan Sarandon, and Brooke Shields.[19]
1977Count DraculaUKDracula's henchmen are gypsies.
1977The Hunchback of Notre DameUKTV adaptation.
1976Rosy DreamsCzechoslovakiaRomani and non-Romani lovers, societies.
1975Tabor ukhodit v NeboUSSRFree-spirited Gypsy central characters; US title: Queen of the Gypsies. Loosely based on short stories ("Makar Chudra" and "Old Izergil") by Maxim Gorky.
1970Count DraculaSpain
Dracula's henchmen are gypsies.
1967I Even Met Happy GypsiesYugoslaviaRealistic Romani central characters.
1966Sky West and CrookedUKInspired by the novel The Gypsy and the Gentleman by D. H. Lawrence. A young girl played by Hayley Mills finds happiness and friendship with a young English Romany played by Ian McShane.
1963From Russia with LoveUKJames Bond in Gypsy camp in Turkey.
1961Babes in ToylandUSMusical.
1958Touch of EvilUSRomani fortune-teller.
1956The Hunchback of Notre DameFrance
Sound adaptation.
1955The Adventures of Quentin DurwardUK
French gypsies.
1951My Favourite SpyUSComedy.
1950Gone to EarthUKRomani love interest.
1949Black MagicUS
Romani character Balsamo in France.
1949The Queen of SpadesUKRussian gypsies.
1948The Loves of CarmenUSRita Hayworth is Carmen.
1948Secret Beyond the DoorUSMexican gypsies.
1947Golden EarringsUSMarlene Dietrich is Hungarian Gypsy in Germany
1946CaravanUKAmerican marries Gypsy in Spain.
1944House of FrankensteinUSRomani love interest.
1944Cry of the WerewolfUSRomani werewolves.
1944Gypsy WildcatUSRomani love interest.
1943For Whom the Bell TollsUSRomani character Rafael in Spain.
1943Frankenstein Meets the Wolf ManUSRomani fortune-teller.
1941The Wolf ManUSRomani fortune-teller.
1940PinocchioUSRomani villain - Stromboli.
1939The Hunchback of Notre DameUSSound adaptation.
1937HeidiUSGerman gypsies.
1936The Bohemian GirlUSComedy.
1935The Bride of FrankensteinUSThe Monster tries to get some food from gypsies.
1934The Little MinisterUSThe heroine poses as a romani.
1927The UnknownUSRomani love interest.
1923The Hunchback of Notre DameUSRomani woman Esmeralda helps the Hunchback.
1915CarmenUSGeraldine Farrar is Carmen.
1913The Student of PragueGerman EmpireRomani love interest.

See also


  1. Mayall, David (2009). Gypsy Identities 1500-2000: From Egipcyans and Moon-men to the Ethnic Romany. Routledge. p. 266. ISBN 978-0415566377.
  2. Bardi, Abigail R. (2007). The Gypsy as Trope in Victorian and Modern British Literature. ProQuest. p. 65. ISBN 978-0549452898.
  3. MacKay, edited by Marina (2009). The Cambridge companion to the literature of World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0521887557.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  4. (eds), Paola Pugliatti & Alessandro Serpieri (2008). English Renaissance scenes: from canon to margins (1. Aufl. ed.). Bern: Peter Lang. pp. 293–295. ISBN 978-3039110797.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  5. Button, edited by Marilyn Demarest; Reed, Toni (1999). The foreign woman in British literature: exotics, aliens, and outsiders (1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. pp. 152–155. ISBN 978-0313309281.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  6. Segal, [edited by] Vasiliie Demos, Marcia Texler (1994). Ethnic women: a multiple status reality. Dix Hills, N.Y.: General Hall. p. 52. ISBN 978-1882289233.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  7. Smith, Jerilyn. The marginalization of shadow minorities (Roma) and its impact on opportunities (Thesis). p. 90.
  8. Smith, Paul Julian (2000). The moderns: time, space, and subjectivity in contemporary Spanish culture (1. publ. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0198160007.
  9. Malvinni, David (2004). The Gypsy caravan: from real Roma to imaginary Gypsies in Western music and film. New York, N.Y.: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415969994.
  10. Brunvand, edited by Jan Harold (1998). American folklore: an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 743. ISBN 978-0815333500.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  11. The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, Joseph Allen Bryant
  12. When Romeo Met Juliet by Leslie Dunkling
  13. As You Like It by William Shakespeare Editorial Review - School Library Journal vol. 55 iss. 3 p. 171 (c) 3 January 2009
  14. E. K. Chambers. William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems, 2 vols., (Vol. 1, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930)
  15. Shakespeare's Caliban: a cultural history by Alden T. Vaughan, Virginia Mason Vaughan 1993 Cambridge University Press
  16. Albert Kluyber, "Kalis and Calibon", trans. A. E. H. Swain. Englische Studien XXI (1895): 326-28; John Holland A Hystorical Survey of The Gypsies (London printed for the author 1816) p. 148; B.C. Smart and H. T. Crofton, eds., The Dialect of The English Gypsies 2nd ed., London 1875. p. 92.
  17. "#34: Thief of Budapest". The MacGyver Project. 16 February 2015.
  18. Sumner, Don (2010). Horror Movie Freak. Krause Publications. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-4402-0824-9.
  19. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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