Robert Perreault

Robert Perreault (born 13 May 1947) is a Canadian politician and administrator in the province of Quebec. He was a prominent city councillor in Montreal from 1982 to 1994, a Parti Québécois member of the National Assembly of Quebec from 1994 to 2000, and a cabinet minister in the government of Lucien Bouchard.

Robert Perreault
Director-General of the Conseil regional de l'environnement de Montreal
In office
2001–2007
Succeeded byAndré Porlier
Minister of Citizenship and Immigration (Quebec)
In office
1998–2000
Preceded byAndré Boisclair
Succeeded bySylvain Simard
Minister responsible for the Montreal region (Quebec)[1]
In office
1997–1998
Preceded bySerge Ménard
Succeeded byLouise Harel
Minister of Public Security (Quebec)
In office
1996–1997
Preceded bySerge Ménard
Succeeded byPierre Bélanger
Member of the National Assembly of Quebec for Mercier
In office
1994–2000
Preceded byGérald Godin
Succeeded byNathalie Rochefort
Chair of the Montreal Urban Community Transit Corp.
In office
1986–1994
Preceded byYves Ryan
Succeeded byGinette L'Heureux (interim), then Yves Ryan
Vice-Chair of the Montreal Executive Committee
In office
1986–1990
Preceded byPierre Lorange
Succeeded byJohn Gardiner
Member of the Montreal Executive Committee responsible for economic development and administrative reform
In office
1986–1990
Succeeded byJohn Gardiner (economic development)
Montreal City Councillor for Laurier Ward
In office
1982–1994
Preceded byRoger Larivée
Succeeded byLouise Roy
Personal details
Born13 May 1947 (1947-05-13) (age 72)
Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade, Quebec
NationalityCanadian
Political partyParti Québécois

Early life and career

Perreault was born in Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade, Quebec. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from the Université de Montréal in 1968 and later studied economics at the same institution. From 1975 to 1983, he was an administrator for cultural, sports, and recreation organizations in Quebec.[2][3]

City councillor

1982–1986

Perreault was a member of the progressive Montreal Citizens' Movement (MCM) in municipal politics. He was first elected to the Montreal city council in the 1982 municipal election, defeating incumbent councillor Roger Larivée from mayor Jean Drapeau's Civic Party in the east-end Laurier ward. The Civic Party won a majority government on council in this election, and Perreault served in opposition for the next four years, achieving prominence as the MCM's critic on economic issues.[4] In 1985, he joined with party leader Jean Doré to propose an industry surtax to fund Montreal's public transit.[5] He later suggested that an "enterprise zone" be created for economically depressed areas in Montreal's east end.[6]

1986–1990

Jean Doré was elected as mayor of Montreal in the 1986 municipal election and the MCM won a landslide victory on council. Perreault was easily re-elected in Laurier and, following the election, was named as vice-chair of the Montreal executive committee (i.e., the municipal cabinet) with responsibility for economic development and administrative reform.[7]

Perreault introduced significant reforms to Montreal's civil service in early 1987 in a bid to decentralize the city's operations. Almost half of the city's department directorships were eliminated (with many directors taking early retirement), and twelve new municipal centers were opened in different neighbourhoods across the city.[8][9][10] In the same year, Perreault introduced a ninety million dollar five-year investment plan for Montreal's east end; he indicated the plan would protect eleven thousand existing jobs, create four thousand more, and bring $350 million in investment from the private sector.[11][12] In 1990, he introduced a similar plan valued at one hundred million dollars for economically depressed areas in southwest Montreal.[13]

Perreault also served as a city representative on the regional Montreal Urban Community and was appointed as chair of the Montreal Urban Community Transit Corp. (MUCTC) in November 1986.[14] Soon after his appointment, he announced a one-year fare freeze and a small tax increase for suburban Montreal homeowners that was targeted to transportation.[15] In 1988, he wrote a public letter calling for municipalities in Laval and the South Shore to contribute more to Montreal's transit system, arguing that the service was used by many of residents of these communities.[16]

1990–1994

The MCM won another landslide victory in the 1990 municipal election. Perreault was not re-appointed to the city's executive committee, but remained chair of the MUCTC.[17]

The Quebec government introduced significant cuts to Montreal municipal transit in 1991, amid a serious North American economic downturn.[18] The MUCTC made up for these cuts by increasing municipal contributions, increasing fares, and laying off some employees. At the end of the year, it posted a surprising $13.3 million surplus, and some transit advocates complained that the fare increases approved by Perreault had been excessive.[19]

Perreault announced in November 1993 that public transit ridership had increased after five years of decline, notwithstanding the continuing economic downturn.[20] The MUCTC posted another $14 million surplus in early 1994.[21]

MCM divisions and national politics

Perreault was on the Quebec nationalist wing of the MCM. In the 1980s, he dissented against the party's call to reform Quebec's Charter of the French Language.[22] He announced his support for the newly formed Bloc Québécois in 1990 and called for a referendum on Quebec sovereignty the following year.[23]

In December 1990, Perreault announced that the MUCTC would remove the government of Canada's English/French bilingual advertisements from bus and subway lines to ensure compliance with Quebec's French-only sign laws. Critics noted that this would result in about $800,000 in lost revenue over the next year. Perreault dropped the plan after being advised that the advertisements were legal under Canada's Official Languages Act.[24]

Perreault wrote an editorial for the newspaper La Presse in August 1992, accusing the MCM of having lost credibility with the electorate.[25] This was regarded as a serious indicator of dissent within Doré's party.[26]

Provincial legislator

Perreault sought the Parti Québécois nomination for the east-end Montreal division of Mercier in the buildup to the 1994 provincial election. He initially lost to lawyer Giuseppe Sciortino, but this result was later annulled due to voting irregularities, and Perreault defeated Sciortino in a follow-up contest. Party leader Jacques Parizeau had supported Sciortino's candidacy as a means of building the PQs support in Montreal's Italian community, and several senior party officials unsuccessfully pressured Perreault to drop out. (There were also ideological differences between the candidates; Perreault was considered a centrist, and Sciortino was closer to the PQ's left wing.)[27] Despite the nomination controversy, Perreault was elected without difficulty in the 1994 election. The PQ won a majority government under Parizeau's leadership, and Perreault entered the legislature as a governmental backbencher.

Minister of public security

Lucien Bouchard succeeded Jacques Parizeau as premier on 29 January 1996, and appointed Perreault to cabinet as minister of public security.[28] Perreault's department announced a series of prison reforms shortly thereafter, including plans to close as many as six prisons and incarcerate fewer non-violent criminals.[29]

In late April 1996, Perreault worked with security officials in the Kahnawake Mohawk reserve to prevent a mixed martial arts event from taking place in the community; the government's position was that these events were too brutal to sanction.[30] Later in the same year, Perreault's department took part in a jurisdictional controversy over a small casino in Kahnawake that was not sanctioned by the provincial government.[31] In late 1996, Perreault reached an interim agreement with representatives of the government of Canada and the Mohawk Council of Kanesatake concerning policing services in the divided community.[32]

Perreault announced an independent inquiry into the state of the Sûreté du Québec (SQ) in June 1996, following widespread allegations of corruption and misconduct in the force. This followed an embarrassing situation in which a high-profile drug case was dismissed due to evidence tampering.[33] The inquiry, initially led by chief justice Jean-Pierre Bonin of the Court of Quebec's criminal division, was closed to the public.[34] Bonin stood down in October 1996, citing acrimonious working conditions, and Perreault subsequently launched a revised, wide-ranging public inquiry led by retired justice Lawrence Poitras.[35] In the same period, Perreault appointed senior public servant Guy Coulombe as the SQ's first civilian leader.[36] When it was released three years later, Poitras's report accused the SQ of abusing its powers of arrest, being more concerned with protecting its image than investigating misconduct, and having an "unhealthy air of solidarity, expressed through the law of silence and retaliations" against dissident officers.[37]

Perreault was public security minister at the time of a high-profile rivalry between two biker gangs in Quebec, the Hells Angels and the Rock Machine. In early 1997, he announced that the Bouchard government was planning a new series of measures to target gang violence, including stricter rules for liquor-permit renewals and increased expropriation powers for municipalities.[38] He also sought legislative assistance from the federal government of Canada.[39]

Minister responsible for Montreal

Bouchard announced a cabinet shuffle on 25 August 1997, and named Perreault as the minister responsible for the Montreal region.[40] Perreault announced a few weeks later that the Quebec government would contribute $160 million to double the size of the Palais des congrès de Montréal, and a modified version of this plan was approved in September 1998.[41]

In early 1998, Perreault helped negotiate an agreement for the provincial government to reduce Montreal's deficit by taking part ownership of some municipal buildings.[42] He later announced significant funding initiatives for tourism, new bicycle lanes, and a new economic initiative for the city's east end.[43]

Perreault proposed a transit corporation merger between the Montreal Urban Community, Laval, and the South Shore in 1998, arguing that it would save fifty million dollars per year.[44] The initiative was set aside after complaints by Montreal-area mayors.[45] Perreault also proposed a gasoline surtax and an increased vehicle registration fee to support public transit.[46]

During the buildup to the 1998 election, Perreault was challenged by well-known journalist Josée Legault for the Parti Québécois nomination in Mercier. Legault accused the PQ of abandoning its commitment to social democracy and Quebec independence. Perreault won the challenge with about sixty per cent support.[47]

In June 1999, after he was shuffled out of ministerial responsibility for Montreal, Perreault accused Mayor Pierre Bourque of governing the city in an undemocratic fashion.[48]

Minister of immigration and citizenship

Perreault was re-elected in the 1998 provincial election, as the Parti Québécois won a second consecutive majority government under Lucien Bouchard's leadership. On 15 December, Bouchard reassigned Perreault as Quebec's minister of citizenship and immigration.[49]

In March 1999, Perreault said that Quebec would not provide individual compensation to the Duplessis Orphans who had been abused several decades earlier at the Mount Cashel Orphanage. This decision was criticized by the provincial ombudsman. The government had previously made three million dollars available through an assistance fund, which Perreault said was meant for social services such as counselling.[50] In 2000, he was quoted as saying on the matter, "There will not be compensation. We prefer to help those who most need the help now."[51]

Perreault and treasury board president Jacques Léonard announced a new hiring campaign for the civil service in early 1999, indicating that they would seek more recruits from Quebec's minority communities.[52] Perreault was later able to announce that Quebec had fulfilled its targets for minority representation in summer positions, but critics charged that the numbers for full-time civil service jobs remained unacceptably low.[53] The government later strengthened its employment equity policies to ensure that more women, indigenous persons, and members of visible minority communities would be hired.[54]

Perreault argued in June 1999 that Quebec would require independence to have proper oversight of its immigration policy, noting that the Canadian federal government was responsible for half of all immigration to the province.[55] In the same year, he said that Quebec wanted to increase its francophone immigration from 44 per cent to about 60 per cent.[56] Perreault helped oversee a high-profile resettlement of refugees from Kosovo in this period.[57]

In May 2000, Perreault introduced legislation to create a "national identity card" for Quebec. He noted that the card was not mandatory and would include no information beyond the citizen's name and picture. Critics accused the Bouchard government of using the card to promote sovereignty and charged that it was the first step toward creating mandatory voting cards.[58]

Perreault resigned from cabinet and the legislature on 6 October 2000, saying that his decision was personal and that he wanted to reorient his career.[59] He added that he had entered provincial politics to achieve Quebec independence and would not have resigned if the Bouchard government had set a clear timeline for a new referendum on sovereignty.[60]

Canadian federal politics

Perreault supported Gilles Duceppe's successful bid to lead the Bloc Québécois (BQ) in 1997.[61]

Administrator

Perreault became director general of the Conseil regional de l'environnement de Montreal in May 2001 and held the position until 2007.[3][62][63][64] In this capacity, he continued to speak in favour of public transit.[65] He also opposed an extension of the Quebec Autoroute 25 north of Montreal, citing pollution concerns.[66] He criticized Quebec's transport department in 2006, calling it "incompetent" and saying that it was unduly focused on car use.[67]

Perreault supported an increase to Montreal's parking meter rates in 2007, arguing that it was a necessary step to discourage automobile use.[68] He also spoke in support of toll roads.[69]

In the 2008 provincial election, Perreault supported Québec solidaire candidate Amir Khadir against PQ incumbent Daniel Turp in Mercier.[70] Khadir was elected as Québec solidaire's first member of the provincial legislature.

Electoral record

1998 Quebec general election: Mercier
Party Candidate Votes%±%
Parti QuébécoisRobert Perreault17,55255.38−1.10
LiberalElizabeth da Silva9,00528.42−2.13
Action démocratiquePaul Benevides2,8188.89+3.47
Bloc PotMarc St-Maurice9853.11
Socialist DemocracyGuylaine Sirard8732.75+0.12
IndependentAnn Farrell1580.50
Natural LawPierre Bergeron1540.49−0.34
Marxist–LeninistNormand Chouinard790.25−0.08
CommunistPierre Smith670.21−0.21
Total valid votes 31,691
Rejected and declined votes 493
Turnout 32,184 75.28
Electors on the lists 42,755
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
1994 Quebec general election: Mercier
Party Candidate Votes%±%
Parti QuébécoisRobert Perreault17,52356.48−0.67
LiberalAlda Viero9,47930.55+0.13
Action démocratiqueCarole Boucher1,6815.42
GreenJean-François Labadie8652.79−5.59
New DemocraticRenée-Claude Lorimier8152.63+0.21
Natural LawMarylise Baux2590.83-
Commonwealth of CanadaJulie Laliberté1730.56-
CommunistGinette Gauthier1290.42
Marxist–LeninistHélène Héroux1020.33−0.13
Total valid votes 31,026 100.00
Rejected and declined votes 815
Turnout 31,841 80.33
Electors on the lists 39,636
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
1990 Montreal municipal election results: Councillor, Laurier
1986 Montreal municipal election results: Councillor, Laurier
1982 Montreal municipal election results: Councillor, Laurier

References

  1. Perreault's full official title was "Minister of State for the Metropolis and Minister responsible for the Montreal Region." See "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours (in French). National Assembly of Quebec.
  2. "Meet the mandarins," Montreal Gazette, 16 November 1991, D5
  3. "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours (in French). National Assembly of Quebec.
  4. Lewis Harris, "Municipal parties make trust key economic issue," Montreal Gazette, 25 October 1986, B4.
  5. Ingrid Peritz, "Firms should pay more to transit: MCM," Montreal Gazette, 13 November 1985, A3.
  6. David Wimhurst, "Special enterprise zone would create regulatory 'oasis' in city's east end," Montreal Gazette, 17 February 1986, B7.
  7. Ingrid Peritz, "Fainstat will chair executive including 3 women, 2 anglos," Montreal Gazette, 26 November 1986, A1.
  8. "MCM to shake up city hall 'labyrinth'," Montreal Gazette, 21 March 1987, A3
  9. Ingrid Peritz, "City's plan to cut number of department directors attacked by Civic Party," Montreal Gazette, 28 March 1987, H16
  10. Ingrid Peritz, "Better service promised with city shakeup," Montreal Gazette, 31 March 1987, A3.
  11. "Montreal will invest $90 million to stimulate east-end economy," Montreal Gazette, 14 October 1987, A3
  12. "Montreal development," Toronto Star, 14 October 1987, B6.
  13. Lewis Harris, "Southwest area hungry for city aid plan," Montreal Gazette, 13 March 1990, A3.
  14. Lewis Harris, "City, suburbs split power on new MUC council," Montreal Gazette, 27 November 1986, A3.
  15. Lewis Harris, "MUCTC will freeze transit fares for a year," Montreal Gazette, 2 December 1986, A1.
  16. Robert Perreault, "Off-island municipalities should pay transit share," Montreal Gazette, 28 November 1988, B3.
  17. Irwin Block, "Cousineau leads top city panel; First woman to be chairman of executive committee," Montreal Gazette, 16 November A1.
  18. "Fight's over on transit - Perreault," Montreal Gazette, 19 June 1991, A3; Michael Orsini, "MUCTC seeks another $200 million from cities," Montreal Gazette, 3 July 1991, A3.
  19. Elizabeth Thompson, "Transit budget lays off 245 with no service cuts," Montreal Gazette, 16 October 1991, A1; Elizabeth Thompson, "Students, seniors will face sharply increased MUCTC fares," Montreal Gazette, 30 September 1992, A3; Geoff Baker, "Transit users stunned by MUCTC's $13 million surplus," Montreal Gazette, 8 April 1993, A3.
  20. Elizabeth Thompson, "MUCTC puts brakes to declining ridership," Montreal Gazette, 3 November 1993, A3.
  21. "MUC and transit commission both report a budget surplus," Montreal Gazette, 21 April 1994, A3.
  22. Ingrid Peritz, "Dore team waiting in the wings," Montreal Gazette, 1 November 1986, B1.
  23. Ray Doucet, "Five MCM councillors back Bloc Quebecois; Candidate acknowledges poverty problem, but stresses sovereignty," Montreal Gazette, 7 August 1990, A3; Irwin Block, "Referendum push Group formed to pressure for sovereignty vote in '91," Montreal Gazette, 15 February 1991, B1.
  24. "Montreal transit removes bilingual ads," Ottawa Citizen, 20 December 1990, A12; Irwin Block, "MUCTC row over federal ads is waste of time: language chief," Montreal Gazette, 22 December 1990, A3; Irwin Block, "Perreault aims to pick up Godin's mantel," Montreal Gazette, 6 September 1994, A11.
  25. Elizabeth Thompson, "Perreault's attack drops bomb on MCM," Montreal Gazette, 10 August 1992, A3.
  26. "Fine message, poor messenger; Perreault personifies many of the MCM's woes" [editorial], Montreal Gazette, 13 August 1992, B2.
  27. The first round of balloting at the first nomination meeting saw Perreault receive 245 votes, compared with 114 for Sciortino, 89 for retired civil servant Claude Bernard, and 71 for Jean-Louis Hérivault. Perreault's opponents then joined forces, and Sciortino was elected by fourteen votes on the second ballot. The results were annulled when it was discovered that at least fifteen voters from Claude Bernard's group had given improper addresses. See Philip Authier, "Liberals' monopoly on minorities over, new Italian-origin PQ candidate says," Montreal Gazette, 22 June 1994, A7; Lysiane Gagnon, "Pauline Julien versus Camille Laurin: a spectacular match," Globe and Mail, 25 June 1994, D3; Irwin Block, "Transit chief flatly refuses to drop bid for Mercier nod," Montreal Gazette, 27 July 1994, A8; Gord Sinclair, "Language won't get in way of Quebec election," Financial Post, 27 July 1994, p. 9; Andre Picard, "Media Watch: Trail Notes," Globe and Mail, 2 August 1994, A4; Hubert Bauch, "Parizeau angers members by making pick in Mercier," Montreal Gazette, 3 August 1994, p. 1; Anne McIlroy, "Star candidates carry price, PQ finds," Toronto Star, 4 August 1994, A11; Andre Picard, "Media Watch," Globe and Mail, 6 August 1994, A6; Andre Picard, "Parizeau-backed star loses nomination bid ," Globe and Mail, 9 August 1994, A6. The nomination controversy was covered in the New York Times; see Clyde H. Farnsworth, "Montreal Journal; A 'Free' Quebec? In Many Tongues, a Firm 'No!'", New York Times, 25 August 1994, p. 4. During the second nomination meeting, Perreault brought outgoing Mercier representative Gérald Godin on the stage as one of his supporters. This was very controversial; Godin was suffering from the advanced stages of brain cancer, and many party supporters believed the decision to bring him on stage wearing a Perreault scarf was exploitative. See Don Macpherson, "A sickening stunt; Perreault must have wanted Mercier very badly," Montreal Gazette, 9 August 1994, B3; Andre Picard, "Media watch," Globe and Mail, 10 August 1994, A5.
  28. "The Quebec cabinet," Globe and Mail, 30 January 1996, A7.
  29. Rheal Seguin, "Quebec launches prison reforms," Globe and Mail, 3 August 1996, A1.
  30. "Extreme Fighting Pay-Per-View Matches Will Go On Despite Government Opposition; Mohawks Form Athletic Commission To Regulate Matches Near Montreal," Business Wire, 25 April 1996, 19:20; Tu Thanh Ha, "Mohawk police, council face off over bouts Peacekeepers' leader insists team not taking sides by arresting Extreme Fighters," Globe and Mail, 29 April 1996, A1.
  31. Tu Thanh Ha, "Native casino carries on without permit," Globe and Mail, 6 September 1996, A4.
  32. "Interim Tripartite Agreement Reached On Policing Services At Kanesatake," Canada NewsWire, 19 December 1996, 11:10; Elizabeth Thompson, "New Kanesatake peacekeepers to police natives, non-natives," Montreal Gazette, 20 December 1996, A9.
  33. Tu Thanh Ha, "Quebec officers found not guilty of tampering; Perreault orders inquiry into handling by Surete du Quebec of drug arrests," Globe and Mail, 10 June 1996, A1.
  34. Karen Unland, "Liberals seek public inquiry into Surete investigations," Globe and Mail, 17 October 1996, A11.
  35. "Quebec police chief steps aside Public inquiry called to examine officers' behavior," Toronto Star, 19 October 1996, A3; Rheal Seguin, "Surete to undergo wide-ranging public inquiry," Globe and Mail, 23 October 1996, A3; Alexander Norris, "Launch of Surete inquiry draws cheers and jeers," Montreal Gazette, 24 October 1996, B3; Karen Unland, "Surete inquiry allowed to probe force's past," Globe and Mail, 24 October 1996, A13.
  36. Tu Thanh Ha, "Surete du Quebec put on short leash," Globe and Mail, 20 August 1997, A5.
  37. Robert Melnbardis, "Official inquiry finds Quebec police abuse powers," Reuters News, 28 January 1999, 18:29; Ingrid Peritz, "Quebec provincial police accused of abuses," 29 January 1999, A1; Robert McKenzie, "Quebec's police reform bill called a cop-out --- Threats may be behind weaknesses, criminologist says," Toronto Star, 5 February 2000, p. 1. See also Monique Beaudin, "Gag order to be sought in court next week: Lawyers for provincial police will try to prevent commission's report from being made public," Montreal Gazette, 16 January 1999, A6.
  38. "Quebec Minister to fight biker gangs." Globe and Mail, 12 March 1997, A4.
  39. "Ottawa must help end biker gang war: Quebec," Toronto Star, 20 March 1997, A15; Rheal Seguin, "Bill forges tools to combat gangs," Globe and Mail, 18 April 1997, A1.
  40. Karen Unland, "Bouchard makes adjustments to cabinet," Globe and Mail, 26 August 1997, A4; Elizabeth Thompson, "Shuffle restores order: Perreault, Menard move from unfamiliar territory to appropriate posts," Montreal Gazette, 26 August 1997, A5; Henry Aubin, "Perreault's challenge: to justify his new job," Montreal Gazette, 26 August 1997, B2.
  41. Campbell Clark and Elena Cherney, "Palais size to double: Province aims to attract lucrative new conventions," Montreal Gazette, 11 September 1997, A1; Elizabeth Thompson, George Kalogerakis, and Terrance Wills, "Palais des Congres okayed: The province says the proposed expansion of Montreal's convention centre will go ahead whether Ottawa contributes to it or not, because otherwise Montreal will lose out on hefty revenue from conventioneers," Montreal Gazette, 1 October 1998, A1.
  42. Campbell Clark, "Quebec may buy into Montreal's facilities: Minister Robert Perreault says he favours a plan to help cut city's budget deficit by becoming a minority partner in sites like the Biodome or Botanical Garden," Montreal Gazette, 23 April 1998, A6; "Perreault's Band-Aid" [editorial], Montreal Gazette, 24 April 1998, B2; Elizabeth Thompson and Michelle Lalonde, "City gets $160-million Quebec deal: But critics say it's a buyout, not a permanent bailout," Montreal Gazette, 28 May 1998, A5.
  43. Stella Tzintzis, "Cycling heaven: plan calls for lots more paths," Montreal Gazette, 16 June 1998, A3; "$2 million for tourism," Montreal Gazette, 8 July 1998, A4; Michelle Lalonde, "Boost for east end: Quebec hopes to attract tourists, boaters, nature lover," Montreal Gazette, 11 November 1998, D17.
  44. Aaron Derfel, "Transit merger coming: Quebec proposes single metropolitan agency by July 1," Montreal Gazette, 22 February 1998, A3; Mike King, "Transit merger a must: Perreault: Ride might be bumpy, minister admits," Montreal Gazette, 10 March 1998, A3.
  45. Elizabeth Thompson and Irwin Block, "Merger plan is put on ice: Province retreats after pressure from Montreal-area municipalities," Montreal Gazette, 26 May 1998, A4.
  46. Aaron Derfel, Michelle Lalonde, and Elizabeth Thompson, "Increase gas tax, mayors suggest : Most Montreal-area mayors support the idea of financing the expansion of the transit system through a gasoline surtax and higher fees for motor-vehicle registration," Montreal Gazette, 5 March 1998, A1.
  47. Philip Authier, "Legault challenges PQ: Feisty columnist drafted by party's Mercier riding executive," Montreal Gazette, 12 June 1998, A1; Philip Authier, "PQ factions face off in nomination fight," Montreal Gazette, 25 September 1998, A10; Philip Authier, "PQ hard-liner loses in Mercier : Party militant Josee Legault, who wants the PQ to push the referendum issue, fails in her bid to win the nomination in Mercier riding from cabinet minister Robert Perreault," Montreal Gazette, 28 September 1998, A1.
  48. Linda Gyulai, "Quebec minister attacks Bourque: In a rare intrusion onto municipal turf, Robert Perreault bemoans what he sees as a lack of democracy in the city of Montreal," Montreal Gazette, 8 June 1999, A1. See also "Butt out, Bourque says," Montreal Gazette, 9 June 1999, A4.
  49. Rheal Seguin, "Quebec cabinet more feminine place," Globe and Mail, 16 December 1998, A9.
  50. Paul Cherry, "Pay orphans more, ombudsman says," Montreal Gazette, 9 March 1999, A1; Rheal Seguin, "Decision on Duplessis orphans 'unjust' Quebec," Globe and Mail, 9 March 1999, A3.
  51. Steven Pearlstein, "Abandoned And Abused," Washington Post, 7 April 2000, A24.
  52. Robert McKenzie, "Quebec seeks to hire minorities," 14 May 1999, p. 1.
  53. Elizabeth Thompson, "We met quota: Quebec: Quarter of summer civil-service jobs went to non-francophones," Montreal Gazette, 23 September 1999, A5; Natasha Vincent, "Futile aspiration: Minority youths who covet permanent civil- service jobs are out of luck," Montreal Gazette, 12 October 1999, B3; "Minorities at work," Montreal Gazette, 30 October 1999, B6.
  54. "Quebec to introduce new employment equity legislation for public sector," Canadian Press, 16 June 2000, 01:34; "Anglos shut out of hiring plan," Montreal Gazette, 17 June 2000, B6.
  55. "QUEBEC NEEDS TO CONTROL IMMIGRATION: MINISTER," Resource News International, 3 June 1999, 12:14.
  56. "QUEBEC: Province wants more francophone immigrants," Globe and Mail, 3 November 1999, A8.
  57. "Quebec pleased by settlement of Kosovars," Montreal Gazette, 23 July 1999, A6.
  58. Campbell Clark, "Quebec plans ID database of all citizens: Privacy experts worried," National Post, 8 April 1999, A1; Elizabeth Thompson, "Quebec lays cards on table: Introducing legislation today for non- mandatory `national identity card'," Montreal Gazette, 3 May 2000, A3; Rheal Seguin, "No Big Brother lurking in identity card, PQ says," Globe and Mail, 3 May 2000, A2; "Into the dustbin" [editorial], Montreal Gazette, 4 October 2000, B2.
  59. "Quebec minister Robert Perreault quits cabinet, citing personal reasons," Canadian Press, 28 September 2000, 12:19; Elizabeth Thompson, "PQ's immigration minister resigns," Montreal Gazette, 29 September 2000, A10.
  60. Rheal Seguin, "PQ minister of immigration leaving politics," Globe and Mail, 29 September 2000, 16. This article describes Perreault as an "enigmatic figure" and notes that he had not been regarded as a sovereigntist hardliner.
  61. Elizabeth Thompson, "Duhaime gets heavyweight backing as Bloc leader," Montreal Gazette, 16 January 1997, A13.
  62. Ann Carroll, "Car sharing program appeals for help," Montreal Gazette, 20 February 2007, A6
  63. Rapport d’activités 2006-2007 et Plan d’action 2007-2008 Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Conseil Regional de l'Environnement de Montreal. Retrieved 17 June 2011
  64. Rapport d’activités 2007–08 Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Conseil Regional de l'Environnement de Montreal. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  65. Michelle Lalonde, "Transit to become priority," Montreal Gazette, 15 April 2005, A9.
  66. James Mennie, "Roadwork plans crash into environmental concerns," Montreal Gazette, 21 April 2005, A6; Brenda Branswell, "Highway 25 report backs us: both sides," Montreal Gazette, 16 November 2005.
  67. Henry Aubin, "Quebec gets good reviews for Kyoto plan: But so far the province is all talk, no action," Montreal Gazette, 14 October 2006, B7.
  68. Mike King and Peggy Curran, "Parking revolt: City might be better positioned to put down this citizen uprising," Montreal Gazette, 10 March 2007, C1.
  69. Michelle Lalonde, "Critics say car still king: Public transit projects dismissed," Montreal Gazette, 28 February 2003, A2.
  70. Denis Lessard, "L'ex-ministre Robert Perreault appuie Amir Khadir", cyberpress.ca, 3 December 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
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