Robert Mapplethorpe

Robert Michael Mapplethorpe (/ˈmpəlˌθɔːrp/; November 4, 1946 – March 9, 1989) was an American photographer, known for his sensitive yet blunt treatment of controversial subject-matter in the black and white medium of photography. His work featured an array of subjects, including celebrity portraits, male and female nudes, self-portraits and still-life images of flowers. His most controversial work is that of the BDSM subculture in the late 1960s and early 1970s of New York City. The homoeroticism of this work fueled a national debate over the public funding of controversial artwork.

Robert Mapplethorpe
Self-Portrait, 1980
Robert Michael Mapplethorpe

(1946-11-04)November 4, 1946
DiedMarch 9, 1989(1989-03-09) (aged 42)
Resting placeSt. John Cemetery, New York City, U.S.
EducationPratt Institute
Known forPhotography
Patron(s)Sam Wagstaff


Mapplethorpe was born in Floral Park, Queens, New York City, the son of Joan Dorothy (Maxey) and Harry Irving Mapplethorpe, an electrical engineer.[1] He was of English, Irish, and German descent, and grew up as a Roman Catholic in Our Lady of the Snows Parish. He had three brothers and two sisters.[2] One of his brothers, Edward, later worked for him as assistant and became a photographer as well.[3] He studied for a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, where he majored in Graphic Arts,[4] though he dropped out in 1969 before finishing his degree.[5] Mapplethorpe lived with his girlfriend Patti Smith from 1967 to 1972,[6] and she supported him[7] by working in bookstores.[8] They created art together,[9] and maintained a close friendship throughout Mapplethorpe's life.[8][10][11]

Mapplethorpe took his first photographs in the late 1960s or early 1970s using a Polaroid camera. In 1972, he met art curator Sam Wagstaff, who would become his mentor, lover,[12] patron, and lifetime companion.[13] In the mid-1970s, Wagstaff acquired a Hasselblad medium-format camera and Mapplethorpe began taking photographs of a wide circle of friends and acquaintances, including artists, composers, and socialites. During this time, he became friends with New Orleans artist George Dureau, whose work had such a profound impact on Mapplethorpe that he restaged many of Dureau's early photographs. From 1977 until 1980, Mapplethorpe was the lover of writer and Drummer editor Jack Fritscher,[14] who introduced him to Mineshaft (a gay Manhattan sex club).[15]

By the 1980s, Mapplethorpe's subject matter focused on statuesque male and female nudes, delicate flower still lifes, and highly formal portraits of artists and celebrities. Mapplethorpe's first studio was at 24 Bond Street in Manhattan. In the 1980s, Wagstaff bought a top-floor loft at 35 West 23rd Street for Robert, where he resided, also using it as a photo-shoot studio.[16] He kept the Bond Street loft as his darkroom. In 1988, Mapplethorpe selected Patricia Morrisroe to write his biography, which was based on more than 300 interviews with celebrities, critics, lovers, and Mapplethorpe himself.[16]


Mapplethorpe died on the morning of March 9, 1989 at the age of 42 due to complications from HIV/AIDS, in a Boston, Massachusetts hospital. His body was cremated. His ashes are interred at St. John's Cemetery, Queens in New York City, at his mother's grave-site, etched "Maxey".[17]


Nearly a year before his death, the ailing Mapplethorpe helped found the Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation, Inc. His vision for the Foundation was that it would be "the appropriate vehicle to protect his work, to advance his creative vision, and to promote the causes he cared about".[18] Since his death, the Foundation has not only functioned as his official estate and helped promote his work throughout the world, but has also raised and donated millions of dollars to fund medical research in the fight against AIDS and HIV infection. The Foundation donated $1 million towards the 1993 establishment of the Robert Mapplethorpe Residence, a six-story townhouse for long-term residential AIDS treatment on East 17th Street in New York City, in partnership with Beth Israel Medical Center.[19] (The residence closed in 2015 citing financial difficulties.[20])The Foundation also promotes fine art photography at the institutional level.[18] The Foundation helps determines which galleries represent Mapplethorpe's art.[21][22] In 2011, the Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation donated the Robert Mapplethorpe Archive, spanning from 1970 to 1989, to the Getty Research Institute.[23]


Mapplethorpe worked primarily in a studio, and almost exclusively in black and white, with the exception of some of his later work and his final exhibit "New Colors". His body of work features a wide range of subjects, but his main focus and the greater part of his work is erotic imagery. He would refer to some of his own work as pornographic,[16] with the aim of arousing the viewer, but which could also be regarded as high art.[24] His erotic art explored a wide range of sexual subjects, depicting the BDSM subculture of New York in the 1970s, portrayals of black male nudes, and classical nudes of female bodybuilders. Mapplethorpe was a participant observer for much of his erotic photography, participating in the sexual acts which he was photographing and engaging his models sexually.[24]

Other subjects included flowers, especially orchids and calla lilies, children, statues, and celebrities and other artists, including Andy Warhol, Louise Bourgeois, Deborah Harry, Kathy Acker, Richard Gere, Peter Gabriel, Grace Jones, Amanda Lear, Laurie Anderson, Iggy Pop, Philip Glass, David Hockney, Cindy Sherman, Joan Armatrading, and Patti Smith. Smith was a longtime roommate of Mapplethorpe and a frequent subject in his photography, including a stark, iconic photograph that appears on the cover of Smith's first album, Horses.[25] His work often made reference to religious or classical imagery, such as a portrait of Patti Smith [26] from 1986 which recalls Albrecht Dürer's 1500 self-portrait.[27] Between 1980 and 1983, Mapplethorpe created over 150 photographs of bodybuilder Lisa Lyon, culminating in the 1983 photobook Lady, Lisa Lyon, published by Viking Press and with text by Bruce Chatwin.

Robert took areas of dark human consent and made them into art. He worked without apology, investing the homosexual with grandeur, masculinity, and enviable nobility. Without affectation, he created a presence that was wholly male without sacrificing feminine grace. He was not looking to make a political statement or an announcement of his evolving sexual persuasion. He was presenting something new, something not seen or explored as he saw and explored it. Robert sought to elevate aspects of male experience, to imbue homosexuality with mysticism. As Cocteau said of a Genet poem, "His obscenity is never obscene."

Patti Smith, Just Kids[28]


The Perfect Moment (1989 solo exhibit tour)

In the summer of 1989, Mapplethorpe's traveling solo exhibit brought national attention to the issues of public funding for the arts, as well as questions of censorship and the obscene. The Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., had agreed to be one of the host museums for the tour. Mapplethorpe decided to show his latest series that he explored shortly before his death. Titled Robert Mapplethorpe: The Perfect Moment, the show included photographs from his X Portfolio, which featured images of urophagia, BDSM and a self-portrait with a bullwhip inserted in his anus.[29] The show was curated by Janet Kardon of the Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA).[30][31] The ICA was awarded a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts to support Mapplethorpe's exhibit at the Corcoran Gallery of Art. The cancellation of the show, which terminated the Corcoran's contract with the ICA, was due to the fact that the museum did not want to get involved in the politics. Instead, the Corcoran was pulled into the controversy, which "intensified the debate waged both in the media and in Congress surrounding the NEA's funding of projects perceived by some individuals ... to be inappropriate ..."[32] The hierarchy of the Corcoran and several members of the U.S. Congress were upset when the works were revealed to them, due to the homoerotic and sadomasochistic themes of some of the work. Though much of his work throughout his career had been regularly displayed in publicly funded exhibitions, conservative and religious organizations, such as the American Family Association, seized on this exhibition to vocally oppose government support for what they called "nothing more than the sensational presentation of potentially obscene material."[33]

In June 1989, pop artist Lowell Blair Nesbitt became involved in the censorship issue. Nesbitt, a long-time friend of Mapplethorpe, revealed that he had a $1.5-million bequest to the museum in his will, but publicly promised that if the museum refused to host the exhibition, he would revoke the bequest. The Corcoran refused and Nesbitt bequeathed the money to the Phillips Collection instead. After the Corcoran refused the Mapplethorpe exhibition, the underwriters of the exhibition went to the nonprofit Washington Project for the Arts,[34] which showed all the images in its space from July 21 to August 13, 1989, to large crowds.[35][36] In 1990, the Contemporary Arts Center in Cincinnati, and Dennis Barrie, were charged with obscenity. They were found not guilty by a jury.[37]

According to the ICA, "The Corcoran's decision sparked a controversial national debate: Should tax dollars support the arts? Who decides what is "obscene" or "offensive" in public exhibitions? And if art can be considered a form of free speech, is it a violation of the First Amendment to revoke federal funding on grounds of obscenity? To this day, these questions remain very much at issue."[30][38] Mapplethorpe became something of a cause célèbre for both sides of the American culture war. However, prices for many of the Mapplethorpe photographs doubled and even tripled as a consequence of all the attention. The artist's notoriety supposedly also helped the posthumous sale at Christie's auction house of Mapplethorpe's own collection of furniture, pottery, silver and works by other artists, which brought about $8 million.[39]

University of Central England incident

In 1998, the University of Central England was involved in a controversy when a book by Mapplethorpe was confiscated. A final-year undergraduate student was writing a paper on the work of Robert Mapplethorpe and intended to illustrate the paper with a few photographs from Mapplethorpe, a book of the photographer's work. She took the photographs to the local chemist to be developed and the chemist informed West Midlands Police because of the unusual nature of the images. The police confiscated the library book from the student and informed the university that the book would have to be destroyed. If the university agreed to the destruction, no further action would be taken.

The university Vice-Chancellor, Dr. Peter Knight, supported by the Senate, took the view that the book was a legitimate book for the university library to hold and that the action of the police was a serious infringement of academic freedom. The Vice-Chancellor was interviewed by the police, under caution, with a view to prosecution under the terms of the Obscene Publications Acts.

After the interview with the Vice-Chancellor, a file was sent to the Crown Prosecution Service for a determination by the Director of Public Prosecutions whether to proceed with a trial. After a delay of about six months, the affair came to an end when Dr. Knight was informed by the DPP that no action would be taken.[40]

The Black Book

The 1986 solo exhibition "Black Males" and the subsequent book The Black Book sparked controversy for their depiction of black men. The images, erotic depictions of black men, were widely criticized for being exploitative.[41][42][43] The work was largely phallocentric and sculptural, focusing on segments of the subject's bodies. His purported intention with these photographs and the use of black men as models was the pursuit of the Platonic ideal.[16] Mapplethorpe's initial interest in the black male form was inspired by films like Mandingo and the interrogation scene in Cruising, in which an unknown black character enters the interrogation room and slaps the protagonist across the face.[44]

Criticism was the subject of a work by American conceptual artist Glenn Ligon, Notes on the Margins of the Black Book (1991–1993). Ligon juxtaposes Mapplethorpe's 91 images of black men in the 1988 publication Black Book with critical texts and personal reactions about the work to complicate the racial undertones of the imagery.[45]

American poet and activist Essex Hemphill also expressed criticism in his anthology Brother to Brother (1991). Although he believed that Mapplethorpe's work reflected exceptional talent, Hemphill also believed that it displayed a lack of concern for black individuals in the gay community, "except as sexual subjects".[46]


In 1992, author Paul Russell dedicated his novel Boys of Life to Mapplethorpe, as well as to Karl Keller and Pier Paolo Pasolini.[47]

When Mapplethorpe: A Biography by Patricia Morrisroe was published by Random House in 1995,[16] the Washington Post Book World described it as "Mesmerizing ... Morrisroe has succeeded in re-creating the photographer's world of light and dark."[48] Art critic Arthur C. Danto, writing in The Nation, praised it as "utterly admirable ... The clarity and honesty of Morrisroe's portrait are worthy of its subject."[49]

In 1996, Patti Smith wrote a book The Coral Sea dedicated to Mapplethorpe.[50]

Philips released a photo disc for their CD-i video game system in 1992 called The Flowers of Robert Mapplethorpe.[51]

In September 1999, Arena Editions published Pictures, a monograph that reintroduced Mapplethorpe's sex pictures. In 2000, Pictures was seized by two South Australian plain-clothes detectives from an Adelaide bookshop in the belief that the book breached indecency and obscenity laws.[52] Police sent the book to the Canberra-based Office of Film and Literature Classification after the state Attorney-General's Department deftly decided not to get involved in the mounting publicity storm. Eventually, the OFLC board agreed unanimously that the book, imported from the United States, should remain freely available and unrestricted.[53]

In May 2007, American writer, director, and producer James Crump directed the documentary film Black White + Gray, which premiered at the 2007 Tribeca Film Festival. It explores the influence Mapplethorpe, curator Sam Wagstaff, and musician/poet Patti Smith had on the 1970s art scene in New York City.[54][55][56][57][58]

In September 2007, Prestel published Mapplethorpe: Polaroids, a collection of 183 of approximately 1,500 existing Mapplethorpe polaroids.[59] This book accompanies an exhibition by the Whitney Museum of American Art in May 2008.

In 2008, Robert Mapplethorpe was named by Equality Forum as one of their 31 Icons of the 2015 LGBT History Month.[60]

Patti Smith's 2010 memoir Just Kids focuses on her relationship with Mapplethorpe.[61] The book won the 2010 National Book Award for Nonfiction.[62]

In June 2016, Belgian fashion designer Raf Simons debuted his mens Spring 2017 collection inspired by Mapplethorpe's work and featuring several of his photographs printed onto shirts, jackets, and smocks.[63][64]

The American documentary film, Mapplethorpe: Look at the Pictures, was released in 2016. It was directed and executive produced by Randy Barbato and Fenton Bailey, and produced by Katharina Otto-Bernstein.[65][66][67][68][69][70]

In January 2016, filmmaker Ondi Timoner announced that she was directing a feature about him, Mapplethorpe, with Matt Smith in the lead role.[71] The film premiered on April 22, 2018 at the Tribeca Film Festival in New York City.[72]

In 2019 and 2020, the Guggenheim Museum in New York City is hosting Implicit Tensions, an exhibition of many of Mapplethorpe's works.[73]

Art market

In 2017, a 1987 Mapplethorpe self-portrait platinum print was auctioned for £450,000,[74] making it the most expensive Mapplethorpe photograph ever sold.

Selected publications

  • Hollinghurst, Alan; Morgan, Stuart (1983). Robert Mapplethorpe: 1970–1983. London: Institute of Contemporary Arts. ISBN 0-905263-31-6.
  • Mapplethorpe, Robert; Chatwin, Bruce (1983). Lady, Lisa Lyon. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-43012-9.
  • Mapplethorpe, Robert (1985). Certain People: A Book of Portraits. Pasadena, CA: Twelvetrees Press. ISBN 0-942642-14-7.
  • Mapplethorpe, Robert; Shange, Ntozake (1986). Black Book. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-08302-5.
  • Marshall, Richard; Mapplethorpe, Robert (1986). 50 New York Artists: A Critical Selection of Painters and Sculptors Working in New York. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-87701-403-5.
  • Robert Mapplethorpe. Tokyo: Parco. 1987. ISBN 4-89194-149-9.
  • Mapplethorpe Portraits. London: National Portrait Gallery. 1988. ISBN 0-904017-91-5.
  • Mapplethorpe, Robert; Didion, Joan (1989). Some Women. Boston: Bulfinch Press. ISBN 0-8212-1716-X.
  • Kardon, Janet; Joselit, David; Larson, Kay (1988). Robert Mapplethorpe: The Perfect Moment. Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania. ISBN 0-88454-046-4.
  • Mapplethorpe, Robert (1990). Flowers. Boston: Bulfinch Press. ISBN 0-8212-1781-X.
  • Cheim, John (1991). Early Works 1970–1974. New York: Robert Miller Gallery. ISBN 0-944680-36-4.
  • Celant, Germano (1992). Mapplethorpe. Milan: Electa/Louisiana Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 88-435-3647-8.
  • Mapplethorpe, Robert; Danto, Arthur Coleman (1992). Mapplethorpe. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-40804-5.
  • White, Edmund (1995). Altars. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-42721-X.
  • Ashbery, John; Holborn, Mark; Levas, Dimitri (1996). Pistils. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-40805-3.
  • Rimbaud, Arthur; Schmidt, Paul; Mapplethorpe, Robert (1997). A Season in Hell. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-8212-2458-1.
  • Levas, Dimitri; Sischy, Ingrid (1999). Pictures. Arena Editions. ISBN 1-892041-16-2.
  • Celant, Germano; Ippolitov, Arkadiĭ; Vail, Karole P B; Blessing, Jennifer (2004). Robert Mapplethorpe and the Classical Tradition: Photographs and Mannerist Prints. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. ISBN 0-89207-312-8.
  • Celant, Germano (2005). Robert Mapplethorpe: Tra Antico e Moderno. Un'antologia. Turin, Italy: Palazzina della Promotrice delle Belle Arti. ISBN 88-7624-610-X.
  • Mapplethorpe, Robert (2006). The Complete Flowers. Essay by Herbert Muschamp. New York: teNeues. ISBN 3-8327-9168-X.
  • Wolf, Sylvia (2007). Polaroids: Mapplethorpe. Munich and New York: Prestel. ISBN 978-3-7913-3835-4.
  • Robert Mapplethorpe X7. Interviews by Richard Flood. New York: teNeues Publishing. 2011. ISBN 978-3-8327-9473-6.CS1 maint: others (link)
  • Neutres, Jerome; Smith, Patti; White, Edmund; Pinet, Helene; Benhamou-Huet, Judith (2014). Robert Mapplethorpe. Paris: Éditions de la Reunion des Musées Nationaux – Grand Palais. ISBN 9782711861408.
  • Holborn, Mark, ed. (2016). Mapplethorpe Flora: The Complete Flowers. Essay by Dimitri Levas. New York: Phaidon. ISBN 978-0-7148-7131-8.
  • Martineau, Paul; Salvesen, Britt (2016). Robert Mapplethorpe: The Photographs. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. ISBN 978-1-60606-469-6.

Selected exhibitions

  • 1973: Polaroids, Light Gallery, New York.[75]
  • 1977:
    • Flowers, Holly Solomon Gallery, New York.[75]
    • Erotic Pictures, The Kitchen, New York.[75]
    • Portraits, Holly Solomon Gallery, New York.[75]
  • 1978:
    • The Chrysler Museum, Norfolk, VA. Catalogue with text by Mario Amaya.[76]
    • Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, CA.[76]

See also


  1. "Mapplethorpe, Robert".
  2. "Robert Mapplethorpe: bad boy with a camera". The Spectator. April 2, 2016.
  3. "The art of Edward Mapplethorpe". CBS News. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  4. Glueck, Grace. "Fallen Angel", The New York Times, June 25, 1995. Retrieved October 14, 2007. "Growing up in a blue-collar precinct of Floral Park and steeped in Catholicism, Mapplethorpe developed — to his alarm — an adolescent interest in gay pornographic magazines ... So, at Pratt Institute, where his father had studied Engineering and Robert majored in Graphic Arts (but stopped short of getting a degree) ..."
  5. Haggerty, George. "Gay histories and cultures"
  6. "Robert Mapplethorpe movie reveals little about the controversial photographer". March 7, 2019. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  7. White, Edmund (February 13, 2010). "Just Kids by Patti Smith – Book review". The Guardian. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  8. Cutler, Jacqueline. "Patti Smith details her wild, artsy, broke days with Robert Mapplethorpe in revised book". Daily News. New York. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  9. "Robert Mapplethorpe and Patti Smith: Artist and Muse". Tate Etc. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  10. Jones, Jonathan (January 26, 2016). "James Dean with a camera (and whip): Robert Mapplethorpe the film star". The Guardian. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  11. Dunne, Dominick. "Robert Mapplethorpe's Finale: The AIDS-Stricken Photographer's Last Interview". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  12. "Patti Smith on Robert Mapplethorpe: 'He Was Like Picasso, You Couldn't Get Attached to Anything'". March 25, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  13. "Robert Mapplethorpe: The Man Behind The Camera". trendchaser. January 9, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  14. Fritscher, Jack. Gay San Francisco: Eyewitness Drummer, San Francisco, Palm Drive Publishing, 2008, ISBN 1890834386, p. 473, Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  15. Fritscher, Jack (March 9, 2016). "'He was a sexual outlaw': my love affair with Robert Mapplethorpe". The Guardian. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  16. Morrisroe, Patricia. Robert Mapplethorpe: a biography. New York: Random House, 1995. pgs. 297, 126 ISBN 0-394-57650-0
  17. Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 29890-29891). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
  18. "The Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation – Foundation".
  19. Lee, Felicia R. (January 2, 1995). "Making Days Live in Face of Death; At AIDS Residence, a Nurse Helps Poor, Drug-Addicted Patients". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2019.
  20. Weaver, Shayne (June 29, 2017). "Homeless Shelter Planned for Former AIDS Rehab Facility on E. 17th Street". Retrieved November 30, 2019.
  21. Duray, Dan. "Mapplethorpe Estate to OHWOW in Los Angeles". The New York Observer. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  22. "The Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation – FAQ". The Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  23. "Robert Mapplethorpe Archive". Getty Research Institute. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  24. Arthur Coleman Danto and Mapplethorpe, Robert. Mapplethorpe. New York: Random House, 1992. Print. pg 326
  25. Thorgerson, Storm; Aubrey Powell (November 1999). 100 Best Album Covers: The Stories Behind the Sleeves (1st American ed.). Dorling Kindersley. p. 74. ISBN 0-7894-4951-X.
  26. "Photographic image" (JPG). Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  27. "Photographic image" (JPG). Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  28. Smith, Patti (2010). Just Kids (First Ecco Paperback ed.). HarperCollins. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-06-093622-8.
  29. "Robert Mapplethorpe's extraordinary vision". The Tech.
  30. "Imperfect Moments: Mapplethorpe and Censorship Twenty Years Later, Institute of Contemporary Art" (PDF). Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  31. "ICA". Icaphila.aorg.
  32. Tannenbaum, Judith. "Robert Mapplethorpe: The Philadelphia Story." Art Journal 50.4 (1991): 71–76. Web.
  33. "Mapplethorpe's Photos Now an F.C.C. Issue". The New York Times. August 17, 1990.
  34. "The Sensitive Society, James F. Fitzpatrick, FCLJ Vol 47 No 2". Archived from the original on June 13, 2008.
  35. "Corcoran Cut From Painter's Will".
  36. "Robert Mapplethorpe: The Perfect Moment".
  37. "Censorship: A World Enclyclopedia".
  38. The federal government and the states have long been permitted to limit obscenity or pornography. However, the exact definition of obscenity and pornography has changed over time. (See also I know it when I see it.)
  39. Glueck, Grace (April 16, 1990). "Publicity Is Enriching Mapplethorpe Estate". The New York Times.
  40. "UCE pages on the Mapplethorpe controversy". Archived from the original on February 9, 1999. Retrieved November 12, 2002.
  41. "Mapplethorpe – Richard Meyer Essay".
  42. "Mapplethorpe, Robert (1946–1989)". Archived from the original on March 21, 2006.
  43. Mercer, Kobena (1991). "Looking for Trouble". Transition (51): 184–197.
  44. Fritscher, Jack. Mapplethorpe: assault with a deadly camera : a pop culture memoir, an outlaw reminiscence. Mamaroneck, NY: Hastings House, 1994. Print.
  45. Audio Guide Stop For Glenn Ligon, Notes on the Margins of the Black Book, 1991–1993, Whitney Museum of American Art
  46. Duberman, Martin (2014). Hold Tight Gently: Michael Callen, Essex Hemphill and the Battlefield of AIDS. New York: The New Press. pp. 169–170. ISBN 978-1-59558-945-3.
  47. Russell, Paul (1991). Boys of Life. New York, NY: Dutton. p. iii. ISBN 978-0-525-93327-4.
  48. Washington Post Book World, May 28, 1995, In the Darkroom of the Soul.
  49. The Unretouched Life, The Nation, June 12, 1995.
  50. Smith, Patti (1996). The Coral Sea. New York, NY: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-03908-0.
  51. "The Flowers of Robert Mapplethorpe (CD-i) James & Mike Mondays". Retrieved September 10, 2014.
  52. "Extract from: HANSARD, S.A. LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL, Wednesday 14 March 2001". Retrieved October 5, 2013.
  53. "Pictures (book), Australian Classification". Retrieved October 5, 2013.
  54. Holden, Stephen (October 19, 2007). "Black White + Gray: A Portrait of Sam Wagstaff and Robert Mapplethorpe – Movie – Review". The New York Times.
  55. Gefter, Philip (April 24, 2007). "The Man Who Made Mapplethorpe". The New York Times.
  56. "Jay Weisberg, Review of Black White + Gray, Variety Magazine, May 7, 2007".
  57. "Black White + Gray: A Portrait of Sam Wagstaff and Robert Mapplethorpe – Tribeca Film Festival". Tribeca.
  58. "Art Doc of the Week | Black White + Gray". Mandatory. August 25, 2015.
  59. Wolf, Sylvia (2007). Robert Mapplethorpe: Polaroids. Munich: Prestel. ISBN 978-3-7913-3835-4.
  60. "Robert Mapplethorpe".
  61. Carson, Tom (January 29, 2010). "The Night Belongs to Us". The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
  62. "National Book Awards – 2010". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 20 February 2012. (With interview, acceptance speech, and reading.)
  63. "Raf Simons Salutes Robert Mapplethorpe, a Fellow Provocateur". Retrieved October 10, 2018.
  64. "Raf Simons Spring 2017 Menswear Fashion Show". Vogue. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
  65. "Mapplethorpe: Look at the Pictures". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  66. Bradshaw, Peter (April 21, 2016). "Mapplethorpe: Look at the Pictures review – justice is done to a brilliant photographer". The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  67. Leigh, Danny (April 21, 2016). "Mapplethorpe: Look at the Pictures – film review: 'Appreciative and frank'". Financial Times. London. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  68. Macnab, Geoffrey (April 22, 2016). "Mapplethorpe: Look At The Pictures, film review: a documentary that tackles sexuality". The Independent. London. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  69. Debruge, Peter (March 25, 2016). "Film Review: 'Mapplethorpe: Look at the Pictures'". Variety. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  70. Poniewozik, James (April 3, 2016). "Review: 'Mapplethorpe: Look at the Pictures' on HBO Gives Context to Controversy". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  71. Pulver, Andrew (January 26, 2016). "Matt Smith to play photographer Robert Mapplethorpe in biopic". The Guardian.
  72. Mapplethorpe, retrieved October 10, 2018
  73. "Implicit Tensions: Mapplethorpe Now". Guggenheim. June 15, 2018. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  74. "Auction record for Mapplethorpe as Christie's introduces two new sales". Retrieved October 10, 2018.
  75. "Robert Mapplethorpe – Biography – Gladstone Gallery". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  76. "Robert Mapplethorpe biography". Alison Jacques Gallery. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  77. "Robert Maplpethorpe". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  78. "ART TOWER MITO | CONTEMPORARY ART GALLERY | Exhibitions | Robert Mapplethorpe". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  79. "Robert MAPPLETHORPE". (in French). Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  80. "ROBERT MAPPLETHORPE: Pictures, Pictures – Marc Selwyn Fine Art". Marc Selwyn Fine Art. January 31, 2004. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  81. "Robert Mapplethorpe and the Classical Tradition: Photographs and Mannerist Prints". Guggenheim. December 5, 2007. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  82. "Robert Mapplethorpe – Artists – Skarstedt Gallery". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  83. "Robert Mapplethorpe". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  84. "Robert Mapplethorpe Curated by Robert Wilson". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  85. "Polaroids: Mapplethorpe". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  86. "Polaroids: Mapplethorpe : Block Museum of Art". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  87. "The Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation – Henry Art Gallery – October 25, 2009 – January 31, 2010". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  88. "Sterling Ruby, Sterling Ruby / Robert Mapplethorpe (2009) | Exhibition | Xavier Hufkens". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  89. ""Robert Mapplethorpe: Perfection in Form" at Florence s Galleria dell Accademia – artnet Magazine". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  90. "ARTIST ROOMS: Robert Mapplethorpe – Graves Gallery". National Galleries of Scotland. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  91. "The Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation – NRW-Forum Kultur und Wirtschaft Düsseldorf – February 6 – August 15, 2010". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  92. "Lomography – Mapplethorpe Curated by Almodóvar". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  93. "Curated by Sofia Coppola". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  95. Fund, Art. "ARTIST ROOMS: Robert Mapplethorpe Scottish tour". Art Fund. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  96. "Robert Mapplethorpe: XYZ | LACMA". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  97. "In Focus: Robert Mapplethorpe (Getty Center Exhibitions)". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  98. "Robert Mapplethorpe". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  99. "Kiasma – Robert Mapplethorpe". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  100. Newsroom, IU Bloomington. ""Robert Mapplethorpe: Photographs from The Kinsey Institute Collection" will be shown in October at IU's Grunwald Gallery". IU Bloomington Newsroom. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  101. "Warhol and Mapplethorpe: Exploring Gender as Disguise and Identity". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  102. "Mapplethorpe + Munch". Munchmuseet. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  103. "Robert Mapplethorpe: The Perfect Medium | LACMA". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  104. "The Getty Museum". Getty Museum. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  105. "Focus : Perfection". The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  106. "Robert Mapplethorpe – Kunsthal". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  107. "Robert Mapplethorpe". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  108. "Robert Mapplethorpe – On the Edge". (in Danish). Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  109. "Teller on Mapplethorpe". alisonjacquesgallery. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  110. "Robert Mapplethorpe". xavierhufkens. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  111. "Robert Mapplethorpe, a perfectionist". kunsthal. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  112. Architect, Peter Marino. "Peter Marino Architect". Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  113. "opening of the exhibitions: Dangerous Art". Haifa Museum of Art. November 11, 2017. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  114. "ROBERT MAPPLETHORPE: PICTURES". Serralves. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  115. "Implicit Tensions: Mapplethorpe Now". Guggenheim. June 15, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2019.

Further reading

  • Marshall, Richard, Richard Howard, and Ingrid Sischy. Robert Mapplethorpe. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art in association with New York Graphic Society Books, 1988. ISBN 0-87427-060-X
  • Veith, Gene Edward. State of the arts: from Bezalel to Mapplethorpe. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1991. ISBN 0-89107-608-5
  • Ellenzweig, Allen. The homoerotic photograph: male images from Durieu/Delacroix to Mapplethorpe. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-231-07536-7
  • Fritscher, Jack. Mapplethorpe: Assault with a Deadly Camera: A Pop Culture Memoir, An Outlaw Reminiscence. Mamaroneck, NY: Hastings House, 1994. ISBN 0-8038-9362-0
  • Fritscher, Jack. "What Happened When: Censorship, Gay History & Mapplethorpe", in Censorship: A World Encyclopedia, ed. Derek Jones, Fitzroy Dearborn, 2001, ISBN 1579581358. Retrieved 2014-09-02
  • Jarzombek, Mark. "The Mapplethorpe trial and the paradox of its formalist and liberal defense: sights of contention." AppendX 2:58–81, Spring 1994.
  • Morrisroe, Patricia. Robert Mapplethorpe: a biography. New York: Random House, 1995. ISBN 0-394-57650-0
  • Danto, Arthur C. Playing with the edge: the photographic achievement of Robert Mapplethorpe. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. ISBN 0-520-20051-9
  • Banham, Gary. "Mapplethorpe, Duchamp and the ends of photography". Angelaki 7(1):119–128, 2002.
  • Smith, Patti. Just Kids. New York: Ecco, 2010. ISBN 978-0-06-621131-2
  • Curley, Mallory. A Cookie Mueller Encyclopedia. Randy Press, 2010.
  • Gefter, Philip. Wagstaff: Before and After Mapplethorpe. NY: Liveright, 2014.ISBN 978-0871404374
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.