Rigid Constitution

Rigid Constitution is a constitution which stands above the other laws of the country, while flexible constitutions do not.[1]

A. V. Dicey defines a rigid constitution as one under which certain laws, called constitutional laws or fundamental laws "cannot be changed in the same manner as ordinary laws."[2] A rigid constitution set forth "specific legal/constitutional obstacles to be overcome" before it may be amended, such as special approval of the people by referendum, a supermajority or special majority in the legislature, or both.[3] In contrast, a flexible constitution is one in which the legislature may amend the constitution's content and principles through use of the ordinary legislative process.[3] For example, the Constitution of Australia is rigid, while the British Constitution and the Israeli Constitution are flexible.[3]

See also


  1. James Bryce, "Flexible and Rigid Constitution", Studies in History and Jurisprudence. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1901, pp. 124-213.
  2. A.V. Dicey, The Law of the Constitution (1885) (Oxford University Press edition, ed. J.W.F. Allison, 2013, p. 69.
  3. Mark Ryan & Steve Foster, Unlocking Constitutional and Administrative Law (3d ed.: Routledge, 2014), p. 16.
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