Richard Stuart Linklater (//; born July 30, 1960) is an American filmmaker. Linklater is known for his realistic and natural humanist films, which revolve mainly around suburban culture and the effects of the passage of time. His films include the observational comedy film Slacker (1990); the coming-of-age comedy film Dazed and Confused (1993); the romantic drama Before trilogy, Before Sunrise (1995), Before Sunset (2004), and Before Midnight (2013); the music-themed comedy School of Rock (2003); the animated films Waking Life (2001) and A Scanner Darkly (2006); the epic coming-of age drama Boyhood (2014); and the comedy film Everybody Wants Some!! (2016).
Linklater in 2015
Richard Stuart Linklater
July 30, 1960
Houston, Texas, U.S.
|Residence||Austin, Texas, U.S.|
|Occupation||Director, screenwriter, producer|
|Boyhood, Dazed and Confused, Before trilogy, School of Rock, Slacker|
In 2015, Linklater was included on the annual Time 100 list of the 100 most influential people in the world.
Linklater is known to have a distinct style and method of filmmaking. Many of his films are noted for their loosely structured narrative; several of his projects—the Before... films and Boyhood—feature the same actors filmed over an extended period of years.
Linklater was born in Houston, Texas, the son of Diane Margaret (née Krieger), who taught at Sam Houston State University, and Charles W. Linklater, III. He attended Huntsville High School in Huntsville, Texas, during grades 9–11, where he played football for Joe Clements as a backup quarterback for the #1 ranked team in the state. For his senior year, he moved to Bellaire High School in Bellaire, Texas because he was a better at baseball than football and Bellaire had a better baseball coach. As a teen, Linklater won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award.
Linklater studied at Sam Houston State University (where he also played baseball), until dropping out to work on an off-shore oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico. He frequently read novels on the rig and, upon returning to land, developed a love of film through repeated visits to a repertory theater in Houston. At this point, Linklater realized he wanted to be a filmmaker. He used his savings to buy a Super-8 camera, a projector, and editing equipment, and moved to Austin, Texas.
He enrolled in Austin Community College in the fall of 1984 to study film.
1985–2000: Early directing
Linklater founded the Austin Film Society in 1985 together with his frequent collaborator Lee Daniel. One of the mentors for the Film Society was former New York City critic for the SoHo Weekly News George Morris, who had relocated to Austin and taught film there.
For several years, Linklater made many short films that were exercises and experiments in film techniques. He finally completed his first feature, It's Impossible to Learn to Plow by Reading Books (which is available in The Criterion Collection edition of his second feature, Slacker), a Super-8 feature that took a year to shoot and another year to edit. The film is significant in the sense that it establishes most of Linklater's preoccupations. The film has his trademark style of minimal camera movements and lack of narrative, while it examines the theme of traveling with no real particular direction in mind. These idiosyncrasies would be explored in greater detail in future projects.
Linklater created Detour Filmproduction (an homage to the 1945 low budget film noir by Edgar G. Ulmer), and subsequently made Slacker for only $23,000. It went on to gross more than $1.25 million. The film shows an aimless day in the life of the city of Austin, Texas showcasing its more eccentric characters.
While gaining a cult following in the independent film world, he made his third film, Dazed and Confused, based on his years at Huntsville High School and the people he encountered there. The film garnered critical praise and grossed $8 million in the United States while becoming a hit on VHS. This film was also responsible for the breakout of fellow Texas native Matthew McConaughey.
In 1995, Linklater won the Silver Bear for Best Director for the film Before Sunrise at the 45th Berlin International Film Festival. His next feature, subUrbia, had mixed reviews critically, and did very poorly at the box office. In 1998, he took on his first Hollywood feature, The Newton Boys, which received mixed reviews while tanking at the box office.
2001–2013: Wider recognition
The British television network Channel 4 produced a documentary about Linklater, in which the filmmaker discussed the personal and philosophical ideas behind his films. St Richard of Austin was presented by Ben Lewis and directed by Irshad Ashraf and broadcast on Channel 4 in December 2004 in the UK.
Waking Life and A Scanner Darkly both used rotoscoping animation techniques. Working with Bob Sabiston and Sabiston's program Rotoshop to create this effect, Linklater shot and edited both movies completely as live-action features, then employed a team of artists to "trace over" individual frames. The result is a distinctive "semi-real" quality, praised by such critics as Roger Ebert (in the case of Waking Life) as being original and well-suited to the aims of the film.
Fast Food Nation (2006) is an adaptation of the best selling book that examines the local and global influence of the United States fast food industry. The film was entered into the 2006 Cannes Film Festival before being released in North America on November 17, 2006 and in Europe on March 23, 2007. The film received mixed reviews.
In 2014 he released the film Boyhood, which had been 12 years in the making. Boyhood received overwhelming critical acclaim. Linklater won the Golden Globes, Critics' Choice Movie Awards, and BAFTAs for Best Director and Best Picture. He also received his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director, along with nominations for Best Original Screenplay and Best Picture.
For a while Linklater was attached to direct a remake of The Incredible Mr. Limpet for Warner Brothers. However, he dropped the project in favor of working on a spiritual successor to Dazed and Confused, titled Everybody Wants Some!!, with backing from Annapurna Pictures and Paramount distributing the film in North America. The film was released in March 2016 and was well received by critics, but it failed to recoup its budget of 10 million dollars, grossing only 4.6 million.
In the second half of the 2010s, Linklater wrote and directed the drama film Last Flag Flying, starring Bryan Cranston, Laurence Fishburne, and Steve Carell. A sequel to Hal Ashby's 1973 film The Last Detail, it began filming in November 2016, and was released on November 3, 2017. Linklater then directed Where'd You Go, Bernadette, based on the novel by Maria Semple and produced by Annapurna Pictures.
Linklater was attached to direct an adaptation of Graeme Simsion's novel The Rosie Project that would have starred Jennifer Lawrence in the lead role, but he dropped out of directing when Lawrence dropped out of the project.
In 2019, it was announced that Linklater would be filming an adaptation of Stephen Sondheim's musical Merrily We Roll Along. Like Boyhood, it will be filmed over the course of several years, but, like the musical and the play it is based on, will be presented in reverse chronology.
Inspiration for Linklater's work was largely based on his experience viewing the film Raging Bull.
It made me see movies as a potential outlet for what I was thinking about and hoping to express. At that point I was an unformed artist. At that moment, something was simmering in me, but Raging Bull brought it to a boil.
Many of Linklater's films, including Slacker, Dazed and Confused, and Before Sunrise, take place in a single day. They are less plot driven and more about human interactions between people and they vary in time and situation.
Ethan Hawke and Matthew McConaughey have appeared in many of his films. Other actors who have appeared in more than one film include Jack Black, Julie Delpy, Ellar Coltrane, Adam Goldberg, Parker Posey, Rory Cochrane, Greg Kinnear, Patricia Arquette, and Laurence Fishburne.
Despite the popularity of many of his films and having directed multiple high-paying Hollywood productions, Linklater remains in Austin, Texas and refuses to live or work in Hollywood for any extended period of time.
Though not married, Linklater has been partnered with Christina Harrison since the 1990s. In 1994 they had a daughter, and twin girls in 2004. The oldest Lorelei Linklater, co-starred in Boyhood as the sister of the main character.
|1988||It's Impossible to Learn to Plow by Reading Books||Yes||Yes||Yes||Also editor and cinematographer|
|1993||Dazed and Confused||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1998||The Newton Boys||Yes||Yes|
|2001||Waking Life||Yes||Yes||Also cinematographer|
|2003||School of Rock||Yes|
|2005||Bad News Bears||Yes||Yes|
|2006||Fast Food Nation||Yes||Yes|
|A Scanner Darkly||Yes||Yes|
|2008||Me and Orson Welles||Yes||Yes|
|2015||I Dream Too Much||executive|
|2016||Everybody Wants Some!!||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|2017||Last Flag Flying||Yes||Yes|
|2019||Where'd You Go, Bernadette||Yes||Yes|
|1988||It's Impossible to Learn to Plow by Reading Books||Unnamed character|
|1990||Slacker||"Should Have Stayed at the Bus Station"|
|1995||The Underneath||Ember Doorman|
|1995||Before Sunrise||Foosball player|
|1996||Beavis and Butt-Head Do America||Tour Bus Driver||Voice role|
|1998||Scotch and Milk||Cab Passenger|
|2001||Spy Kids||Cool Spy|
|Chelsea Walls||Crony #2|
|Waking Life||Pinball Playing Man / Man on Back of Boat|
|2006||The Hottest State||John Wayne Enthusiast|
|2008||RSO (Registered Sex Offender)||Principal Mallard|
|1991||Heads I Win/Tails You Lose||Yes||Yes||Yes||experimental video project|
|2003||Live from Shiva's Dance Floor||Yes||short|
|2008||Inning by Inning: A Portrait of a Coach||Yes||documentary|
|2012||Up to Speed||Yes||Yes||Yes||web series|
|2016–2018||School of Rock||Yes||television series; executive producer|
|Dazed and Confused||94%||78|
|The Newton Boys||62%||57|
|School of Rock||92%||82|
|Bad News Bears||48%||65|
|Fast Food Nation||50%||64|
|A Scanner Darkly||69%||73|
|Me and Orson Welles||85%||73|
|Everybody Wants Some!!||88%||83|
|Last Flag Flying||73%||65|
|Where'd You Go, Bernadette||48%||51|
Awards and nominations
- Slacker (1991) was nominated for Best Director at the Independent Spirit Awards.
- Before Sunrise (1995) won the Silver Bear for Best Director at the Berlin International Film Festival.
- Waking Life (2001) was nominated for Best Director and Best Screenplay at the Independent Spirit Awards.
- Before Sunset (2004) was nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and Best Screenplay at the Independent Spirit Awards.
- A Scanner Darkly (2006) – Named Best Austin Film by the Austin Film Critics Association.
- Me and Orson Welles (2008) – Named Best Austin Film by the Austin Film Critics Association.
- Bernie (2011) – Named Best Austin Film by the Austin Film Critics Association.
- Before Midnight (2013) was nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and Best Screenplay at the Independent Spirit Awards.
- Boyhood (2014) was nominated for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Original Screenplay, Best Film Editing, Best Supporting Actor, and Best Supporting Actress by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and won Best Supporting Actress for Patricia Arquette. It also won Golden Globes for Best Director and Best Motion Picture – Drama, as well as the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 64th Berlin International Film Festival. Received Best Film and Best Director honors from Los Angeles Film Critics Association, Boston Society of Film Critics, New York Film Critics Circle, Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association and New York Film Critics Online.
- Linklater was made Honorary Associate of London Film School.
- Black, Louis; Fri.; Oct. 3; 2003. "'The Austin Chronicle' and Richard Linklater". www.austinchronicle.com.
- According to the State of Texas. Texas Birth Index, 1903–1997. At Ancestry.com
- "Richard Linklater". Time. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- Barlow, Helen (4 July 2014). "Why 'Boyhood' is a movie for the ages" – via www.nzherald.co.nz.
- Scholastic Inc., Newsroom, AMERICA’S MOST CREATIVE TEENS NAMED AS NATIONAL 2016 SCHOLASTIC ART & WRITING AWARDS RECIPIENTS
- Vine, Kate (December 2005). "Richard Linklater". Texas Monthly. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- Sam Houston State University Facebook. "Throwing back to the 1980 #SHSU Baseball team in which writer, director and producer Richard Linklater was a member of. #TBT". 6 April 2016.
- Alison Macor. Chainsaws, Slackers, and Spy Kids 30 Years of Filmmaking in Austin, Texas University of Texas Press: Austin, 2010.
- "Berlinale: 1995 Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
- "Festival de Cannes: Fast Food Nation". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- "Rotten Tomatoes: Richard Linklater". Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- McNary, Dave (January 29, 2014). "Julie Delpy on Before Midnight: Obsessively Written, Down to the Commas". Variety.
- Kilday, Gregg (November 20, 2014). "Making of 'Boyhood': What You Don't Know About Richard Linklater's 12-Year Shoot". Hollywood Reporter.
- Fischer, Russ. "Richard Linklater Leaves 'The Incredible Mr. Limpet' to Focus on 'That's What I'm Talking About'". /Film. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
- Patches, Matt (September 30, 2014). "Annapurna to produce Richard Linklater's 'Dazed' spiritual sequel". Retrieved February 15, 2017.
- "Everybody Wants Some!! Metascore". Metacritic.com. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- "Everybody Wants Some!! (2016) – Weekend Box Office Results". www.boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
- Busch, Anita (28 July 2017). "'Last Flag Flying' Moves To Lionsgate And Up A Week On Release Schedule". Deadline. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- Siegel, Tatiana; Kit, Borys (February 26, 2015). "Richard Linklater in Talks to Direct 'Where'd You Go, Bernadette' (Exclusive)". HollywoodReporter.com. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Kit, Borys. "Richard Linklater Follows Jennifer Lawrence Off Sony's 'Rosie Project' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- Sneider, Jeff. "Exclusive: Richard Linklater, Ben Platt, Beanie Feldstein Team for Sondheim Musical". Collider. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
- "Richard Linklater: The director on the humour in Raging Bull, rearing". The Independent. 2015-01-11. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
- Elder, Robert K. (2011). The Film That Changed My Life: 30 Directors on Their Epiphanies in the Dark. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 9781569768280.
- Linklater, Richard. Interview by Robert K. Elder. The Film That Changed My Life. By Robert K. Elder. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2011. N. p197. Print.
- "10 Films That Had The Biggest Influences On The Films Of Richard Linklater". Taste of Cinema – Movie Reviews and Classic Movie Lists. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
- "Richard Linklater's Top 10". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
- Sharf, Zack (July 11, 2014). "6 Times Richard Linklater Expertly Played With Narrative". IndieWire.
- Robert Philpot, "Richard Linklater Does ‘Veghood’ for PETA," Star-Telegram, 17 February 2015.
- "Boyhood's Richard Linklater: I've failed if people just see this as an experiment". RadioTimes. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- "Nickelodeon Upfront 2016". Nick and More. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
- "Slacker Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "Slacker Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Dazed and Confused Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "Dazed and Confused Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Fight Club Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "Before Sunrise Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Panic Room Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "SubUrbia Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "The Newton Boys Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "The Newton Boys Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Waking Life Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "Waking Life Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Tape Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Tape. Metacritic.
- "School of Rock Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- School of Rock. Metacritic.
- "Before Sunset Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "Before Sunset Reviews – Metacritic". Metacritic.com.
- "Bad News Bears Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Bad News Bears. Metacritic.
- "Fast Food Nation Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Fast Food Nation. Metacritic.
- "A Scanner Darkly Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- A Scanner Darkly. Metacritic.
- "Me and Orson Welles Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Me and Orson Welles. Metacritic.
- "Bernie Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Bernie. Metacritic.
- "Before Midnight Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Before Midnight. Metacritic.
- "Boyhood Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Boyhood. Metacritic.
- "Everybody wants some!!Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- . Metacritic.
- "Last Flag Flying Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- . Metacritic.
- "Where'd You Go, Bernadette Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes.
- . Metacritic.
- "Slacker (1991)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Dazed and Confused (1993)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Before Sunrise (1995)". Box Office Mojo.
- "SubUrbia (1997)". Box Office Mojo.
- "The Newton Boys (1998)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Waking Life (2001)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Tape (2002)". Box Office Mojo.
- "School of Rock (2003)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Before Sunset (2004)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Bad News Bears (2005)". Box Office Mojo.
- La Franco, Robert (March 2006). "Trouble in Toontown". Wired magazine. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
- "A Scanner Darkly (2006)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Fast Food Nation (2006)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Me and Orson Welles (2009)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Bernie (2012)". Box Office Mojo.
- Borrelli, Christopher (May 24, 2013). "Richard Linklater finishes trilogy with 'Before Midnight'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- "Before Midnight (2013)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Boyhood (2014)". Box Office Mojo.
- "Richard Linklater". allmovie.com. Retrieved June 28, 2013.