Return flow

Return flow is surface and subsurface water that leaves the field following application of irrigation water. While irrigation return flows are point sources, in the United States they are expressly exempted from discharge permit requirements under the Clean Water Act.[1]

Return flows generally return to the irrigation centre after a period of about three to four weeks; due to this, the farmers usually need to pour bleach into the water to clean it of any organisms that have entered the stream. If this is not taken care of, diseases such as typhoid or cholera could enter the irrigation and pose a risk of epidemic disease to surrounding towns and cities.


  1. United States. Clean Water Act, section 502(14), 33 U.S.C. § 1362.
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