Reduplication is used in inflections to convey a grammatical function, such as plurality, intensification, etc., and in lexical derivation to create new words. It is often used when a speaker adopts a tone more "expressive" or figurative than ordinary speech and is also often, but not exclusively, iconic in meaning. Reduplication is found in a wide range of languages and language groups, though its level of linguistic productivity varies.
Reduplication is the standard term for this phenomenon in the linguistics literature. Other terms that are occasionally used include cloning, doubling, duplication, repetition, and tautonym when it is used in biological taxonomies, such as "Bison bison".
The origin of this usage of tautonym is uncertain, but it has been suggested that it is of relatively recent derivation.
Reduplication is often described phonologically in one of two different ways: either (1) as reduplicated segments (sequences of consonants/vowels) or (2) as reduplicated prosodic units (syllables or moras). In addition to phonological description, reduplication often needs to be described morphologically as a reduplication of linguistic constituents (i.e. words, stems, roots). As a result, reduplication is interesting theoretically as it involves the interface between phonology and morphology.
The base is the word (or part of the word) that is to be copied. The reduplicated element is called the reduplicant, often abbreviated as RED or sometimes just R.
In reduplication, the reduplicant is most often repeated only once. However, in some languages, reduplication can occur more than once, resulting in a tripled form, and not a duple as in most reduplication. Triplication is the term for this phenomenon of copying two times. Pingelapese has both reduplication and triplication:
|kɔul 'to sing'||kɔukɔul 'singing'||kɔukɔukɔul 'still singing'|
|mejr 'to sleep'||mejmejr 'sleeping'||mejmejmejr 'still sleeping'|
Sometimes gemination (i.e. the doubling of consonants or vowels) is considered to be a form of reduplication. The term dupleme has been used (after morpheme) to refer to different types of reduplication that have the same meaning.
Full and partial reduplication
|[ɡin]||'ourselves'||→||[ɡinɡin]||'we (to) us'||(ɡin-ɡin)|
|[jaː]||'themselves'||→||[jaːjaː]||'they (to) them'||(jaː-jaː)||(Watters 2002)|
|[kʼʷə́ɬ]||'to capsize'||→||[kʼʷə́ɬkʼʷəɬ]||'likely to capsize'||(kʼʷə́ɬ-kʼʷəɬ)|
|[qʷél]||'to speak'||→||[qʷélqʷel]||'talkative'||(qʷél-qʷel)||(Shaw 2004)|
Partial reduplication involves a reduplication of only part of the word. For example, Marshallese forms words meaning 'to wear X' by reduplicating the last consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) sequence of a base, i.e. base+CVC:
|kagir||'belt'||→||kagirgir||'to wear a belt'||(kagir-gir)|
|takin||'sock'||→||takinkin||'to wear socks'||(takin-kin)||(Moravsik 1978)|
Many languages often use both full and partial reduplication, as in the Motu example below:
|Base verb||Full reduplication||Partial reduplication|
|mahuta 'to sleep'||mahutamahuta 'to sleep constantly'||mamahuta 'to sleep (plural)'|
Initial reduplication in Agta (CV- prefix):
|[ŋaŋaj]||'a long time'||→||[ŋaŋaŋaj]||'a long time (in years)'||(ŋa-ŋaŋaj)||(Healey 1960)|
Final reduplication in Dakota (-CCV suffix):
|[hãska]||'tall (singular)'||→||[hãskaska]||'tall (plural)'||(hãska-ska)|
|[waʃte]||'good (singular)'||→||[waʃteʃte]||'good (plural)'||(waʃte-ʃte)||(Shaw 1980, Marantz 1982, Albright 2002)|
Internal reduplication in Samoan (-CV- infix):
Internal reduplication is much less common than the initial and final types.
A reduplicant can copy from either the left edge of a word (left-to-right copying) or from the right edge (right-to-left copying). There is a tendency for prefixing reduplicants to copy left-to-right and for suffixing reduplicants to copy right-to-left:
Final R → L copying in Sirionó:
|ñimbuchao||→||ñimbuchaochao||'to come apart'||(ñimbuchao-chao)||(McCarthy and Prince 1996)|
Copying from the other direction is possible although less common:
Initial R → L copying in Tillamook:
|[təq]||'break'||→||[qtəq]||'they break'||(q-təq)||(Reichard 1959)|
Final L → R copying in Chukchi:
|nute-||'ground'||→||nutenut||'ground (abs. sg.)'||(nute-nut)|
|jilʔe-||'gopher'||→||jilʔejil||'gopher (abs. sg.)'||(jilʔe-jil)||(Marantz 1982)|
Internal reduplication can also involve copying the beginning or end of the base. In Quileute, the first consonant of the base is copied and inserted after the first vowel of the base.
Internal L → R copying in Quileute:
|[tsiko]||'he put it on'||→||[tsitsko]||'he put it on (frequentative)'||(tsi-ts-ko)|
|[tukoːjoʔ]||'snow'||→||[tutkoːjoʔ]||'snow here and there'||(tu-t-ko:jo’)||(Broselow and McCarthy 1984)|
In Temiar, the last consonant of the root is copied and inserted before the medial consonant of the root.
|[sluh]||'to shoot (perfective)'||→||[shluh]||'to shoot (continuative)'||(s-h-luh)|
|[slɔɡ]||'to marry (perfective)'||→||[sɡlɔɡ]||'to marry (continuative)'||(s-ɡ-lɔɡ)||(Broselow and McCarthy 1984, Walther 2000)|
A rare type of reduplication is found in Semai (an Austroasiatic language of Malaysia). "Expressive minor reduplication" is formed with an initial reduplicant that copies the first and last segment of the base:
|[dŋɔh]||→||[dhdŋɔh]||'appearance of nodding constantly'||(dh-dŋɔh)|
|[cruhaːw]||→||[cwcruhaːw]||'monsoon rain'||(cw-cruhaːw)||(Diffloth 1973|
Reduplication and other morphological processes
All of the examples above consist of only reduplication. However, reduplication often occurs with other phonological and morphological process, such as deletion, affixation of non-reduplicating material, etc.
For instance, in Tz'utujil a new '-ish' adjective form is derived from other words by suffixing the reduplicated first consonant of the base followed by the segment [oχ]. This can be written succinctly as -Coχ. Below are some examples:
- [kaq] 'red' → [kaqkoχ] 'reddish' (kaq-k-oχ)
- [qʼan] 'yellow' → [qʼanqʼoχ] 'yellowish' (qʼan-qʼ-oχ)
- [jaʔ] 'water' → [jaʔjoχ] 'watery' (jaʔ-j-oχ) (Dayley 1985)
Somali has a similar suffix that is used in forming the plural of some nouns: -aC (where C is the last consonant of the base):
- [toɡ] 'ditch' → [toɡaɡ] 'ditches' (toɡ-a-ɡ)
- [ʕad] 'lump of meat' → [ʕadad] 'lumps of meat' (ʕad-a-d)
- [wɪːl] 'boy' → [wɪːlal] 'boys' (wɪːl-a-l) (Abraham 1964)
This combination of reduplication and affixation is commonly referred to as fixed-segment reduplication.
- [nowiu] 'ox' → [nonnowiu] 'ox (distributive)' (no-n-nowiu)
- [hódai] 'rock' → [hohhodai] 'rock (distributive)' (ho-h-hodai)
- [kow] 'dig out of ground (unitative)' → [kokkow] 'dig out of ground (repetitive)' (ko-k-kow)
- [ɡɨw] 'hit (unitative)' → [ɡɨɡɡɨw] 'hit (repetitive)' (ɡɨ-ɡ-ɡɨw) (Haugen forthcoming)
Sometimes gemination can be analyzed as a type of reduplication.
Phonological processes, environment, and reduplicant-base relations
- backcopying – A putative phenomenon of over-application in the reduplicant of a process triggered by the reduplicant in the base
- base-reduplicant "identity" (OT terminology: BR-faithfulness)
- tonal transfer/non-transfer
Function and meaning
In the Malayo-Polynesian family, reduplication is used to form plurals (among many other functions):
- Malay rumah "house", rumah-rumah "houses".
In pre-1972 Indonesian and Malay orthography, 2 was shorthand for the reduplication that forms plurals: orang "person", orang-orang or orang2 "people". This orthography has resurfaced widely in text messaging and other forms of electronic communication.
Chinese also uses reduplication: 人 rén for "person", 人人 rénrén for "everybody". Japanese does it too: 時 toki "time", tokidoki 時々 "sometimes, from time to time". Both languages can use a special written iteration mark 々 to indicate reduplication, although in Chinese the iteration mark is no longer used in standard writing and is often found only in calligraphy.
- spondeo, spopondi (Latin, "I vow, I vowed")
- λείπω, λέλοιπα (Greek, "I leave, I left")
- δέρκομαι, δέδορκα (Greek, "I see, I saw"; these Greek examples exhibit ablaut as well as reduplication)
- háitan, haíháit (Gothic, "to name, I named")
Those forms do not survive in Modern English but existed in its parent Germanic languages. Many verbs in the Indo-European languages exhibit reduplication in the present stem, rather than the perfect stem, often with a different vowel from that used for the perfect: Latin gigno, genui ("I beget, I begat") and Greek τίθημι, ἔθηκα, τέθηκα (I place, I placed, I have placed). Other Indo-European verbs used reduplication as a derivational process: compare Latin sto ("I stand") and sisto ("I remain"). All of those Indo-European inherited reduplicating forms are subject to reduction by other phonological laws.
Reduplication can be used to refer to the most prototypical instance of a word's meaning. In such a case, it is called contrastive focus reduplication. Finnish colloquial speech uses the process; nouns can be reduplicated to indicate genuinity, completeness, originality and being uncomplicated, as opposed to being fake, incomplete, complicated or fussy. It can be thought as compound word formation. For example, Söin jäätelöä ja karkkia, sekä tietysti ruokaruokaa. "I ate ice cream and candy, and of course food-food". Here, "food-food" is contrasted to "junk-food". One may say, "En ollut eilen koulussa, koska olin kipeä. Siis kipeäkipeä" ("I wasn't at school yesterday because I was sick. Sick-sick, that is"); that means that one was actually suffering from an illness instead of making up excuses, as usual.
- ruoka "food", ruokaruoka "proper food", as opposed to snacks
- peli "game", pelipeli "complete game", as opposed to a mod
- puhelin "phone", puhelinpuhelin "phone for talking", as opposed to a pocket computer
- kauas "far away", kauaskauas "unquestionably far away"
- koti "home", kotikoti "home of your parents", as opposed to one's current place of residence
Words can be reduplicated with their case morphemes, as in lomalla lomalla, where the adessive morpheme (--lla) appears twice. While reduplication is intelligible to most Finns, its usage is confined mostly to subgroups of young women and children (and possibly fathers of young children when they talk to their children). However, most young women and children do not use reduplication. Reduplication has a somewhat childish connotation and may be perceived as annoying.
In Swiss German, the verbs gah or goh "go", cho "come", la or lo "let" and aafa or aafo "begin" reduplicate when they are combined with other verbs.
In some Salishan languages, reduplication can mark both diminution and plurality, with one process being applied to each end of the word, as in the following example from Shuswap. Note that the transcription is not comparable to the IPA, but the reduplication of both initial and final portions of the root is clear: ṣōk!Emē'’n 'knife' reduplicated as ṣuk!ṣuk!Emen'’me’n 'plural small knives' (Haeberlin 1918:159). Reduplication has been found to be a major part of Salish languages.
Reduplicative babbling in child language acquisition
During the period 25–50 weeks after birth, all typically developing infants go through a stage of reduplicated or canonical babbling (Stark 198, Oller, 1980). Canonical babbling is characterized by repetition of identical or nearly identical consonant-vowel combinations, such as nanana or idididi. It appears as a progression of language development as infants experiment with their vocal apparatus and hone in on the sounds used in their native language. Canonical/reduplicated babbling also appears at a time when general rhythmic behavior, such as rhythmic hand movements and rhythmic kicking, appear. Canonical babbling is distinguished from earlier syllabic and vocal play, which has less structure.
The Proto-Indo-European language used partial reduplication of a consonant and e in many stative aspect verb forms. The perfect or preterite (past) tense of some Ancient Greek, Gothic, Latin, and Old Norse verbs preserve this reduplication:
- Ancient Greek λύω lúō 'I free' vs. λέλυκα léluka "I have freed"
- Gothic hald "I hold" vs. haíhald (hĕhald) "I/he held"
- Latin currō "I run" vs. cucurrī "I ran" or "have run"
- Old Norse rœ "I row" vs. rera (røra) "I rowed"
- A rare modern English reflex is do vs. did
Proto-Indo-European also used reduplication for the imperfective aspect. Ancient Greek preserves this reduplication in the present tense of some verbs. Usually, but not always, this is reduplication of a consonant and i, and contrasts with e-reduplication in the perfect:
- δίδωμι dídōmi "I give" (present)
- δέδωκα dédōka "I have given" (perfect)
- *σίσδω sísdō → ἵζω hízō "I set" (present)
- *σέσδομαι sésdomai → ἕζομαι hézomai "I sit down" (present; from sd-, zero-grade of root in *sed-os → ἕδος hédos "seat, abode")
Reduplication in nouns was rare, the best example being Proto-Indo-European *kʷé-kʷl-os 'wheel' (cf. Lithuanian kãklas 'neck', Sanskrit cakrá 'wheel', Greek κύκλος (kýklos) 'circle'), which doubled *kʷel-o- (cf. Old Prussian kelan 'wheel', Welsh pêl 'ball'), itself likely a deverbative of *kʷelh₁- 'to turn'.
English has several types of reduplication, ranging from informal expressive vocabulary (the first four forms below) to grammatically meaningful forms (the last two below).
- Rhyming reduplication: hokey-pokey, razzle-dazzle, super-duper, boogie-woogie, teenie-weenie, walkie-talkie, hoity-toity, wingding, ragtag, easy-peasy, hurdy-gurdy.
- Exact reduplications (baby-talk-like): bye-bye, choo-choo, night-night, no-no, pee-pee, poo-poo. In South African English, 'now-now' means 'somewhat later' (whereas an ordinary 'now' generally means 'immediately', but can also be used to mean 'somewhat later', depending on the tone of speech).
- Ablaut reduplications: chit-chat, hip-hop, ding-dong, jibber-jabber, kitty-cat, knick-knack, pitter-patter, splish-splash, zig-zag, flip-flop, flimflam, wibble-wobble. In ablaut reduplications, the first vowel is almost always a high vowel and the reduplicated ablaut variant of the vowel is a low vowel.
- Shm-reduplication can be used with most any word; e.g. baby-shmaby, cancer-shmancer and fancy-shmancy. This process is a feature of American English from Yiddish, starting among the American Jews of New York City, then the New York dialect and then the whole country.
Only the last of the above types is productive, meaning that examples of the first three are fixed forms and new forms are not easily accepted.
- Comparative reduplication: In the sentence "John's apple looked redder and redder," the reduplication of the comparative indicates that the comparative is becoming more true over time, meaning roughly "John's apple looked progressively redder as time went on." In particular, this construction does not mean that John's apple is redder than some other apple, which would be a possible interpretation in the absence of reduplication, e.g. in "John's apple looked redder." With reduplication, the comparison is of the object being compared to itself over time. Comparative reduplication always combines the reduplicated comparative with "and". This construction is common in speech and is used even in formal speech settings, but it is less common in formal written texts. Although English has simple constructs with similar meanings, such as "John's apple looked ever redder," these simpler constructs are rarely used in comparison with the reduplicative form. Comparative reduplication is fully productive and clearly changes the meaning of any comparative to a temporal one, despite the absence of any time-related words in the construction. For example, the temporal meaning of "The frug seemed wuggier and wuggier" is clear: Despite not knowing what a frug is or what wugginess is, we know that the apparent wugginess of the frug was increasing over time, as indicated by the reduplication of the comparative "wuggier".
- Contrastive focus reduplication: Exact reduplication can be used with contrastive focus (generally where the first noun is stressed) to indicate a literal, as opposed to figurative, example of a noun, or perhaps a sort of Platonic ideal of the noun, as in "Is that carrot cheesecake or carrot CAKE-cake?". This is similar to the Finnish use mentioned above. Furthermore, it is used to contrast "real" or "pure" things against imitations or less pure forms. For example, at a coffee shop one may be asked, "Do you want soy milk?" and respond, "No, I want milk milk." This gives the idea that they want "real" milk.
The double copula is in some cases a type of reduplication, which may be regarded as non-standard or incorrect.
In addition to having some reduplicated presents and perfects, Latin uses reduplication for some indefinite relative pronouns, such as quisque "whoever" and ubiubi "wherever".
While not common in Dutch, reduplication does exist. Most, but not all (e.g., pipi, blauwblauw (laten), taaitaai (gingerbread)) reduplications in Dutch are loanwords (e.g., koeskoes, bonbon, (ik hoorde het) via via) or imitative (e.g., tamtam, tomtom). Another example is a former safe sex campaign slogan in Flanders: Eerst bla-bla, dan boem-boem (First talk, then have sex; lit. First blah-blah, then boom-boom). In Dutch the verb "gaan" (to go) can be used as an auxiliary verb, which can lead to a triplication: we gaan (eens) gaan gaan (we are going to get going). The use of gaan as an auxiliary verb with itself is considered incorrect, but is commonly used in Flanders. Numerous examples of reduplication in Dutch (and other languages) are discussed by Daniëls (2000).
Afrikaans makes use of reduplication to emphasize the meaning of the word repeated and to denote a plural or event happening in more than one place. For example, krap means "to scratch one's self," while krap-krap-krap means "to scratch one's self vigorously", whereas "dit het plek-plek gereën", means "it rained here and there". Reduplication in Afrikaans has been described extensively in the literature – see for example Botha (1988), Van Huyssteen (2004) and Van Huyssteen & Wissing (2007). Further examples of this include: "koes" (to dodge) being reduplicated in the sentence "Piet hardloop koes-koes weg" (Piet is running away while constantly dodging / cringing); "sukkel" (to struggle) becoming "sukkel-sukkel" (making slow progress; struggling on); and "kierang" (to cheat) becoming "kierang-kierang" to indicate being cheated on repeatedly.
In Italian reduplication was used both to create new words or word associations (tran-tran, via via, leccalecca) and to intensify the meaning (piano piano "very slowly").
Common in Lingua Franca, particularly but not exclusively for onomatopoeic action descriptions: "Spagnoli venir...boum boum...andar; Inglis venir...boum boum bezef...andar; Francés venir...tru tru tru...chapar." ("The Spaniards came, cannonaded, and left. The English came, cannonaded heavily, and left. The French came, trumpeted on bugles, and captured it.")
Common uses for reduplication in French are the creation of hypocoristics for names, whereby Louise becomes Loulou, and Zinedine Zidane becomes Zizou; and in many nursery words, like dada 'horsie' (vs. cheval 'horse'), tati 'auntie' (vs. tante 'aunt'), or tonton 'unkie' (vs. oncle 'uncle').
- Romanian: mormăi, ţurţur, dârdâi, expressions talmeş-balmeş, harcea-parcea, terchea-berchea, ţac-pac, calea-valea, hodoronc-tronc.
- Catalan: balandrim-balandram, baliga-balaga, banzim-banzam, barliqui-barloqui, barrija-barreja, bitllo-bitllo, bub-bub, bum-bum, but-but, catric-catrac, cloc-cloc, cloc-piu, corre-corrents, de nyigui-nyogui, farrigo-farrago, flist-flast, fru-fru, gara-gara, gloc-gloc, gori-gori, leri-leri, nap-buf, ning-nang, ning-ning, non-non, nyam-nyam, nyau-nyau, nyec-nyec, nyeu-nyeu, nyic-nyic, nyigo-nyigo, nyigui-nyogui, passa-passa, pengim-penjam, pif-paf, ping-pong, piu-piu, poti-poti, rau-rau, ringo-rango, rum-rum, taf-taf, tam-tam, tau-tau, tic-tac, tol·le-tol·le, tric-trac, trip-trap, tris-tras, viu-viu, xano-xano, xau-xau, xerric-xerrac, xim-xim, xino-xano, xip-xap, xiu-xiu, xup-xup, zig-zag, ziga-zaga, zim-zam, zing-zing, zub-zub, zum-zum.
In colloquial Mexican Spanish it is common to use reduplicated adverbs such as luego luego (after after) meaning "immediately", or casi casi (almost almost) which intensifies the meaning of 'almost'.
The reduplication in the Russian language serves for various kinds of intensifying of the meaning and exists in several forms: a hyphenated or repeated word (either exact or inflected reduplication), and forms similar to shm-reduplication.
Reduplication is a common feature of Irish and includes the examples rírá, ruaille buaille both meaning 'commotion' and fite fuaite meaning 'intertwined'.
Reduplication is a very common practice in Persian, to the extent that there are jokes about it. Mainly due to the mixed nature of the Persian language, most of the reduplication comes in the form of a phrase consisting of a Persian word -va- (Persian: وَ = and) and an Arabic word, like "Taghdir-Maghdir" (تقدیرمقدیر). Reduplication is particularly common in the city of Shiraz in southwestern Iran. One can further categorize the reduplicative words into "True" and "Quasi" ones. In true reduplicative words, both words are actually real words and have meaning in the language in which it is used. In quasi-reduplicative words, at least one of the words does not have a meaning. Some examples of true reduplicative words in Persian are: "Xert-o-Pert" (خرتوپرت = Odds and ends); "Čert-o-Pert" (چرتوپرت = Nonsense); "Čarand-[o-]Parand" (چرند[و]پرند = Nonsense); "Āb-o-Tāb" (آبوتاب = much detail). Among the quasi-reduplicative words are "Zan-[o-]man" (زن[و]من = wife); "Da'vā-Ma'vā" (دعوامعوا = Argument); "Talā-malā" (طلاملا = jewelry); and "Raxt-o-Paxt" ( = Items of clothing). Reduplication in Persian is sometimes a mockery of words with non-Persian origins.
South Asian languages
Typically all Indo-Aryan languages, like Hindi, Punjabi, Gujarati and Bengali use partial or echoic reduplication in some form or the other. It is usually used to sound casual, or in a suggestive manner. It is often used to mean etcetera. For example, in Hindi, chai-shai (chai means tea, while this phrase means tea or any other supplementary drink or tea along with snacks). Quite common in casual conversations are a few more examples like shopping-wopping, khana-wana. Reduplication is also used in Dravidian languages like Telugu for the same purpose. South Asian languages are also rich in other forms of reduplication: morphological (expressives), lexical (distributives), and phrasal (aspectual).
- morphological: मनात हूर हूर दाटून येते
- manaa-t hur-hur daaT.un yete
- mind-in longing choking comes
- 'Yearning desire floods into my heart.' Marathi
- lexical: 'Each-each boy take one-one chair.' Indian English
- phrasal: పిల్లవాడు నడుస్తూ నడుస్తూ పడి పోయాడు
- pillavāḍu naḍustū naḍustū paḍi pōyāḍu
- child walking walking fall went
- 'The child fell down while walking.' Telugu
Reduplication also occurs in the 3th gaṇa (verb class) of the Sanskrit language: bibheti "he fears", bibharti "he bears", juhoti "he offers", dadāti, "he gives". Even though the general idea is to reduplicate the verb root as a prefix, several sandhi rules change the final outcome.
A number of Nepalese nouns are formed by reduplication. As in other languages, the meaning is not that of a true plural, but collectives that refer to a set of the same or related objects, often in a particular situation.
For example, "rangi changi" describes an object that is extremely or vividly colorful, like a crazy mix of colors and/or patterns, perhaps dizzying to the eye. The phrase "hina mina" means "scattered," like a large collection of objects spilled (or scampering, as in small animals) in all different directions. The basic Nepalese word for food, "khana" becomes "khana sana" to refer to the broad generality of anything served at a meal. Likewise, "chiya" or tea (conventionally made with milk and sugar) becomes "chiya siya": tea and snacks (such as biscuits or cookies). (Please note, these examples of Nepalese words are spelled with a simplified Latin transliteration only, not as exact spellings.)
In Turkish, there are three kinds of reduplication.
- Emphatic Reduplication: A word can be reduplicated partially, such that an emphatic stem is created to be attached to the adjective. This is done by taking the first syllable of the adjective, dropping the syllable-final phoneme, and adding one of four interpolated consonants (p, s, m, r). For example, kırmızı (red) becomes kıpkırmızı (very red); mavi (blue) becomes masmavi (very blue); yeşil (green) becomes yemyeşil (very green), and temiz (clean) becomes tertemiz ("spotless"). However, the consonant added to the emphatic stem is unpredictable grammatically-speaking, however phonological studies, such as Wedel (1999) do shed new light on the subject.
- M-Reduplication (cf. Shm-Reduplication in English): A word can be reduplicated while replacing the initial consonants (not being m, and possibly missing) with m. The effect is that the meaning of the original word is broadened. For example, tabak means "plate(s)", and tabak mabak then means "plates, dishes and such". This can be applied not only to nouns but to all kinds of words, as in yeşil meşil meaning "green, greenish, whatever". Although not used in formal written Turkish, it is a completely standard and fully accepted construction.
- Doubling: A word can be reduplicated totally, giving a related but different meaning or used for emphasizing. For example, zaman zaman (time time) meaning "occasionally"; uzun uzun (long long) meaning "very long or many things long". This type is used also in formal Turkish, especially in literature.
As described earlier, contrastive lexical reduplication is used in colloquial Finnish speech. Another type of reduplication occurs in Standard Finnish; reduplication as an intensifier. Common examples of this include suurensuuri (big-GEN big-NOM) literally "big of big(ness)", pienenpieni (small-GEN small-NOM) literally "small of small(ness)", hienonhieno (fine-GEN fine-NOM). The last example, literally "fine of fine(ness)," roughly means "very fine". Other adjectives may sometimes be duplicated as well, where a superlative is too strong an expression, somewhat similarly to Slavic languages. This construction can be ambiguous because of its use of a genitive noun followed by a nominative noun, which is not unique to reduplication. For instance the reduplicated form suurensuuri jalka (big foot of bigness) sounds the same as suuren suuri jalka (big foot of someone big).
Reduplication is usually rhyming. It can add emphasis: 'pici' (tiny) -> ici-pici (very tiny) and it can modify meaning: 'néha-néha' ('seldom-seldom': seldom but repeatedly), 'erre-arra' ('this way-that way', meaning movement without a definite direction), 'ezt-azt' ('this-that', meaning 'all sort of things'), Reduplication often evokes a sense of playfulness and it's quite common when talking to small children.
- Swahili piga 'to strike'; pigapiga 'to strike repeatedly'
- Ganda okukuba (oku-kuba) 'to strike'; okukubaakuba (oku-kuba-kuba) 'to strike repeatedly, to batter'
- Chewa tambalalá 'to stretch one's legs'; tambalalá-tambalalá to stretch one's legs repeatedly'
Popular names that have reduplication include
Semitic languages frequently reduplicate consonants, though often not the vowels that appear next to the consonants in some verb form. This can take the shape of reduplicating the antepenultimate consonant (usually the second of three), the last of two consonants, or the last two consonants.
In Hebrew, reduplication is used in nouns, adjectives and verbs for various reasons:
- For emphasis: in לאט לאט le'at le'at, where the adverb לאט "slowly" is duplicated to mean "very slowly". In the slangism גבר גבר gever gever, the noun גבר "man" is duplicated to mean a "very manly man".
- To mean "one by one":
- יום יום yom yom is based on יום "day", and means "every day, day by day".
- פרה פרה para para is based on פרה "cow", and literally means "cow by cow", referring to "one thing at a time".
- To create a diminutive: by reduplicating the last two consonants (bi-consonantal reduplication):
- כלב kelev "dog"
- כלבלב klavlav "puppy"
- חתול khatul "cat"
- חתלתול khataltul "kitten"
- לבן lavan "white"
- לבנבן levanban "whitish"
- קטן katan "small"
- קטנטן ktantan "tiny"
- כלב kelev "dog"
- To create secondary derivative verbs: by reduplicating the root or part of it:
- dal (דל) "poor" > dilel (דלל) "to dilute", and also dildel (דלדל) "to impoverish, weaken".
- nad (נד) "to move, nod"' > nadad (נדד) "to wander" but also nidned (נדנד) "to swing" and - due to phono-semantic matching of the Yiddish lexical item נודיען nídyen / núdzhen "to bore, bother" - also "to bother, pest, nag, annoy".:206
In Amharic, verb roots can be reduplicated three different ways. These can result in verbs, nouns, or adjectives (which are often derived from verbs).
From the root sbr 'break', antepenultimate reduplication produces täsäbabbärä 'it was shattered' and biconsonantal reduplication produces täsbäräbbärä 'it was shattered repeatedly' and səbərbari 'a shard, a shattered piece'.
From the root kHb 'pile stones into a wall', since the second radical is not fully specified, what some call "hollow", the antepenultimate reduplication process reduplicates the k inserting the vowel a along with the consonant as a place holder for the hollow consonant, which is by some criteria antepenultimate, and produces akakabä 'pile stones repeatedly'.
In Burmese, reduplication is used in verbs and adjectives to form adverbs. Many Burmese words, especially adjectives such as လှပ ('beautiful' [l̥a̰pa̰]), which consist of two syllables (when reduplicated, each syllable is reduplicated separately), when reduplicated (လှပ → လှလှပပ 'beautifully' [l̥a̰l̥a̰ pa̰pa̰]) become adverbs. This is also true of many Burmese verbs, which become adverbs when reduplicated.
Some nouns are also reduplicated to indicate plurality. For instance, ပြည်, means "country," but when reduplicated to အပြည်ပြည်, it means "many countries" (as in အပြည်ပြည်ဆိုင်ရာ, "international"). Another example is အမျိုး, which means "kinds," but the reduplicated form အမျိုးမျိုး means "multiple kinds."
A few measure words can also be reduplicated to indicate "one or the other":
- ယောက် (measure word for people) → တစ်ယောက်ယောက် (someone)
- ခု (measure word for things) → တစ်ခုခု (something)
Adjective reduplication is common in Standard Chinese, typically denoting emphasis, less acute degree of the quality described, or an attempt at more indirect speech: xiǎoxiǎo de 小小的 (small, tiny), chòuchòu de 臭臭的 (smelly). Reduplication can also reflect a "cute", juvenile or informal register; in this respect, it can be compared to the English diminutive ending "-y" or "-ie" (tiny, smelly, 狗狗 "doggie", etc.)
In the case of adjectives composed of two characters (morphemes), generally each of the two characters is reduplicated separately: piàoliang 漂亮 (beautiful) reduplicates as piàopiàoliangliang 漂漂亮亮.
Verb reduplication is also common in Standard Chinese, conveying the meaning of informal and temporary character of the action. It is often used in imperative expressions, in which it lessens the degree of imperativity: zuòzuò 坐坐 (sit (for a while)), děngděng 等等 (wait (for a while)). Compound verbs are reduplicated as a whole word: xiūxixiūxi 休息休息 (rest (for a while)). This can be analyzed as an instance of omission of "一" (originally, e.g., "坐一坐" or "等一等" ) or "一下" (originally, e.g., "坐一下").
Noun reduplication, though nearly absent in Standard Chinese, is found in the southwestern dialect of Mandarin. For instance, in Sichuan Mandarin, bāobāo 包包 (handbag) is used whereas Beijing use bāor 包儿. One notable exception is the colloquial use of bāobāo 包包 by non-Sichuanese speakers to denote a perceived fancy, attractive, or "cute" purse (somewhat equivalent to the English "baggie"). However, there are few nouns that can be reduplicated in Standard Chinese, and reduplication denotes generalisation and uniformity: rén 人 (human being) and rénrén 人人 (everybody (in general, in common)), jiājiāhùhù 家家户户 (every household (uniformly)) – in the latter jiā and hù additionally duplicate the meaning of household, which is a common way of creating compound words in Chinese.
A small number of native Japanese nouns have collective forms produced by reduplication (possibly with rendaku), such as 人々 hitobito "people" (h → b is rendaku) – these are written with the iteration mark "々" to indicate duplication. This formation is not productive and is limited to a small set of nouns. Similarly to Standard Chinese, the meaning is not that of a true plural, but collectives that refer to a large, given set of the same object; for example, the formal English equivalent of 人々 would be "people" (collective), rather than "persons" (plural individuals).
Japanese also contains a large number of mimetic words formed by reduplication of a syllable. These words include not only onomatopoeia, but also words intended to invoke non-auditory senses or psychological states, such as きらきら kirakira (sparkling or shining). By one count, approximately 43% of Japanese mimetic words are formed by full reduplication, and many others are formed by partial reduplication, as in がささ〜 ga-sa-sa- (rustling) – compare English "a-ha-ha-ha".
Words called từ láy are found abundantly in Vietnamese. They are formed by repeating a part of a word to form new words, altering the meaning of the original word. Its effect is to sometimes either increase or decrease the intensity of the adjective, or to generalize a word's meaning. It is often used as a literary device (like alliteration) in poetry and other compositions but is also prevalent in everyday speech. In some cases, the word's tone may be reduplicated in addition to an initial or final sound (see tone sandhi).
Examples of reduplication increasing intensity:
- đau → đau điếng (final L→R): to hurt → to hurt horribly
- khó → khó khăn (final L→R): difficult → severely difficult
- mạnh → mạnh mẽ (final L→R): strong → very strong
- nhẹ → nhè nhẹ (initial full, excluding tone): gently → as gently as possible
- rực → rực rỡ (final L→R): flaring → blazing
Examples of reduplication decreasing intensity:
- nhỏ → nho nhỏ (initial full, excluding tone): small → somewhat small
- đỏ → đo đỏ (initial full, excluding tone): red → somewhat red
- xanh → xanh xanh (full): blue/green → somewhat blue/green
- xinh → xinh xinh (full): pretty → cute
Examples of generalization:
- đau → đau đớn (final L→R): painful → pain and suffering
- học → học hành (final L→R): to study (something) → to study (in general)
- lỏng → lỏng lẻo (final L→R plus tone): watery → loose, insecure
- máy → máy móc (final L→R plus tone): machine → machinery
- nhanh → nhanh nhẹn (final L→R): rapid → nimble
Examples of blunt sounds or physical conditions:
- loảng xoảng (R→L plus tone) — sound of glass breaking to pieces or metallic objects falling to the ground
- hớt hải → hớt hơ hớt hải or hớt ha hớt hải (compound) — hard gasps → in extreme hurry, in panic, panic-stricken
- lục đục (R→L) — the sound of hard, blunt (and likely wooden) objects hitting against each other → disagreements and conflicts inside a group or an organisation
Examples of emphasis without a change in meaning:
- khúm núm → khúm na khúm núm (compound): to cower
- vớ vẩn → vớ va vớ vẩn (compound): silly
- bậy → bậy bạ (initial L→R plus tone): objectionable
- nói bậy → nói bậy nói bạ (verb phrase): to say vulgarities
In colloquial speech, almost any arbitrary word can be reduplicated to express a dismissive attitude:
- phim → phim phéo (final L→R): movie → movies and stuff
As seen above, disyllabic words undergo a complex transformation: <first syllable> <left edge of second syllable plus a vowel> <first syllable> <second syllable>.
Khmer uses reduplication for several purposes, including emphasis and pluralization. The Khmer script includes a reduplication sign, ៗ, indicating that the word or phrase preceding it is to be pronounced twice. Reduplication in Khmer, like many Mon–Khmer languages, can express complex thoughts. Khmer also uses a form of reduplication known as "synonym compounding", in which two phonologically distinct words with similar or identical meanings are combined, either to form the same term or to form a new term altogether.
The wide use of reduplication is certainly one of the most prominent grammatical features of Austronesian languages.
Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian)
In the Malay language, reduplication is a very productive process. It is used for expression of various grammatical functions (such as verbal aspect) and it is part in a number of complex morphological models. Simple reduplication of nouns and pronouns can express at least three meanings:
- Diversity or non-exhaustive plurality:
- Burung-burung itu juga diekspor ke luar negeri = "All those birds are also exported out of the country".
- Conceptual similarity:
- langit-langit = "ceiling; palate; etc." (langit = "sky")
- jari-jari = "spoke; bar; radius; etc." (jari = "finger" etc.)
- Pragmatic accentuation:
- Saya bukan anak-anak lagi! "I am not a child anymore!" (anak = "child")
Reduplication of an adjective can express different things:
- Adverbialisation: Jangan bicara keras-keras! = "Don't speak loudly!" (keras = hard)
- Plurality of the corresponding noun: Rumah di sini besar-besar = "The houses here are big" (besar = "big").
Reduplication of a verb can express various things:
- Simple reduplication:
- Pragmatic accentuation: Kenapa orang tidak datang-datang? = "Why aren't people coming?"
- Reduplication with me- prefixation, depending on the position of the prefix me-:
- Repetition or continuation of the action: Orang itu memukul-mukul anaknya: "That man continuously beat his child";
- Reciprocity: Kedua orang itu pukul-memukul = "Those two men would beat each other".
Notice that in the first case, the nasalisation of the initial consonant (whereby /p/ becomes /m/) is repeated, while in the second case, it only applies in the repeated word.
Reduplication can convey a simple plural meaning, for instance wahine "woman", waahine "women", tangata "person", taangata "people". Biggs calls this "infixed reduplication". It occurs in a small subset of "people" words in most Polynesian languages.
Reduplication can convey emphasis or repetition, for example mate "die", matemate "die in numbers"; and de-emphasis, for example wera "hot" and werawera "warm".
Reduplication can also extend the meaning of a word; for instance paki "pat" becomes papaki "slap or clap once" and pakipaki "applaud"; kimo "blink" becomes kikimo "close eyes firmly"
The Mortlockese language is a Micronesian language spoken primarily on the Mortlock Islands. In the Mortlockese language, reduplication is used to show a habitual or imperfective aspect. For example, /jææjæ/ means "to use something" while the word /jæjjææjæ/ means "to use something habitually or repeatedly". Reduplication is also used in the Mortlockese Language to show extremity or extreme measures. One example of this can be seen in /ŋiimw alɛɛtɛj/ which means "hate him, her, or it". To mean "really hate him, her, or it," the phrase changes to /ŋii~mw al~mw alɛɛtɛj/.
Pingelapese is a Micronesian language spoken on the Pingelap atoll and on two of the eastern Caroline Islands, called the high island of Pohnpei. Pingelapese utilizes both duplication and triplication of a verb or part of a verb to express that something is happening for certain duration of time. No reduplication means that something happens. A reduplicated verb means that something IS happening, and a triplication means that something is STILL happening. For example, saeng means 'to cry' in Pingelapese. When reduplicated and triplicated, the duration of this verb is changed:
- saeng – cries
- saeng-saeng – is crying
- saeng-saeng-saeng – is still crying
Few languages employ triplication in their language. In Micronesia, Pingelapese is one of only two languages that uses triplication, the other being Mokilese. Reduplication and triplication are not to be confused with tense however. In order to make a phrase past, present, or future tense, a temporal phrase must be used.
Rapa is the French Polynesian language of the island of Rapa Iti. In terms of reduplication, the indigenous language known as Old Rapa uses reduplication consistent to other Polynesian languages. Reduplication of Old Rapa occurs in four ways: full, rightward, leftward, and medial. Full and rightward are generally more frequently used as opposed to the leftward and medial. Leftward and medial only occur as CV reduplication and partial leftward and medial usually denote emphasis.
|Base Form||Reduplicated Form|
|Full Reduplication||kini 'pinch'
|kinikini 'pinch skin'
|Rightward Reduplication||māringi 'pour'
taka'uri 'go backward'
|māringiringi 'pour continuously'
taka'uri'uri 'roll back and forth'
pātītī 'splash (of raindrops)'
ngaruru 'sea sick'
|Leftward Reduplication||komo 'sleep'
|kokomo 'deep sleep'
kukume 'large, flat leaf seaweed'
|Medial Reduplication||maitaki 'good; well'||maitataki 'excellent; very well'|
For the Rapa Language the implementation of reduplication has specific implications. The most evident of these are known as iterative, intensification, specification, diminutive, metaphorical, nominalizing, and adjectival.
- naku 'come, go' → nakunaku 'pass by frequently'
- ipuni 'hide' → ipunipuni 'hide and seek'
- mare 'cough' → maremare 'cough forcefully'
- roa 'much' → roroa 'very much'
- maki 'sick'makimaki 'really sick'
- kini 'to pinch' → kinikini 'pinch skin'
- paki 'slap, strike'pakipaki 'clap'
- kati 'bite' → katikati 'nibble'
- kapa 'mime with hands' → kapakapa 'flap wings (a bird)'
- mākuru 'detach oneself' → mākurukuru 'shed or molt'
- taŋi 'Yell' → taŋitaŋi 'chirp (a bird)'
- para 'Finished'parapara 'leftovers'
- Panga'a 'divide' → panaga'anga'a 'a break, a divide'
- repo 'dirt, earth' → reporepo 'dirty'
- pake 'sun' → pakepake 'shining, bright'
Philippine languages are characterized as having the most productive use of reduplication, especially in Tagalog (the basis of the Filipino language). Reduplication in Tagalog is complex. It can be roughly divided into six types:
- Monosyllabic; e.g. olol ("mad")
- Reduplication of the final syllable; e.g himaymay ("separate meat from bones"), from himay (same meaning)
- Reduplication of the final syllable of a disyllabic word, where the added syllable is created from the first consonant of the first syllable and the last consonant of the second syllable; e.g. kaliskis ("[fish] scale"), from kalis ("to scrape")
- Reduplication of the initial syllable of the root; e.g. susulat ("will write"), from sulat ("to write")
- Full reduplication; e.g. araw-araw ("every day" or "fake sun"), from araw ("day" or "sun")
- Combined partial and full reduplication; e.g. babalibaligtad ("turning around continually", "tumbling"), from baligtad ("reverse")
They can further be divided into "non-significant" (where its significance is not apparent) and "significant" reduplication. 1, 2, and 3 are always non-significant; while 5 and 6 are always significant. 4 can be non-significant when used for nouns (e.g. lalaki, "man").
Adjectives and adverbs employ morphological reduplication for many different reasons such as plurality agreement when the adjective modifies a plural noun, intensification of the adjective or adverb, and sometimes because the prefix forces the adjective to have a reduplicated stem".
- "Ang magandang puno" "the beautiful tree".
- "Ang mga magagandang puno" "the beautiful trees".
The entire adjective is repeated for intensification of adjectives or adverbs:
- Magandang maganda ang kabayo "the horse is very pretty"
In verbs, reduplication of the root, prefix or infix is employed to convey different grammatical aspects. In "Mag- verbs" reduplication of the root after the prefix "mag-" or "nag-" changes the verb from the infinitive form, or perfective aspect, respectively, to the contemplated or imperfective aspect. Thus:
- magluto inf/actor trigger-cook "to cook" or "cook!" (Imperative)
- nagluto actor trigger-cook "cooked"
- nagluluto actor trigger-reduplication-cook "cook" (as in "I cook all the time) or "is/was cooking"
- magluluto inf/actor trigger-rdplc-cook (contemplated) "will cook"
For Ergative verbs (frequently referred to as "object focus" verbs) reduplication of part the infix and the stem occur:
- lutuin cook-inf/object trigger-cook "to cook"
- niluto object trigger infix-cook (perf-cook) "cooked"
- niluluto object trigger infix-reduplication-cook "cook"/"is/was cooking"
- lulutuin rdp-cook-object trigger "will cook".
The complete superlative prefix pagka- demands reduplication of the first syllable of the adjective's stem:
- "Ang pagkagagandang puno" "The most beautiful tree (and there are none more beautiful anywhere)"
Reduplication is not a productive noun derivation process in Wuvulu-Aua as it is in other Austronesian languages. Some nouns exhibit reduplication, though they are considered to be fossilized.
Verb roots can undergo whole or partial reduplication to mark aspect. Actions that are continuous are indicated by a reduplicated initial syllable. A whole reduplication can also be used to indicate imperfective aspect.
- "roni" "to hurry"
- "roroni" "hurrying"
- "rawani" "good"
- "rarawani" "good" (continuous)
- "ware" "talk"
- "wareware" "talked" (durative)
The onomatopoeia in Wuvulu language also uses reduplication to describe the sound. These onomatopoeic words can be used as alienable nouns.
Australian Aboriginal languages
Reduplication is common in many Australian place names due to their Aboriginal origins. Some examples include Turramurra, Parramatta, Woolloomooloo. In the language of the Wiradjuri people of southeastern Australia, plurals are formed by doubling a word, hence 'Wagga' meaning crow becomes Wagga Wagga meaning 'place of many crows'. This occurs in other place names deriving from the Wiradjuri language including Gumly Gumly, Grong Grong and Book Book.
- Augment (Bantu languages)
- Augment (Indo-European)
- Language acquisition
- Siamese twins (linguistics)
- Syntactic doubling
- For an example of a language with many types of reduplication see: St'at'imcets language#Reduplication.
- Contrastive focus reduplication
- Repetition (rhetorical device)
- Redundancy (linguistics)
- List of people with reduplicated names
- Gates 2016.
- Rehg 1981.
- Pratt 1984.
- Kirsparsky 2010, pp. 125–142.
- Omar 1989.
- Czaykowska-Higgins & Kinkade 1998, pp. 18ff.
- Smyth 1920, §440: simple consonant + e.
- Smyth 1920, §447: initial consonant + i.
- Kroonen 2013, pp. 264–265.
- Ghomeshi et al. 2004.
- BL Arundel 83 f126v
- Gilbers 2009.
- Taal.vrt.be 1999.
- van der Walt 2002.
- Botha 1984.
- Mount Allison University.
- Corré 2005.
- Voinov 2012.
- Pota Focal, "fite fuaite".
- Emeneau 1971.
- Kulkarni 2013.
- Abbi 1992, p. 37.
- Göksel & Kerslake (2005)
- Wedel (1999)
- Lodhi 2002.
- Downing 2001.
- Butts 2011.
- Unseth 2003.
- Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003), Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403917232 / ISBN 9781403938695
- Leslau 1995, p. 1029.
- Unseth 2002.
- Leslau 1995, p. 1035.
- Tak 2016.
- Tamamura 1979.
- Tamamura 1989.
- Nasu 2003.
- Lande 2003.
- Biggs 1998, p. 137.
- Odango 2015.
- Hattori 2012, pp. 34–35.
- Walworth 2015.
- Lopez, Cecilio (1950). "Reduplication in Tagalog". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 106 (2de Afl): 151–311. JSTOR 27859677.
- Blake, Frank R. (1917). "Reduplication in Tagalog". The American Journal of Philology. 38 (4): 425–431. doi:10.2307/288967. JSTOR 288967.
- Wan, Jin. "Reduplication in Tagalog verbs" (PDF). Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- Domigpe & Nenita 2012.
- Hafford 2015, p. 47.
- Hafford 2015, p. 100.
- Hafford 2015, p. 46.
- Abbi, Anvita (1992). Reduplication in South Asian languages. New Delhi: Allied Publishers.
- Botha, Rudolph P. (1984). "A Galilean Analysis of Afrikaans Reduplication". Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics. 13. doi:10.5774/13-0-99. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- Biggs, Bruce (1998). Let's learn Maori: a guide to the study of the Maori language. Auckland University Press. ISBN 9781869401863.
- Botha, Rudi P. (1988). Form and meaning in word formation: a study of Afrikaans reduplication. Cambridge University Press.
- Butts, Aaron Michael (2011). "Reduplicated Nominal Patterns in Semitic". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 131 (1): 83–108. JSTOR 23044728.
- Corré, Alan D. (2005). "A Glossary of Lingua Franca". University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009.
- Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa & Kinkade, M. Dale (1998). Salish Languages and Linguistics: Theoretical and Descriptive Perspectives. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
- Domigpe, J. & Nenita, D. (2012). Elementary Tagalog. Singapore: Tuttle Publishing.
- Downing, Laura J. (2001). Tone (Non-) Transfer in Bantu Verbal Reduplication. Typology of African Prosodic Systems Workshop. Bielefeld University, Germany – via ResearchGate.
- Emeneau, M. B. (1971). "Onomatopoetics in the Indian linguistic area". Language. 45 (2): 274–299. doi:10.2307/411660. JSTOR 411660.
- Gates, J. P. (2016). "Verbal Triplication Morphology in Stau (Mazi Dialect)". Transactions of the Philological Society. 115 (1): 14–26. doi:10.1111/1467-968X.12083.
- Ghomeshi, Jila; Jackendoff, Ray; Rosen, Nicole & Russell, Kevin (2004). "Contrastive focus reduplication in English (the Salad-Salad paper)". Natural Language & Linguistic Theory. 22 (2): 307–357. doi:10.1023/B:NALA.0000015789.98638.f9. JSTOR 4048061.
- Gilbers (2009) . "Morfo(no)logie: Inleiding in de Morfologie (in relatie tot de Fonologie)" [Morpho(no)logy: Introduction to Morphology (in relation to Phonology)] (in Dutch). Faculty of Arts, University of Groningen. Archived from the original on July 8, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- Göksel, Asli & Kerslake, Celia (2005). Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar. London: Routledge. Print.
- Hafford, James A (2015). Wuvulu Grammar and Vocabulary (PDF) (Thesis). Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- Hattori, Ryoko (2012). Preverbal Particles in Pingelapese. Ann Arbor. ISBN 978-1-267-81721-1.
- Kirsparsky, Paul (2010). Reality exploration and discovery: pattern interaction in language & life. Center for the Study of Language and Information.
- Kroonen, Guus (2013). Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Leiden: Brill.
- Lande, Yury A. (27–29 June 2003). Nominal reduplication in Indonesian challenging the theory of grammatical change. International Symposium on Malay/Indonesian Linguistics. Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
- Leslau, Wolf (1995). Reference Grammar of Amharic. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
- Lodhi, Abdulaziz Y. (2002). "Verbal extensions in Bantu (the case of Swahili and Nyamwezi)" (PDF). Africa & Asia. Department of Oriental and African Languages, Göteborg University (2): 4–26. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 11, 2009.
- "Morphological Exercises". Mount Allison University. Archived from the original on August 6, 2013.
- Nasu, Akio (2003). "Reduplicants and Prefixes in Japanese Onomatopoeia" (PDF). In Honma, Takeru; Okazaki, Masao; Tabata, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Shinichi (eds.). A New Century of Phonology and Phonological Theory: A Festschrift for Professor Shosuke Haraguchi on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. Tokyo: Kaitakusha. pp. 210–221.
- Odango, Emerson Lopez (2015). Affeu fangani 'join together': A morphophonemic analysis of possessive suffix paradigms and a discourse-based ethnography of the elicitation session in Pakin Lukunosh Mortlockese (PDF) (Thesis). Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa.
- Omar, Asmah Haji (1989). "The Malay Spelling Reform" (PDF). Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. 1989 (2): 9–13. Issue later designated J11.
- "fite fuaite". Pota Focal. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- Pratt, George (1984) . A Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language, with English and Samoan vocabulary (3rd and revised ed.). Papakura, New Zealand: R. McMillan. ISBN 978-0-908712-09-0. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
- Rehg, Kenneth L. (1981). Ponapean reference grammar. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii.
- Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920). A Greek Grammar for Colleges. American Book Company – via Christian Classics Ethereal Library.
- "We gaan gaan gaan". Taal.vrt.be. December 10, 1999. Archived from the original on August 30, 2011.
- Tak, Jin-young (2016). "Second radical reduplication in Amharic: Optimality theory". Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology. 22 (1): 121–145. doi:10.17959/sppm.2016.22.1.121.
- Tamamura, Fumio (1979). "Nihongo to chuugokugo ni okeru onshoochoogo" [Sound-symbolic words in Japanese and Chinese]. Ootani Joshidai Kokubun. 9: 208–216.
- Tamamura, Fumio (1989). "Gokei" [Word forms]. In Tamamura, Fumio (ed.). Kooza nihongo to nihongo kyooiku. 6. Tokyo: Meiji Shoin. pp. 23–51.
- Unseth, Peter (2002). Biconsonantal reduplication in Amharic (Thesis). University of Texas at Arlington.
- Unseth, Peter (2003). "Surveying bi-consonantal reduplication in Semitic". In Bender, M. Lionel (ed.). Selected Comparative-Historical Afrasian Linguistic Studies in Memory of Igor M. Diakonoff. Munich: Lincom Europa. pp. 257–273.
- van der Walt, Elmarie (2002). "Bitter berry dawn Ingrid Jonker". University of Pretoria Faculty for Education. Archived from the original on August 4, 2013.
- Van Huyssteen, Gerhard B. (2004). "Motivating the composition of Afrikaans reduplications: a cognitive grammar analysis". In Radden, G.; Panther, K-U. (eds.). Studies in Linguistic Motivation. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 269–292. ISBN 978-3-11-018245-3.
- Van Huyssteen, Gerhard B & Wissing, Daan P. (2007). "Datagebaseerde Aspekte van Afrikaanse Reduplikasies" [Data-based Aspects of Afrikaans Reduplications]. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies (in Afrikaans). 25 (3): 419–439. doi:10.2989/16073610709486472.
- Voinov, Vitaly (2012). "Rhyming reduplication in Russian paired words". Russian Linguistics. 36 (2): 175–191. doi:10.1007/s11185-012-9091-5. JSTOR 41679424.
- Walworth, Mary E. (2015). The Language of Rapa Iti: Description of a Language In Change (Thesis). Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa. Print.
- Wedel, Andrew (1999). "Turkish Emphatic Reduplication". Working Papers in Phonology at Santa Cruz.
- Abraham, Roy. (1964). Somali-English dictionary. London, England: University of London Press.
- Albright, Adam. (2002). A restricted model of UR discovery: Evidence from Lakhota. (Draft version).
- Alderete, John; Benua, Laura; Gnanadesikan, Amalia E.; Beckman, Jill N.; McCarthy, John J.; Urbanczyk, Suzanne (1999). "Reduplication with fixed segmentism". Linguistic Inquiry. 30 (3): 327–364. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.387.3969. doi:10.1162/002438999554101. JSTOR 4179068. Archived from the original on May 25, 2005.
- Broselow, Ellen; McCarthy, John J. (1984). "A theory of internal reduplication". The Linguistic Review. 3 (1): 25–88. doi:10.1515/tlir.1918.104.22.168.
- Cooper, William E. & Ross, "Háj" John R. (1975). "World order". In Grossman, R. E.; San, L. J. & Vance, T. J. (eds.). Papers from the parasession on functionalism. Chicago Linguistic Society. pp. 63–111.
- Dayley, Jon P. (1985). Tzutujil grammar. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
- Diffloth, Gérald. (1973). Expressives in Semai. In P. N. Jenner, L. C. Thompson, and S. Starsota (Eds.), Austroasiatic studies part I (pp. 249–264). University Press of Hawaii.
- Fabricius, Anne H. (2006). A comparative survey of reduplication in Australian languages. LINCOM Studies in Australian Languages (No. 03). Lincom. ISBN 3-89586-531-1.
- Haeberlin, Herman (1918). "Types of Reduplication in Salish Dialects". International Journal of American Linguistics. 1 (2): 154–174. doi:10.1086/463719. JSTOR 1262824.
- Haugen, Jason D. (forthcoming). Reduplicative allomorphy and language prehistory in Uto-Aztecan. (Paper presented at Graz Reduplication Conference 2002, November 3–6).
- Harlow, Ray. (2007) Māori: a linguistic introduction Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80861-3. 127–129
- Healey, Phyllis M. (1960). An Agta grammar. Manila: The Institute of National Language and The Summer Institute of Linguistics.
- Hurch, Bernhard (Ed.). (2005). Studies on reduplication. Empirical approaches to language typology (No. 28). Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-018119-3.
- Inkelas, Sharon; & Zoll, Cheryl. (2005). Reduplication: Doubling in morphology. Cambridge studies in linguistics (No. 106). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80649-6.
- Key, Harold (1965). "Some semantic functions of reduplication in various languages". Anthropological Linguistics. 7 (3): 88–102. JSTOR 30022538.
- Kulkarni, Angha (August 5, 2013). "आई" [Come] (in Marathi). Maayboli.com. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Marantz, Alec. (1982). Re reduplication. Linguistic Inquiry 13: 435–482.
- McCarthy, John J. and Alan S. Prince. (1986 ). Prosodic morphology 1986. Technical report #32. Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science. (Unpublished revised version of the 1986 paper available online on McCarthy's website: http://ruccs.rutgers.edu/pub/papers/pm86all.pdf).
- McCarthy, John J.; and Prince, Alan S. (1995). Faithfulness and reduplicative identity. In J. Beckman, S. Urbanczyk, and L. W. Dickey (Eds.), University of Massachusetts occasional papers in linguistics 18: Papers in optimality theory (pp. 249–384). Amherst, MA: Graduate Linguistics Students Association. (Available online on the Rutgers Optimality Archive website: https://web.archive.org/web/20090423020041/http://roa.rutgers.edu/view.php3?id=568).
- McCarthy, John J.; and Prince, Alan S. (1999). Faithfulness and identity in prosodic morphology. In R. Kager, H. van der Hulst, and W. Zonneveld (Eds.), The prosody morphology interface (pp. 218–309). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Available online on the Rutgers Optimality Archive website: https://web.archive.org/web/20050525032431/http://roa.rutgers.edu/view.php3?id=562).
- Moravcsik, Edith. (1978). Reduplicative constructions. In J. H. Greenberg (Ed.), Universals of human language: Word structure (Vol. 3, pp. 297–334). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
- Nevins, Andrew & Vaux, Bert (2003). Metalinguistic, shmetalinguistic: The phonology of shm-reduplication. Chicago Linguistics Society, April 2003. Chicago Linguistics Society – via ling.auf.net.
- Oller, D. Kimbrough. 1980. The emergence of the sounds of speech in infancy, in Child Phonology Vol. I, edited by G. H. Yeni-Komshian, J. F. Kavanaugh, and C. A. Ferguson. Academic Press, New York. pp. 93–112.
- Raimy, Eric (2000). "Remarks on backcopying". Linguistic Inquiry. 31 (3): 541–552. doi:10.1162/002438900554433. JSTOR 4179117.
- Reichard, Gladys A. (1959). "A comparison of five Salish languages: V". International Journal of American Linguistics. 25 (4): 239–253. doi:10.1086/464538. JSTOR 1263673.
- Shaw, Patricia A. (1980). Theoretical Issues in Dakota Phonology and Morphology. Garland Publ: New York. pp. ix + 396.
- Shaw, Patricia A. (2004). Reduplicant order and identity: Never trust a Salish CVC either?. In D. Gerdts and L. Matthewson (Eds.), Studies in Salish linguistics in honor of M. Dale Kinkade. University of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics (Vol. 17). Missoula, MT: University of Montana.
- Stark, Rachel E. (1978). "Features of infant sounds: The emergence of cooing". Journal of Child Language. 5 (3): 379–390. doi:10.1017/S0305000900002051. PMID 701415.
- Thun, Nils (1963). Reduplicative words in English: A study of formations of the types tick-tock, hurly-burly, and shilly-shally. Uppsala.
- Watters, David E. (2002). A grammar of Kham. Cambridge grammatical descriptions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81245-3.
- Wilbur, Ronnie B. (1973). The phonology of reduplication. Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois. (Also published by Indiana University Linguistics Club in 1973, republished 1997.)
|Look up reduplication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Reduplication (Lexicon of Linguistics)
- What is reduplication? (SIL)
- Echo-Word Reduplication Lexicon
- Exhaustive list of reduplications in English
- List of contrastive focus reduplications in English
- List of English reduplications in Wiktionary
- graz database on reduplication (gdr) Institute of Linguistics, University of Graz
- La réduplication à m dans l’arabe parlé à Mardin