A recovery disc is any of various media containing a backup of the original factory condition or a favored condition of a computer as configured by an original equipment manufacturer or an end-user. OEM supplied recovery media are often shipped with computers to allow the user to reformat the hard drive and reinstall the operating system and pre-installed software as it was when it was shipped.
OEM system recovery
Most OEM recovery systems for a Microsoft Windows-based operating systems involve booting from a separate hard drive partition, CD-ROM, or DVD, which in turn launches the recovery environment. After accepting the license agreements for the software and operating system in some cases, the recovery program will usually reformat the hard drive and then begin copying operating system and software files (although some recovery systems, such as the ones utilized by Hewlett-Packard and Gateway, do offer a "non-destructive recovery" option which backs up data before reinstalling the operating system). After the recovery process is completed, configuration such as the Windows Out-Of-Box Experience wizard is first run (along with any other additional setup the computer may perform), as it was on the initial startup of the computer. Most recovery systems use specialized software, though Toshiba and Dell licensed Norton Ghost technology for their recovery systems at one point. As of Windows Vista, Dell uses a Windows Imaging Format based image on a partition along with a tool launched from the Windows Recovery Environment's command prompt.
Alternatively, some OEMs instead distribute a standard Windows installation disc, sometimes accompanied by a driver disc that contains the installation programs for the computer's device drivers. Some OEMs may slipstream their drivers into the disc instead.
Most modern PCs store their recovery data on a hard drive partition rather than on bundled CD-ROMs or DVDs. Recovery partitions are typically accessed by using a specific key combination during or after the computer's power-on self-test. Recovery partitions carry advantages over disc-based solutions, including a faster recovery process (as the data is directly on the hard drive and no disc swapping is needed), and less cost to the OEM as they do not need to ship recovery media with the computer. However, if the hard drive fails, is fully reformatted, or is replaced, the recovery partition will be lost. Some third-party software has the function to create a factory recovery partition and one key system backup and restore for Windows PC and Server.
An application used to create recovery discs or flash drive is sometimes offered in order to allow a backup of the recovery data. Recovery CDs can also sometimes be ordered directly from the OEM. For some computers, they can also recreate the recovery partition. Other recovery systems, such as those included with recent Apple Macintosh models, permit users to download the recovery partition over an internet connection, enabling successful recovery even if the hard disk fails or is replaced.
Disk image recovery
The advantages of OEM recovery media can be had, without some of their disadvantages, by using disk imaging software such as Mondo Rescue or Acronis True Image to create a bootable recovery CD containing an image of the machine in the desired initial state. For example, a user can install their operating system, install all device drivers for their hardware, install other desired software, and configure other personal settings. Some smaller OEMs even use bootable CDs generated by this software as the actual recovery CD or DVD itself.
Due to the recovery discs containing all the applications and drivers for a computer, many manufacturers are omitting copies of product CDs in favor of the single recovery system to prevent unauthorized distribution of preloaded software, as the recovery media is usually locked to the computer it came with. This complicates clean installation with a fresh copy of the operating system, as to perform such actions and get a setup close to the recovery disc's result, they would need to purchase new licenses for any software which came bundled with their system, just so that they could obtain an installation disc for that software, and would also have to download the drivers for their computer's components manually.
In addition, if the hardware configuration of the system changes, drivers and support for the additional hardware changes will not be on the recovery image, requiring users to reinstall their drivers.
Some OEMs however do ship copies of the version of Windows shipped on the computer, along with driver and application discs, sometimes alongside dedicated recovery Disc.
Prior to the use of recovery discs, one would use a boot disk to boot the system, then reinstall software as necessary from the original installation media.
A contemporary alternative, particularly used in Linux, is the installation disc or discs for a Linux distribution, or a Live CD or Live DVD – a bootable disc. These can be used to boot the system and then either manually troubleshoot and repair problems (in the case of a live disc), or re-install or re-configure the operating system. In the case of free software, operating systems can legally be re-packaged and distributed, and thus there is no barrier to making the full installation available. However, in the absence of a backup of system-specific configuration, which is provided on recovery discs, a re-installed operating system may require re-configuration .
Windows 8 includes two built-in recovery options, Refresh and Reset; Refresh re-installs Windows while preserving most user settings, while Reset performs a full restore back to its default configuration, similar to a factory restore function.
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