Real Irish Republican Army
The Real Irish Republican Army or Real IRA (RIRA), also called the New IRA (NIRA) after a merger in 2012, is a dissident Irish republican paramilitary group which aims to bring about a united Ireland. It formed in 1997 following a split in the Provisional IRA by dissident members, who rejected the IRA's ceasefire that year. Like the Provisional IRA before it, the Real IRA sees itself as the only rightful successor to the original Irish Republican Army and styles itself as simply "the Irish Republican Army" in English or Óglaigh na hÉireann in Irish. It is an illegal organisation in the Republic of Ireland and designated as a proscribed terrorist organisation in the United Kingdom and the United States.
|Real Irish Republican Army|
New Irish Republican Army
(Óglaigh na hÉireann)
|Participant in the Troubles and the dissident Irish Republican campaign|
|Ideology||Physical force Irish republicanism|
|Area of operations||Northern Ireland (mainly)|
|Size||150 (max, as of June 2005)|
250–300 (as of September 2012)
|Split from||Provisional Irish Republican Army|
|Allies||Continuity Irish Republican Army|
Óglaigh na hÉireann
Police Service of Northern Ireland
An Garda Siochana
Irish Defence Forces
Since its formation, the Real IRA has waged a campaign in Northern Ireland against the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI)—formerly the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)—and the British Army. It is the largest and most active of the "dissident republican" paramilitary groups operating against the British security forces. It has targeted the security forces in gun attacks and bombings, and with grenades, mortars and rockets. The organisation has also been responsible for bombings in Northern Ireland and England with the goal of causing economic harm and disruption. The most notable of these was the 1998 Omagh bombing, which killed 29 people. After that bombing the Real IRA went on ceasefire, but resumed operations again in 2000. In March 2009 it claimed responsibility for an attack on Massereene Barracks which killed two British soldiers, the first to be killed in Northern Ireland since 1997.
The Real IRA has also been involved in vigilantism, mainly against drug dealers and organised crime gangs. In Dublin in particular it has been accused of extortion and engaging in feuds with these gangs. In July 2012 it was reported that Republican Action Against Drugs (RAAD) and other small republican militant groups were merging with the Real IRA. This new entity was named the "New IRA" by the media, but members continue to identify themselves as simply "the Irish Republican Army". Small pockets of the Real IRA that did not merge with the New IRA continue have a presence in Republic of Ireland, particularly in Cork and to a lesser extent in Dublin.
In July 1997 the Provisional IRA called a ceasefire. On 10 October 1997 a Provisional IRA General Army Convention was held in Falcarragh, County Donegal. At the convention, Provisional IRA Quartermaster General Michael McKevitt—also a member of the 12-person Provisional IRA Executive—denounced the leadership and called for an end to the group's ceasefire and to its participation in the Northern Ireland peace process. He was backed by his partner and fellow Executive member Bernadette Sands McKevitt. The two dissidents were outmanoeuvred by the leadership and were left isolated.:296 The convention backed the pro-ceasefire line, and on 26 October McKevitt and Sands McKevitt resigned from the Executive along with other members.:33
In November 1997 McKevitt and other dissidents held a meeting in a farmhouse in Oldcastle, County Meath, and a new organisation, styling itself Óglaigh na hÉireann, was formed.:38–39 The organisation attracted disaffected Provisional IRA members from Derry and the republican stronghold of South Armagh, as well as Dublin and Belfast cities and Counties Limerick, Tipperary, Louth, Tyrone, Monaghan and Kerry.:47
The name "Real IRA" entered common usage when in early 1998 members set up a roadblock in Jonesborough, County Armagh and told motorists "We're from the IRA. The real IRA".
The RIRA's objective is a united Ireland by forcing the end of British sovereignty over Northern Ireland through the use of physical force. The organisation rejects the Mitchell Principles and the Good Friday Agreement, comparing the latter to the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty which resulted in the partition of Ireland. The organisation aims to uphold an uncompromising form of Irish republicanism and opposes any political settlement that falls short of Irish unity and independence.:316–317
Bernadette Sands McKevitt, sister of hunger striker Bobby Sands and a founder of the RIRA's political wing, the 32 County Sovereignty Movement, said in an interview that her brother "did not die for cross-border bodies with executive powers. He did not die for nationalists to be equal British citizens within the Northern Ireland state".:316–317 The RIRA adopted a tactic of bombing town centres to damage the economic infrastructure of Northern Ireland. The organisation also attacks members of the security forces using land mines, home-made mortars and car bombs, and has also targeted England using incendiary devices and car bombs to "spread terror and disruption".
The organization's first action was an attempted bombing in Banbridge, County Down on 7 January 1998. The intention was to explode a 300-pound (140 kg) car bomb, but this was thwarted when the bomb was defused by security forces.:68–71 The RIRA continued its campaign in late February with bombings in Moira, County Down and Portadown, County Armagh.:87 On 9 May the organisation announced its existence, in a coded telephone call to Belfast media claiming responsibility for a mortar attack on a police station in Belleek, County Fermanagh.
The RIRA also carried out attacks in Newtownhamilton and Newry, and a second attack in Banbridge on 1 August injured 35 people and caused £3.5 million of damage when a 500-pound (230 kg) car bomb exploded. Despite these attacks the organisation lacked a significant base and was heavily infiltrated by informers. This led to a series of high-profile arrests and seizures by the Garda Síochána in the first half of 1998; these involved the death of RIRA member Rónán Mac Lochlainn who was shot dead trying to escape from police, following an attempted robbery of a security van in County Wicklow.:70–71, 101–102, 124–129
On 15 August 1998 the RIRA left a car containing 500 lb of home-made explosives in the centre of Omagh, County Tyrone. The bombers could not find a parking space near the intended target of the courthouse, and the car was left 400 metres away.:211–212 As a result, three inaccurate telephone warnings were issued, and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) believed the bomb was located outside the courthouse. They attempted to establish a security cordon to keep civilians clear of the area, which inadvertently pushed people closer to the location of the bomb.:211–212 Shortly after, the bomb exploded killing 29 people and injuring 220 others, in what became the single deadliest strike of the Troubles.
The bombing caused a major outcry throughout the world, and the Irish and British governments introduced new legislation in an attempt to destroy the organisation.:232 The RIRA also came under pressure from the Provisional IRA, when Provisional IRA members visited the homes of 60 people connected with the RIRA and ordered them to disband and stop interfering with Provisional IRA arms dumps. With the organisation under intense pressure, which included McKevitt and Sands-McKevitt being forced from their home after the media named McKevitt in connection with the bombing, the RIRA called a ceasefire on 8 September.
Following the declaration of the ceasefire the RIRA began to regroup, and by the end of October had elected a new leadership and were planning their future direction.:257–260 In late December Irish government representative Martin Mansergh held a meeting with McKevitt in Dundalk, in an attempt to convince McKevitt to disband the RIRA. McKevitt refused, stating that members would be left defenceless to attacks by the Provisional IRA.:257–260 In 1999 the RIRA began preparations for a renewed campaign, and in May three members travelled to Split in Croatia to purchase arms, which were smuggled back to Ireland.:381–382 On 20 October, ten people were arrested when Gardaí raided a RIRA training camp near Stamullen, County Meath.
Officers found a firing range inside a disused wine cellar being used as an underground bunker, and seized weapons including an assault rifle, a submachine gun, a semi-automatic pistol and an RPG-18 rocket launcher.:314–315 An earlier version of the rocket launcher, the RPG-7, had been in the possession of the Provisional IRA from as early as 1972, but this was the first time the RPG-18 had been found in the possession of a paramilitary organisation in Ireland. Among those convicted were Alan Ryan, who was on bail for possession of a loaded revolver at his home in Dublin.
Return to activity
On 20 January 2000 the RIRA issued a call-to-arms in a statement to the Irish News. The statement condemned the Northern Ireland Executive, and stated: "Once again, Óglaigh na hÉireann declares the right of the Irish people to the ownership of Ireland. We call on all volunteers loyal to the Irish Republic to unite to uphold the Republic and establish a permanent national parliament representative of all the people.":326 The RIRA launched its new campaign on 25 February with an attempted bombing of Shackleton Army Barracks in Ballykelly. The bombers were disturbed as they were assembling the device, which would have caused mass murder if detonated, according to soldiers.
On 29 February a rocket launcher similar to one seized in the 1999 raid was found near an army base in Dungannon, County Tyrone, and on 15 March three men were arrested following the discovery of 500 lb of home-made explosives when the RUC searched two cars in Hillsborough, County Down. On 6 April a bomb attack took place at Ebrington Barracks in Derry. RIRA members lowered a device consisting of 5 lb of homemade explosives over the perimeter fence using ropes, and the bomb subsequently exploded damaging the fence and an unmanned guardhouse.:335
Bombings in England
After the Omagh bombing, the RIRA leadership were unwilling to launch a full-scale campaign in Northern Ireland due to the possibility of civilians being killed.:338 Instead they decided to launch a series of attacks in England, in particular London, which they hoped would attract disenchanted Provisional IRA members to join the RIRA.:338 On 1 June 2000 a bomb damaged Hammersmith Bridge, a symbolic target for Irish republican paramilitary groups. The bridge had been targeted by the Irish Republican Army on 29 March 1939 as part of its Sabotage Campaign, and by the Provisional IRA on 24 April 1996.
On 19 July, security forces carried out a controlled explosion on a bomb left at Ealing Broadway station and public transport was disrupted when the Metropolitan Police closed Victoria and Paddington train stations and halted services on the London Underground. On 21 September a rocket-propelled grenade was fired at the MI6 headquarters using an RPG-22 rocket launcher, which generated headlines around the world.:349–350:84 In November 2000, security forces foiled a plot to drive 500 lb of homemade explosives to central London that month, a bomb twice as powerful as the one in Omagh. At the time police were warning for weeks that a terrorist attack in London could be imminent.
On 21 February 2001 a bomb disguised as a torch left outside a Territorial Army base in Shepherd's Bush seriously injured a 14-year-old cadet, who was blinded and had his hand blown off. A second attack in Shepherd's Bush, the 4 March BBC bombing, injured a civilian outside the BBC Television Centre. The explosion was captured by a BBC cameraman, and the footage was broadcast on TV stations worldwide, and gained mass publicity for the group. On 14 April a bomb exploded at a postal sorting office in Hendon, causing minor damage but no injuries. Three weeks later on 6 May a second bomb exploded at the same building, causing slight injuries to a passer-by. The 3 August 2001 Ealing bombing injured seven people, and on 3 November a car bomb containing 60 lb of home-made explosives was planted in the centre of Birmingham. The bomb did not fully detonate and no one was injured.
Renewed campaign in Northern Ireland
The successful attack on Hammersmith Bridge encouraged the RIRA leadership to launch further attacks in Northern Ireland.:340 On 19 June 2000 a bomb was found in the grounds of Hillsborough Castle, home of Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Mandelson.:340 On 30 June a bomb exploded on the Dublin-to-Belfast railway line near the village of Meigh in County Armagh. The explosion damaged the tracks, and caused disruption to train services. On 9 July a car bomb damaged buildings in Stewartstown, County Tyrone including an RUC station,:361 and on 10 August an attack in Derry was thwarted by the RUC after a van containing a 500 lb bomb failed to stop at a police checkpoint. Following a car chase the bombers escaped across the Irish border, and the Irish Army carried out a controlled explosion on the bomb after the van was found abandoned in County Donegal.:347–348
On 13 September 2000, two 80 lb bombs were planted at the Magilligan army camp in County Londonderry, one of which was planted in a wooden hut and partially exploded when a soldier opened the door to the hut.:347–348 The second bomb was found during a follow-up search and made safe by bomb disposal experts. On 11 November the RUC and British Army prevented a mortar attack after stopping a van near Derrylin, County Fermanagh, and the RUC prevented a further attack on 13 January 2001 when an 1100 lb bomb was found in Armagh – the largest bomb found in several years according to the RUC.:374
On 23 January the RIRA attacked Ebrington Army Barracks in Derry for a second time, firing a mortar over a perimeter fence.:375–376 A mortar similar to the one used in the attack was found by Gardaí near Newtowncunningham on 13 February, and British army bomb disposal experts made safe another mortar found between Dungannon and Carrickmore on 12 April.:375–376 On 1 August a 40 lb bomb was discovered in a car at the long-stay car park of Belfast International Airport following a telephone warning, and was made safe with two controlled explosions by bomb disposal experts. In December a six-day security operation ended when a 70 lb bomb found under railway tracks at Killeen Bridge near Newry was defused. The operation began following telephone warnings, and the road and railway line connecting Newry to Dundalk were closed due to security alerts.
A pipe bomb was discovered at a police officer's home in Annalong, County Down on 3 January 2002, and two teenage boys were injured in County Armagh on 2 March when a bomb hidden in a traffic cone exploded. On 29 March 2002 the RIRA targeted a former member of the Royal Irish Regiment from Sion Mills, County Tyrone, with a bomb attached to his car that failed to explode. On 1 August 2002 a civilian worker was killed by an explosion at a Territorial Army base in Derry. The man, a 51-year-old former member of the Ulster Defence Regiment, was the thirtieth person killed by the RIRA.
Despite the RIRA's renewed activity, the organisation was weakened by the arrest of key members and continued infiltration by informers. McKevitt was arrested on 29 March 2001 and charged with membership of an illegal organisation and directing terrorism, and remanded into custody.:378–381 In July 2001, following the arrests of McKevitt and other RIRA members, British and Irish government sources hinted that the organisation was now in disarray. Other key figures were jailed, including the RIRA's Director of Operations, Liam Campbell, who was convicted of membership of an illegal organisation, and Colm Murphy who was convicted of conspiring to cause the Omagh bombing, although this conviction was overturned on appeal.
On 10 April 2002 Ruairi Convey, from Donaghmede, Dublin, was jailed for three years for membership of the RIRA. During a search of his home a list of names and home addresses of members of the Gardaí's Emergency Response Unit was found. Five RIRA members were also convicted in connection with the 2001 bombing campaign in England, and received sentences varying from 16 years to 22 years' imprisonment. In October 2002, McKevitt and other RIRA members imprisoned in Portlaoise Prison issued a statement calling for the organisation to stand down.:410–411 After a two-month trial, McKevitt was sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment in August 2003 after being convicted of directing terrorism.
After McKevitt's imprisonment, the RIRA regrouped. The RIRA claimed responsibility for a series of firebomb attacks against premises in Belfast in November 2004, and an attack on a Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) patrol in Ballymena during March 2006 was attributed to the RIRA by the Independent Monitoring Commission (IMC). On 9 August 2006, fire bomb attacks by the RIRA hit businesses in Newry, County Down. Buildings belonging to JJB Sports and Carpetright were destroyed, and ones belonging to MFI and TK Maxx were badly damaged. On 27 October 2006, a large amount of explosives was found in Kilbranish, Mount Leinster, County Carlow by police, who believe the RIRA were trying to derail the peace process with a bomb attack. The IMC believe the RIRA were also responsible for a failed mortar attack on Craigavon PSNI Station on 4 December 2006. The IMC's October 2006 report stated that the RIRA remains "active and dangerous" and that it seeks to "sustain its position as a terrorist organisation". The RIRA has stated it has no intention of calling a ceasefire unless a declaration of intent to withdraw from Northern Ireland is made by the British Government.
The Real IRA were suspected of complicity in the murder in December 2006 of drug-dealer Martin 'Marlo' Hyland. Hyland was shot dead at his Dublin home, along with a plumber, Anthony Campbell, who was carrying out work at the house. The organisation was embroiled in a feud with Hyland's gang at the time.
On 8 November 2007 two RIRA members shot an off-duty PSNI officer as he sat in his car on Bishop Street in Derry, causing injuries to his face and arm. On 12 November another PSNI member was shot by RIRA members in Dungannon, County Tyrone. On 7 February 2008, the RIRA stated that, after experiencing a three-year period of reorganisation, it intended to "go back to war" by launching a new offensive against "legitimate targets". It also, despite having apologised for the Omagh bombing, denied any large scale involvement with the attack and said that their part had only gone as far as their codeword being used. On 12 May 2008 the RIRA seriously injured a member of the PSNI when a booby trap bomb exploded underneath his car near Spamount, County Tyrone. On 25 September 2008 the RIRA shot a man in the neck in St Johnston, near the County Londonderry border. The same man was targeted in a pipe bomb attack on his home on 25 October, the RIRA did not claim responsibility for the attack, but security forces believe they were responsible for it.
On 7 March 2009 the RIRA claimed responsibility for the 2009 Massereene Barracks shooting. This shooting occurred outside the Massereene Barracks as four soldiers were receiving a pizza delivery. Two soldiers were killed, and the other two soldiers and two deliverymen were injured. On 3 April 2009 the RIRA in Derry claimed responsibility for carrying out a punishment shooting of a man who was awaiting sentencing for raping a 15-year-old girl. The RIRA were also blamed for orchestrating rioting in the Ardoyne area of Belfast on 13 July 2009 as an Apprentice Boys parade was passing. Several PSNI officers were injured in the rioting and at least one shot was fired at police. In early November, the Independent Monitoring Commission released a report stating that the threat from the RIRA and other dissident republicans was at its most serious level since the 1998 Good Friday Agreement.
When drug dealer Sean Winters was shot dead in Portmarnock, north Dublin in September 2010, the Real IRA "emerged as the chief suspects". They were also suspected of shooting dead drugs gang leader Michael Kelly in Coolock in September 2011.
On 5 October 2010, a car bomb exploded outside a branch of the Ulster Bank on Culmore Road in Derry. Two police officers were slightly injured in the blast, which also damaged a hotel and other businesses. Several telephone warnings were received an hour prior to the blast allowing police to cordon off the area. The RIRA later claimed responsibility in a telephone call to the Derry Journal.
A large Real IRA explosives dump and arms cache were discovered in Dunleer, County Louth by Gardaí in October 2010, following a weekend of searches and arrests in the east of the country. In addition, two Real IRA men were charged in Dublin's non-jury Special Criminal Court of membership of an illegal organisation. The Real IRA claimed responsibility for kidnapping and shooting dead of one of their members, Kieran Doherty, for alleged drug dealing. Further seizures of the group's arms and explosives by the Gardaí in 2012 and 2013 led to over a dozen more arrests. In 2011 Michael Campbell, brother of Liam, was found guilty in Vilnius, Lithuania, of trying to purchase arms and explosives and was sentenced to twelve years in prison. In October 2013 Campbell was freed on appeal, only to have the Supreme Court of Lithuania order a retrial in June 2014. Campbell has maintained his innocence, accusing British intelligence of attempting to frame him.
Since 2012: merger and beyond ("New IRA")
On 26 July 2012, it was reported that Republican Action Against Drugs (RAAD) and other small republican militant groups were merging with the Real IRA. As before, the group would continue to refer to itself as "the Irish Republican Army", though some media began to refer to the group as a "new IRA".
As well as RAAD, the alliance includes an east Tyrone group thought to be responsible for killing PSNI officer Ronan Kerr in 2011, and a Belfast group who badly wounded PSNI officer Peadar Heffron in 2010. The Continuity IRA, and the group often referred to as Óglaigh na hÉireann (ONH), remain independent. The PSNI reckoned in 2012 that the new group had a membership of "between 250 and 300 military activists, backed up by associates". In November 2012 it claimed responsibility for shooting dead a prison officer near Lurgan, the first prison officer to be killed since 1993.
On 3 September 2012, prominent New IRA (former RIRA) member Alan Ryan was shot dead in Dublin. Gardaí believed he had been involved in a feud with major crime gangs from whom he was trying to extort money. Following Ryan's death an internal feud developed in the Real IRA section of the NIRA. Ryan's replacement as leader and another associate were shot and wounded in November 2012, allegedly on the orders of the Northern leadership. In March 2013, another prominent former Real IRA member, Peter Butterly from Dunleer, was shot dead; three Dublin men, allegedly from the Alan Ryan faction, were charged with his murder and IRA membership.
In June 2013, Gardaí arrested eight people after a New IRA meeting and uncovered a massive haul of the plastic explosive Semtex in two raids in Dublin. In October 2013 the New IRA claimed responsibility for "executing" an alleged leading cocaine dealer in north Belfast.
In February 2014, the group sent seven letter bombs to British Army recruitment offices in south-east England; the first time republicans had struck in Britain since 2001. The following month, a PSNI landrover was hit by an explosively formed projectile in Belfast. A civilian car was also hit by debris, but there were no injuries. The Real IRA claimed responsibility. In November 2014, a PSNI armoured jeep was hit by another 'horizontal mortar' in Derry, and in Belfast a PSNI landrover was attacked with a homemade rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launcher.
In April–May 2015, there were two New IRA bomb attacks in Derry. One exploded at the Probation Board offices, and two partially exploded at the perimeter fence of a British Army Reserve base. Later in May, four men, one an alleged associate of Real IRA leader Michael McKevitt, were reportedly arrested during an explosives seizure by police in Northern Ireland. In August, a firebomb exploded in a post van parked inside Palace Barracks, Holywood, a British military base which is home to MI5 in Northern Ireland. The firebomb destroyed the van and set nearby vehicles and garages on fire. On Halloween morning, three men were arrested and charged with IRA membership in addition to firearm offences. In November, a PSNI vehicle in Belfast was riddled with automatic gunfire, fired from an AK-47. On Christmas Day in North Belfast, police came under fire again but were not injured. The attacker was charged with attempted murder. Days later, on 27 November 2015, police in West Belfast came under heavy fire yet again. No officers were wounded because of the armour-plating and bullet-proof glass. The Real IRA or another dissident Republican group was suspected to be behind the attack.
On 4 March 2016, a prison officer (Adrian Ismay) had a heart attack and died in a hospital. He had received serious wounds following a booby-trap bomb detonating under his van on Hillsborough Drive, East Belfast 11 days earlier. The wounds he received from the bombing were directly responsible for the heart attack that killed him. The New IRA claimed responsibility and said it was a response to the alleged mistreatment of republican prisoners at Maghaberry Prison. It added that the officer was targeted because he trained prison officers at Maghaberry.
In April 2016, Gardaí arrested two significant members of the New IRA and seized €10,000. In April 2016, explosives linked to the Real IRA were found in Dublin and several people were questioned by police. The Real IRA declared that all criminals were legitimate targets after Alan Ryan's brother, Vincent Ryan, was shot dead. In April 2016, the Real IRA were blamed for badly injuring a man in a punishment shooting in Derry, shortly after a man had been killed by a dissident Republican attack in Ardoyne. In May 2016 three men were shot in paramilitary style attacks in republican areas of Belfast during a 24-hour period, leaving two injured and one dead. On 25 April a Real IRA member, Michael Barr was shot dead in west Dublin. Gardaí suspected Barr was shot dead because it was believed by the Kinahan cartel he provided a "safe house" to one of the gunmen in the Regency Hotel attack. Fifteen people were arrested in Northern Ireland following a paramilitary funeral for him.
In June 2016 it was revealed that a five-man IRA hit team were in Dublin's north inner city looking to murder two leading gangsters after one of their associates was shot dead in a gangland feud. Sources said the murder squad from the North spent several days and nights looking for their targets in the streets. In September 2016, Vincent Kelly, a close associate of Alan Ryan, who had been arrested and imprisoned following the Stamullen raid, was sentenced to nine years' imprisonment in Belfast for possession of a sub-machine gun and ammunition, after getting off a bus from Dublin.
In Cork City at 5 pm on 7 December 2016, former Chief of Staff of the RIRA southern command, Aidan "The Beast" O'Driscoll, was shot and killed in the street by two masked gunmen. O'Driscoll had been shot in the leg in June 2013 in what the RIRA claimed was a punishment-style shooting for "unrepublican conduct" before he had stepped-down from command in 2012.
On 7 June 2017, Gardaí foiled a serious IRA bomb plot after discovering six kilos of Semtex, "enough to blow up a street".
In December 2017, MI5 said that Northern Ireland has the highest level of terrorist activity of anywhere in Europe with attacks being disrupted weekly. Over 250 seizures, thwarted attacks, and counter-terrorist operations are reported to have been undertaken by British security services.
The group remain active in 2018, with it and the Continuity IRA claiming they have no plans to announce a ceasefire along the lines of that of the ONH. However, both groups have suffered major setbacks and inactivity due to feuding and heavy police intervention, and have likewise often failed to commit successful attacks due to antiquated equipment and member inexperience.
In July 2018 the New IRA claimed responsibility for a spate of gun and bomb attacks at police officers during the riots in Derry.
On 19 January 2019 there was a car bomb attack at the Bishop Street Courthouse in Derry, for which the New IRA are the "main line of enquiry". The following month, two men were shot in the city of Derry, in what was described as a "paramilitary attack" by New IRA members. However, images released after the bombing showed the courthouse suffered no damage and four suspected IRA members were arrested in connection with the bombing.
On 5 March 2019 at around 12:00 pm three explosive devices were found in packages that were found in Jiffy bags at Waterloo station and City Airport in London, as well as a separate package found nearby Heathrow Airport. It is suspected that the New IRA is behind the attack because of several postage stamps on all of the packages that can be traced to Irish post offices. MI5 warned that the possibility of Republicans being behind the suspicious packages as "possible". Also on 5 March, a parcel bomb was found in the Store Room of the University of Glasgow at around 11:40am. The West Blocks of the University were evacuated by the Police and the bomb was safely detonated under a controlled explosion by a bomb disposal unit. Nobody was injured. On 11 March 2019, it was reported that a group stylizing themselves as the IRA claimed to be behind the explosive devices, stating that they had sent 5 devices, but only 4 had been discovered. The fifth device was discovered on 22 March in a postal sorting office in the Irish city of Limerick. The device was addressed to Charing Cross railway station in central London.
On 18 April 2019 rioting took place on the streets of the Creggan after PSNI launched a raid looking for munitions. It is believed the New IRA incited the riots; they were responsible for the fatal shooting of journalist Lyra McKee—who was not the intended victim—and later admitted responsibility and issued a statement of apology to her family and friends. Using their traditional Easter Rising commemorations various other Republican groupings including Sinn Féin and Éirígí expressly called for an end to all armed actions, while others including the 32 County Sovereignty Movement condemned the attack without adding a call for the end of violence. The Irish Republican Socialist Party cancelled its Easter Rising commemoration in Derry as a direct result of Lyra McKee's death. Republican murals around the city of Derry, including the famous Free Derry Corner gable end wall, were amended over the weekend following Lyra McKee's death expressing a community desire to move away from the violence of the past and disowning the dissident groupings who desire a return to it. These events have been cited as a sign of change in attitude towards dissidents in traditionally Republican areas.
On 7 June 2019 the New IRA admitted responsibility for a potentially lethal bomb discovered on 1 June fitted under the car of a police officer at a golf club in east Belfast. A cross-border investigation was launched.
Structure and status
The RIRA has a command structure similar to the Provisional IRA, with a seven-member Army Council consisting of a chief of staff, quartermaster general, director of training, director of operations, director of finance, director of publicity, and adjutant general.:40–45 The rank-and-file members operate in active service units of covert cells to prevent the organisation from being compromised by informers. As of June 2005, the organisation is believed to have a maximum of about 150 members, according to a statement by the Irish Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform, Michael McDowell.
The RIRA also has political wings: the 32 County Sovereignty Movement (formerly the 32 County Sovereignty Committee), led by Francis Mackey, and unregistered political party Saoradh, led by Brian Kenna.
The RIRA is distinct from the Continuity IRA, another Provisional IRA splinter group founded in 1986, although the two groups have been known to co-operate at a local level. The Provisional IRA has been hostile to the RIRA and issued threats to RIRA members, and in October 2000 was alleged to be responsible for the fatal shooting of Belfast RIRA member Joe O'Connor according to O'Connor's family and 32 County Sovereignty Movement member Marian Price.:320–321
Organisations called "Irish Republican Army" are illegal in both UK law and Irish law; both proscriptions have been held to apply to the RIRA as to other groups of the name. Membership in the organisation is punishable by a sentence of up to ten years' imprisonment under UK law. In 2001 the United States government designated the RIRA (and its aliases) as a "Foreign Terrorist Organization" (FTO). This makes it illegal for Americans to provide material support to the RIRA, requires American financial institutions to freeze the group's assets, and denies suspected RIRA members visas into the United States.
In 2014, Forbes magazine estimated the group's annual turnover at US$50 million. According to the police in Northern Ireland, the main sources of the Real IRA's funding are illegal fuel operations and various smuggling activities. Illicit cigarettes were also said to be a significant source of income for the group. There are also other significant sources of funding from the group, including funding from sympathisers based in the US and other countries.
The RIRA initially took small amounts of materiel from Provisional IRA arms dumps under the control of McKevitt and other former Provisional IRA members, including the plastic explosive Semtex, Uzi submachine guns, AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles, handguns, shotguns, detonators and timing devices.:321:382–383 The defection of senior Provisional IRA members also gave the RIRA the ability to manufacture home-made explosives and improvised mortars, including the Mark 15 mortar capable of firing a 200-pound (91 kg) shell.:183
In 1999 the organisation supplemented its equipment by importing arms from Croatia, including military explosive TM500, CZ Model 25 submachine guns, modified AK-47 assault rifles with a folding stock, and RPG-18 and RPG-22 rocket launchers:382,440 but a July 2000 attempt to smuggle a second consignment of arms was foiled by Croatian police, who seized seven RPG-18s, AK-47 assault rifles, detonators, ammunition, and twenty packs of TM500.:384
In 2001 RIRA members travelled to Slovakia to procure arms, and were caught in a sting operation by the British security agency MI5. The men attempted to purchase five tonnes of plastic explosives, 2,000 detonators, 500 handguns, 200 rocket-propelled-grenades, and also wire-guided missiles and sniper rifles. Three men from County Louth were arrested and extradited to the UK and subsequently imprisoned for 30 years each after pleading guilty to conspiring to cause explosions and other charges.
In June 2006, the PSNI made arrests following an MI5 sting operation targeting a dissident republican gun smuggling plot. The RIRA had attempted to procure arms from France including Semtex and C-4 plastic explosives, SA-7 surface-to-air missiles, AK-47s, rocket launchers, heavy machine guns, sniper rifles, pistols with silencers, anti-tank weapons and detonators.:390 On 30 June 2010, two of those arrested were found guilty following a trial by judge in Belfast. On 1 October 2010 one man was sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment for attempting to import weapons and explosives, while the other was sentenced to 4 years' imprisonment for making a Portuguese property available for the purpose of terrorism.
- "Tom Brady: Threat level remains severe after merger of terror groups". Irish Independent, 14 September 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- McDonald, Henry (14 May 2016). "Police 'are facing severe terror threat from IRA'" – via www.theguardian.com.
- Reilly, Gavan. "Dissident republican groups merge to form 'new IRA'". TheJournal.ie.
- O'Keeffe, Cormac (27 April 2019). "New IRA 'will be unaffected' by murder on Derry street". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- Harnden, Toby (1999). Bandit Country. Hodder & Stoughton. pp. 429–431. ISBN 0-340-71736-X.
- English, Richard (2003). Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA. Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-49388-4.
- Mooney, John; O'Toole, Michael (2004). Black Operations: The Secret War Against the Real IRA. Maverick House. ISBN 0-9542945-9-9.
- Boyne, Sean (24 August 1998). "The Real IRA: after Omagh, what now?". Jane's Intelligence Review. London: Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
- "'Real' Irish Republican Army (rIRA) Statement". CAIN. 28 January 2003. Retrieved 9 May 2007.
- "Police detonate car bomb in Ulster". BBC News. 7 January 1998. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
- "Eleven injured by Northern Ireland bomb". BBC News. 21 February 1998. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
- "Car bomb explodes in Portadown". BBC News. 23 February 1998. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
- "'True' IRA claims responsibility for blast". BBC News. 10 May 1998. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
- "Abstracts on Organisations – 'R'". CAIN. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- "Car Bomb Wounds 35 in Ulster Town". The New York Times. 2 August 1998. Retrieved 17 June 2007.
- "Bomb warning in Banbridge". RTÉ. 13 February 1999. Retrieved 17 June 2007.
- "Shot robber 'was republican paramilitary'". BBC News. 4 May 1998. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
- "The Omagh Bomb – Main Events". CAIN. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- White, Michael (25 August 1998). "MPs recalled to match Dublin anti-terror law". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
- O'Neill, Sean (4 May 1998). "Give up violence or else, Provos tell the 'Real IRA'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 16 March 2005. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
- "Candlelight vigil for bomb victims". BBC News. 20 August 1998. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- "1998: Real IRA announce ceasefire". BBC News. 8 September 1998. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- Boyne, Sean (2006). Gunrunners. O'Brien Press. ISBN 978-1-84717-014-9.
- Tom Brady (22 October 1998). "Garda chief pledges to halt the Real IRA". Independent.ie. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- Boyne, Sean (23 August 2000). "Real IRA arms purchasing in Croatia indicates a change of tactics". Jane's Terrorism and Security Monitor. London: Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on 24 June 2006. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Real IRA call for unity among all Republicans". RTÉ. 20 January 2000. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- "Police quiz man about bombing". BBC News. 28 February 2000. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- Tom Brady (29 February 2000). "Real IRA behind bid to blow up barracks". Independent.ie. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- Tom Brady (29 February 2000). "Rocket launcher linked to dissidents". BBC News. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- "Explosives find linked to Real IRA". BBC News. 16 March 2000. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- "Bombing blamed on dissidents". BBC News. 6 April 2000. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- "Police hunt bridge bombers". BBC News. 2 June 2000. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
- McDonald, Henry (4 June 2000). "Real IRA armed with super mortar". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- Randall, Colin (26 April 1996). "Bridge survives as IRA's 30lb bombs fail to explode". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 26 August 2004. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- "Bomb scares hit capital". BBC News. 19 July 2000. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- "Security tight in London in wake of MI6 attack". RTÉ. 21 September 2000. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- Editor, David Cracknell, Deputy Political (12 November 2000). "Real IRA's 500lb bomb for London is thwarted" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- "TA blast was deliberate attack". BBC News. 22 February 2001. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- "BBC bomb prompts terror warning". BBC News. 5 March 2001. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- "Bomb blast outside BBC". BBC News. 4 March 2001. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- Taylor, Peter (2001). Brits. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 384. ISBN 0-7475-5806-X.
- "Real IRA linked to post office blast". BBC News. 15 April 2001. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- "Election bombing campaign feared". BBC News. 6 May 2001. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
- "New leads in hunt for bombers". BBC News. 11 November 2001. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- "Mandelson feels 'safe' despite device". BBC News. 20 June 2000. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Dissidents linked to railway blast". BBC News. 30 June 2000. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Dissidents linked to NI blast". BBC News. 9 July 2000. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Major NI bomb attack 'thwarted'". BBC News. 11 August 2000. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Bombs placed in army base". BBC News. 13 September 2000. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Mortar find linked to Real IRA". BBC News. 13 November 2000. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Bomb 'largest found' in recent years". BBC News. 17 January 2001. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Dissident Republicans blamed for mortar attack". RTÉ. 23 January 2001. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "'Barrack buster' mortar disarmed". BBC News. 15 April 2001. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Dissidents blamed for airport bomb". BBC News. 2 August 2001. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Bomb found under rail line". BBC. 5 December 2001. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Republicans 'attacked officer's home'". BBC. 4 January 2002. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Boys injured in blast". BBC. 3 March 2002. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- David McKittrick (30 March 2002). "Ex-soldier escapes 'Real IRA' booby trap bomb attack". The Irish Independent. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
- "Dissidents blamed for army attack". BBC. 1 August 2002. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Real IRA a 'high threat'". The Daily Telegraph. 8 April 2003. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- Shane Harrison (24 October 2001). "Dissidents dub IRA 'traitors'". BBC News. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- McKittrick, David (26 January 2002). "Omagh bomb plot man is sentenced to 14 years' jail". The Independent. Retrieved 17 April 2007.
- "Omagh bombing convict wins appeal". The Independent. Press Association. 21 January 2005. Retrieved 17 April 2007.
- "Dissident republican jailed for IRA membership". BreakingNews.ie. 10 April 2002. Archived from the original on 4 June 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- "Real IRA bombers jailed". BBC. 9 April 2003. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- "Real IRA announces its disbandment". RTÉ. 20 October 2002. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- "McKevitt sentenced to 20 years". The Guardian. Press Association. 7 August 2003. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- Chrisafis, Angelique (26 November 2004). "Firebomb campaign hits Belfast". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- Independent Monitoring Commission (4 October 2006). "Twelfth report of the Independent Monitoring Commission" (PDF). The Stationery Office: 12–13. Retrieved 13 July 2012. Cite journal requires
- "Real IRA admits city bomb attacks". BBC. 11 August 2006. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- "Irish police 'foil Real IRA plot'". BBC. 28 October 2006. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- "Device is fired at police station". BBC. 4 December 2006. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
- Independent Monitoring Commission (25 April 2007). "Fifteenth report of the Independent Monitoring Commission" (PDF). The Stationery Office: 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2012. Cite journal requires
- Melaugh, Dr Martin. "CAIN: real Irish Republican Army (rIRA) Statement, 28 January 2003". cain.ulst.ac.uk.
- "Funeral for Real IRA member". News. Irish Times. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Policeman injured in gun attack". BBC News. 12 November 2007. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
- "Real IRA admits shooting officer". BBC. 14 November 2007. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
- Adrian Mullan (7 February 2008). "Mackey slams Provos as RIRA vows resumption of violence". Ulster Herald. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- "Real IRA apologises for Omagh bomb". BBC. 18 August 1998. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- "Officer hurt by booby-trap bomb". BBC. 13 May 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
- Diana Rusk (16 May 2008). "Murder bid admitted by Real IRA". The Irish News. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
- "Pipe-bomb target previously shot by RIRA". The Irish News. 29 October 2008.
- "'Real IRA was behind army attack'". BBC. 7 March 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
- "How the barracks attack unfolded". BBC. 8 March 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2009.
- "Dissidents claim shooting". Londonderry Sentinel. 3 April 2009.
- "Real IRA blamed for Belfast riots". BBC News. 14 July 2009.
- "Report: IRA dissidents pose a threat to Northern Ireland". AP. 4 November 2009.
- "Real IRA claims responsibility for Derry car bombing". BBC. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "Real IRA claims Derry bombing". IrishTimes.com. 10 May 2010.
- "IRA explosives dump and weapons cache found hidden near Irish border". Associated Newspapers. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Kieran Doherty: Appeal four years after Real IRA murder". BBC News. 24 February 2014.
- "Dissident arms seizure includes golden gun". The Journal. 11 July 2013.
- "Vilnius 'Real IRA' trial to open". BBC News. 18 August 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- "Real IRA suspect jailed after M15 sting in 2008 is freed from Lithuanian jail due to lack of direct evidence linking him to the terrorist group". Daily Mail. 2 October 2013.
- "The Irishman accused of Real IRA gun-running in Lithuania is to face a retrial". Irish News. 27 June 2014.
- McDonald, Henry (26 July 2012). "Republican dissidents join forces to form a new IRA". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "New IRA: full statement by the dissident 'Army Council'". The Guardian. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "Rise of the 'new IRA' and what it means for the rest of us". The Herald. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- McDonald, Henry (5 December 2012). "'New IRA' group blamed for killing of Dublin crime boss". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Deeney, Donna (11 December 2012). "Terror suspects part of new dissident group, court told". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Melaugh, Dr Martin. "CAIN: Issues: Violence – Draft List of Deaths Related to the Conflict in 2012". cain.ulst.ac.uk.
- "David Black murder: New 'IRA' group claims it murdered prison officer". BBC News, 12 November 2012.
- "Prison officer killed in Northern Ireland motorway shooting". Reuters, 1 November 2012.
- "Man arrested in Alan Ryan murder investigation". RTÉ. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Three charged over Peter Butterly murder". RTÉ. 9 March 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "'IRA group' sent suspect packages to army offices". BBC News. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- McDonald, Henry (17 February 2014). "New IRA sent bombs to army recruitment centres, Met confirms". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Dissident 'IRA' claims west Belfast mortar attack. BBC News. 18 March 2014.
- Dissident 'IRA' claim 'no surprise' to security forces. BBC News. 19 March 2014.
- "IRA warns public to stay away from PSNI targets as it launches fresh bid to kill". The Irish Mirror. 6 November 2014.
- "Fears dissidents are upping ante as grenade launcher used in latest bid to murder police". Belfast Telegraph. 18 November 2014.
- "‘Inadequate warning’ before Derry bomb blast" Archived 8 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. UTV News. 28 April 2015.
- "Londonderry: Two bombs found at Army Reserve base". BBC News. 4 May 2015.
- "Crony of terror boss Michael McKevitt among four held after big explosives seizure – BelfastTelegraph.co.uk". Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "Explosion at army barracks was incendiary device". The Irish News. 15 August 2015.
- "Three men charged with IRA membership and firearms offences".
- "'IRA' claims it fired shots at PSNI car in Belfast". The Irish News. 28 November 2015.
- "Belfast: Man charged after shots fired at police car". BBC News. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Man arrested in north Belfast after police car is shot at on Christmas Day" – via www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk.
- "Belfast shooting: 'Military assault rifle' used in police car attack". BBC News. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Belfast bomb: Dissident republicans 'new IRA' claim prison officer attack". BBC News. 7 March 2016.
- "€10,000 seized as two significant IRA suspects arrested in cash handover". Independent.ie.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Maher, David (2 March 2016). "Dissidents release chilling threat to wipe out 'all known drug dealers'". Irish Mirror.
- McDonald, Henry (19 April 2016). "New IRA blamed after man shot in legs in Derry". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- McDonald, Henry (5 May 2016). "Fifteen men arrested in Northern Ireland after paramilitary funeral". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- "Larne Capanagh Forest arms find 'one of the most significant seizures' in years". Belfast Telegraph. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Foy, Ken (9 June 2016). "Missing Kinahan hitman stalked by IRA murder squad". Irish Independent. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Cork dissident murdered: 'Beast' gunned down on street". 8 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- "Police foil 'New IRA' bomb plot as they seize enough Semtex to blow up a street". Metro. 7 June 2017.
- "New IRA 'develops new under-car bomb'". 1 September 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
- O'Connor, Niall (21 December 2017). "MI5: Terror threat in Ireland is greatest in Europe". Irish Mirror.
- Óglaigh na hÉireann (Real IRA splinter group)
- Young, Connla (20 July 2018). "'IRA' claims responsibility for Derry attacks". The Irish News.
- "Police arrest further two men in connection with Londonderry car bomb attack" – via www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk.
- Donaghy, Gerard. "Two men shot in 'vicious' paramilitary-style attacks in Derry". The Irish Post. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- "Two men shot in paramilitary style attacks in Derry". The Irish Times. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- "Four arrested over 'reckless' Derry bomb". 20 January 2019 – via www.bbc.com.
- "New IRA terror fears after bombs sent to Heathrow, Waterloo and City Airport". MSN. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- "Parcel bomb addressed to Charing Cross Station linked to four previous 'IRA' packages". ITV News. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- "Group calling itself IRA claims it sent parcel bombs to UK addresses". The Guardian. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- "Irish and UK suspect packages 'identical'". 22 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- "Lyra McKee killing: 'New IRA' admits responsibility". BBC News. 23 April 2019.
- "PSNI believes New IRA responsible for creggan unrest". Irish Times. 19 April 2019.
- Lyra McKee: New IRA says its activists killed journalist The Guardian, 2019
- "Political stalemate cannot continue – McDonald". 21 April 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "After the death of Lyra McKee all armed attacks must end". 19 April 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "32 County Sovereignty Movement Easter Message 2019". 21 April 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "IRSP Derry cancel Easter wreath laying ceremony". 19 April 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "https://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/ireland/lyra-mckee-killing-has-united-derry-against-new-ira-terrorists-tcrl796n8". 22 April 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019. External link in
- "Golf club car bomb: New IRA says it was behind attack". BBC News. 7 June 2019.
- "Parliamentary Debates (Official Report – Unrevised) Dáil Éireann Thursday, 23 June 2005 – Page 1". Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. 23 June 2005. Archived from the original on 27 February 2006. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- Watt, Nicholas (16 April 2001). "Bombers widen the republican divide". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 May 2007.
- "New 'revolutionary' republican party Saoradh launched".
- Independent Monitoring Commission (1 February 2006). "Eighth report of the Independent Monitoring Commission" (PDF). The Stationery Office: 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2012. Cite journal requires
- Mullin, John (19 October 2000). "Shots fired at funeral of Real IRA man". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- "Terrorism Act 2000". Section 11, Act No. 11 of 2000.
- "Terrorism Act 2000". Schedule 2, Act No. 11 of 2000.
- "Written Answers – Proscribed Organisations". Dáil Éireann debates. 1 June 2004. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- "S.I. No. 162/1939 – Unlawful Organisation (Suppression) Order, 1939". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 15 March 2016. under section 18 of the Offences against the State Act 1939
- "The Queen v Z." Courts Service of Northern Ireland. 30 June 2004. pp.  NICA 23. Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- Douglas Hogg, Member of Parliament for Sleaford and North Hykeham (30 October 2002). "Prevention and Suppression of Terrorism". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. col. 889.
- Reuters (16 May 2001). "Real IRA Gets Terrorist Listing". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
- "US brands Real IRA 'terrorists'". BBC. 16 May 2001. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- "The World's 10 Richest Terrorist Organizations". Forbes. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Real IRA 'is ninth richest terror group in the world'". Belfast Telegraph. 17 November 2014.
- Billingslea, William (2004). "Illicit cigarette trafficking and the funding of terrorism" (PDF). The Police Chief Magazine. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- Oborne, Peter (25 April 2013). "The Boston bombings should make 'Real IRA' supporters in the US stop and think | Coffee House". Coffee House. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- Norton-Taylor, Richard (8 May 2002). "30 years in jail for Real IRA trio". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Man in court on 'Real IRA' charge". BBC News. 24 June 2006. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "Two guilty of Real IRA gun plot". BBC News. 30 June 2010.
- "Pair jailed for Real IRA gun plot". BBC News. 1 October 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Real Irish Republican Army.|