Railway coupling by country

The railcar couplers or couplings listed, described, and depicted below are used worldwide on legacy and modern railways. Compatible and simular designs are frequently referred to using widely differing make, brand, regional or nick names, which can make describing standard or typical designs confusing. Dimensions and ratings noted in these articles are usually of nominal or typical components and systems, though standards and practices also vary widely with railway, region, and era. Transition between incompatible coupler types may be accomplished using Dual or Compromise couplings or a Barrier wagon.

Coupler types

Africa

Algeria

  • English, Russian couplers on 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge track[6]
  • English couplers on 1,055 mm (3 ft 5 12 in) gauge track[6]

Angola

Botswana

  • AAR Couplers

Benin

Burkina Faso & Côte d'Ivoire

Cameroon

  • Russian couplers[6]

Congo~Brazzaville

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Egypt

  • English couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on modern stock[9][10][11][12]

Eritrea

Ethiopia

Gabon

  • Russian couplers

Ghana

  • Norwegian couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on modern stock

Kenya

  • AAR and Norwegian couplers on Narrow Gauge railways
  • AAR Alliance couplers on Standard Gauge railways

Liberia (Bong)

  • Link and pin couplers

Malawi

Mali

Mauritania

  • AAR couplers
  • Russian couplers[16]

Morocco

  • English couplers[17]

Mozambique

Nigeria

Senegal

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Norwegian couplers on Indian Stock[18]

South Africa

Sudan

Tanzania

  • Norwegian couplers on 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) gauge track[8]
  • AAR couplers on 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge track
  • AAR couplers on 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) gauge track.

Togo

  • Center buffer and side chain couplers
  • Norwegian couplers on Indian Stock

Tunisia

  • English couplers

Uganda

  • narrow gauge : Norwegian.
  • standard gauge : alliance.

Asia

Bangladesh

  • AAR couplers on 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) Stock
  • Norwegian couplers on 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) Stock[6]

Cambodia

  • English couplers

China

  • AAR couplers on passenger and freight stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on high speed (CRH) and subway trains

Hong Kong

India

  • English couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on modern stock[29]
  • Norwegian couplers on 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) gauge track[30]
  • ABC couplers on narrow gauge stock
  • Schaku Couplers in Suburban EMU and DEMU trains
  • Scharfenberg Couplers are also used in rapid transit transports like metros

Indonesia

  • Norwegian couplers on traditional stock
  • AAR couplers and Shibata couplers on modern stock

Iran

  • English, Russian (C-AKv) combo couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock

Iraq

  • English couplers on historic stock
  • English, Russian (C-AKv) combo couplers on modern stock[31][32]

Israel

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock

Japan

  • English couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Shibata couplers (based on Scharfenberg couplers) on passenger stock

North Korea

  • AAR couplers on standard gauge stock
  • Reduced-size Janney (AAR) couplers on narrow gauge stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on Pyongyang Metro stock

South Korea

  • English, link and pin couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on modern stock[33]
  • Shibata couplers (based on Scharfenberg couplers) on Subways and metro car

Malaysia

  • Norwegian couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on modern stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on ERL, LRT, MRT and Monorail.

Pakistan

Russia

  • Russian couplers on domestic stock (with side buffers on passenger coaches)
  • English couplers on Euro Stock (exchanged on the border)
  • Scharfenberg couplers on some passenger unit trains (Velaro, Desiro)

Singapore

Sri Lanka

  • Buffers and AAR couplers

Thailand

  • AAR couplers on all SRT rolling stock
  • Norwegian couplers on historic stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on mass-transit trains
  • Wedge Lock, Ward couplers on London Underground stock
  • Narrow gauge lines use a mixture of couplings.

Turkey

  • English couplers on traditional stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock
  • Russian couplers on mining stock

Vietnam

  • AAR couplers on both 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) and 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) rolling stock

Europe

Austria

  • English couplers on standard gauge stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger units
  • Bosna or Scharfenberg couplers on narrow gauge stock

Belgium

Finland

  • English (UIC) couplers on passenger cars and most freight cars and on historical locomotives
  • Russian SA3 couplers on Russian cars and some heavy-duty freight cars
  • "Unilink" (SA3 clone with UIC-style screw link) or "Vapiti" (SA3 clone with movable link arm for English couplers) couplers on the majority of locomotives; compatible with SA3 and English (UIC) center hook
  • Scharfenberg (some made by Dellner) couplers or Secheron GF couplers on passenger multiple-unit stock

France

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock (multiple units and high speed trains only)
  • Russian couplers on unit ore trains

Germany

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock
  • AK69e and C-AKv couplers on unit ore trains
  • AK69e and Russian SA-3 mixed in trains via Mukran ferry terminal
  • Scharfenberg or central buffer couplers on narrow gauge stock

Greece

  • English on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg on passenger stock
  • Center buffer and side chains on narrow gauge stock

Hungary

  • English on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg on multiple units (in some cases jointly with side buffers)
  • BSI with side buffers on BDVmot electric multiple units
  • Link-and-pin on narrow gauge stock

Italy

  • English couplers on standard gauge stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on some EMU/DMU and FS Class E.464

Netherlands

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • BSI, Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock
  • Russian couplers on unit ore trains

Norway

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Norwegian couplers on historic stock, narrow gauge only
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock (multiple units)
  • Russian SA3 couplers on unit ore trains (Ofoten Line)

Poland

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock
  • Russian couplers on unit ore trains and Russian interchange stock

Portugal

  • English couplers on freight and loco hauled passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on multiple unit passenger stock

Romania

  • English on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg on Desiro multiple units and some ex-German rail buses
  • Link-and-pin on narrow gauge stock

Russia

  • Russian couplers on domestic stock (with side buffers on passenger coaches)
  • English couplers on Euro Stock (exchanged on the border)
  • Scharfenberg couplers on some passenger unit trains (Velaro, Desiro)

Spain

  • English couplers on freight and loco hauled passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on multiple unit passenger stock
  • Alliance couplers on freight stock in narrow gauge
  • BSI couplers on multiple unit passenger stock (only in Catalonian Railways: FGC)

Sweden

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock
  • Russian couplers on iron ore trains (Iron Ore Line)
  • Variant of Norwegian couplers on historic (museum) narrow-gauge stock

Switzerland

  • English couplers on standard gauge stock
  • GFV, Schwab, Scharfenberg or BSI couplers on passenger units
  • AK69e couplers within BLS EW III sets
  • GF, GFV or center buffer couplers on meter and narrow gauge stock

Ukraine

  • Russian (SA3) couplers on broad gauge rolling stock
  • Combined Russian/English couplers on SUW2000 gauge-changing coaches
  • Scharfenberg couplers on some EMU trains
  • Central buffer and chain couplers on narrow gauge rolling stock

United Kingdom

  • BSI couplers on most diesel multiple unit types, but also Dellner and Scharfenberg on some more recent types
  • AAR Type H "Tightlock" coupling heads on 1970s to 1990s electric multiple units
  • Scharfenberg-type coupling heads (often Dellner) on most new electric multiple units, with a variety of electrical connection systems
  • English couplings, AAR couplers on some freight stock, most locomotive-hauled passenger stock has a 23rd size Janney/Buckeye coupler
  • Wedgelock, Ward couplers on London Underground stock
  • Narrow gauge lines use a mixture of couplings

North America

Canada

  • AAR couplers on traditional stock
  • Scharfenberg, Wedge Lock, H2C couplers on transit stock

Mexico

  • AAR couplers on traditional stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock

United States

Oceania

Australia

  • English, Norwegian couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock

New Zealand

South America

Argentina

  • English couplers on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) and on 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge[6]
  • AAR couplers on at least some Buenos Aires passenger equipment (observed 1997)
  • AAR couplers on 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge[6]

Brazil

Chile

  • AAR couplers[6]
  • English couplers in coaches and locomotives bought from Spain
  • Scharfemberg couplers in passenger units bought from Spain

Paraguay

  • English couplers[37]

Uruguay

  • English couplers[37]

See also

References

  1. "ABC Couplers". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  2. ABC Couplers Archived 2009-05-21 at the Wayback Machine
  3. "Coupler conversion". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  4. "Centre Buffer Coupler of AAR type". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  5. "Ward coupler". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  6. Jane's World Railways 2002–2003 p5
  7. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-11295533
  8. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-14. Retrieved 2013-12-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. "Rail pictures". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  10. "Rail pictures". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  11. http://www.besco.in/clients.htm
  12. "RailPictures.Net Photo: 3864 Egyptian railways (ENR) EMD G22W-AC at Kafr el Shiekh, Egypt by mohamed". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  13. "Il Materiale Rotabile". Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  14. "The Franco-Ethiopian Railway — Djibouti to Addis-Ababa". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  15. "trans zambesia locomotive, AEI, malawi locomotive, nigeria locomotive". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  16. SA3 coupler
  17. "IN NORTHERN AFRICA". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  18. "The Railways of Mali and Senegal 2007". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  19. Espitalier, T.J.; Day, W.A.J. (1943). The Locomotive in South Africa - A Brief History of Railway Development. Chapter I - The Period of the 4 ft. 8½ in. Gauge. South African Railways and Harbours Magazine, June 1943. pp. 437-440.
  20. Espitalier, T.J.; Day, W.A.J. (1944). The Locomotive in South Africa - A Brief History of Railway Development. Chapter III - Natal Government Railways (Continued). South African Railways and Harbours Magazine, September 1944. p. 669.
  21. Suid-Afrikaanse Vervoerdienste (South African Transport Services) (1983). Passassierswa- en Trokhandboek (Passenger Carriage and Truck Manual), Vol 1, Hoofstukke 1-15 (Chapters 1-15). South African Transport Services, 1983. Chapter 13.
  22. Espitalier, T.J.; Day, W.A.J. (1944). The Locomotive in South Africa - A Brief History of Railway Development. Chapter II - The Cape Government Railways (Continued). South African Railways and Harbours Magazine, April 1944. pp. 253-257.
  23. Holland, D. F. (1972). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways. 2: 1910-1955 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 51–52, 117–118. ISBN 978-0-7153-5427-8.
  24. South African Railways & Harbours/Suid Afrikaanse Spoorweë en Hawens (15 Aug 1941). Locomotive Diagram Book/Lokomotiefdiagramboek, 2'0" & 3'6" Gauge/Spoorwydte, Steam Locomotives/Stoomlokomotiewe. SAR/SAS Mechanical Department/Werktuigkundige Dept. Drawing Office/Tekenkantoor, Pretoria. pp. 6a-7a, 25.
  25. At least some versions of the automatic couplers used in South Africa follows the Henricot coupler patent and not the AAR version. The following note is given on drawing CME10719-478/68 "Automatic Coupler, type MS (127 mm x 140 mm)", also referred to as SASKOP (Suid-Afrikaanse Spoorweë Koppelaar - South African Railways Coupler): "The copyright in this drawing vests in "Société Anonyme Usines Emile Henricot of Court-Saint-Étienne", Belgium. The said company is also the owner of the patent in respect of the automatic coupler covered by this drawing."
  26. Pivnic, Les. "Soul of A Railway, System 7, Natalspruit to Vereeniging – Part 1".
  27. Locopage
  28. "The Hindu : Tamil Nadu / Tiruchi News : Rs. 80-crore target for railway spares export". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  29. "Centre Buffer coupler of AAR type". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  30. "[IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: Rolling Stock – II". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  31. Jane's World Railways 1969/1970 pp 594/595
  32. http://www.ajg41.clara.co.uk/iraq/links.html
  33. Railway Gazette International Aug 2008 p517
  34. "Centre Buffer coupler of AAR type". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  35. Jane's World Railways 1969/1970 pp 501 thru 504
  36. Railway Gazette International April 2009, p61
  37. "trains-worldexpresses.com". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
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