RTI(-4229)-336, (LS-193,309, (−)-2β-(3-(4-methylphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane) is a phenyltropane derivative which acts as a potent and selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor and stimulant drug. It binds to the dopamine transporter with around 20x the affinity of cocaine,[1] however it produces relatively mild stimulant effects, with a slow onset and long duration of action.[2] (however other sources class it as having among the faster onsets of action from among phenyltropanes[3]) These characteristics make it a potential candidate for treatment of cocaine addiction, as a possible substitute drug analogous to how methadone is used for treating heroin abuse.[4][5] RTI-336 fully substitutes for cocaine in addicted monkeys and supports self-administration,[6][7] and significantly reduces rates of cocaine use, especially when combined with SSRIs,[8] and research is ongoing to determine whether it could be a viable substitute drug in human cocaine addicts.

CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass392.92 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)


Lower reinforcing strength of the phenyltropane cocaine analogs RTI-336 and RTI-177 compared to cocaine in nonhuman primates.

Influence of chronic dopamine transporter inhibition by RTI-336 on motor behavior, sleep and hormone levels in rhesus monkeys.

Pharmacotherapy for Cocaine Abuse

Development of the Dopamine Transporter Selective RTI-336 as a Pharmacotherapy for Cocaine Abuse (FIC, et al. 2006).

RTIXR[3H]CFT[3H]Nisoxetine[3H]ParoxetineN ÷ DS ÷ D
Coc89.13298 (1986)1045 (45)37.0111.79
177Clphenyl1.28504 (304)2420 (220)393.81891
176Mephenyl1.58398 (239)5110 (465)251.93234
354Meethyl1.62299 (180)6400 (582)184.63951
336Clp-cresyl4.091714 (1033)5741 (522)419.11404
386Mep-anisyl3.93756 (450)4027 (380)192.41025

N.B. RTI-371[9]

See also


  1. Carroll, F.; Pawlush, N.; Kuhar, M.; Pollard, G.; Howard, J. (2004). "Synthesis, monoamine transporter binding properties, and behavioral pharmacology of a series of 3beta-(substituted phenyl)-2beta-(3'-substituted isoxazol-5-yl)tropanes". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 47 (2): 296–302. doi:10.1021/jm030453p. PMID 14711303.
  2. Carroll, F.; Fox, B.; Kuhar, M.; Howard, J.; Pollard, G.; Schenk, S. (2006). "Effects of dopamine transporter selective 3-phenyltropane analogs on locomotor activity, drug discrimination, and cocaine self-administration after oral administration". European Journal of Pharmacology. 553 (1–3): 149–156. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.09.024. PMID 17067572.
  3. Kimmel, Heather L.; O'Connor, Joann A.; Carroll, F. Ivy; Howell, Leonard L. (2007). "Faster onset and dopamine transporter selectivity predict stimulant and reinforcing effects of cocaine analogs in squirrel monkeys". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 86 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2006.12.006. ISSN 0091-3057. PMC 1850383. PMID 17258302.
  4. Carroll, F.; Howard, J.; Howell, L.; Fox, B.; Kuhar, M. (2006). "Development of the dopamine transporter selective RTI-336 as a pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse". The AAPS Journal. 8 (1): E196–E203. doi:10.1208/aapsj080124. PMC 2751440. PMID 16584128.
  5. Sofuoglu, M; Kosten, TR (Mar 2006). "Emerging pharmacological strategies in the fight against cocaine addiction". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 11 (1): 91–98. doi:10.1517/14728214.11.1.91. PMID 16503828.
  6. Kimmel, H. .; O'Connor, J. .; Carroll, F. .; Howell, L. . (2007). "Faster onset and dopamine transporter selectivity predict stimulant and reinforcing effects of cocaine analogs in squirrel monkeys". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 86 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2006.12.006. PMC 1850383. PMID 17258302.
  7. Kimmel, Heather L.; Negus, S. Stevens; Wilcox, Kristin M.; Ewing, Sarah B.; Stehouwer, Jeffrey; Goodman, Mark M.; Votaw, John R.; Mello, Nancy K.; Carroll, F. Ivy; Howell, Leonard L. (2008). "Relationship between rate of drug uptake in brain and behavioral pharmacology of monoamine transporter inhibitors in rhesus monkeys". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 90 (3): 453–462. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2008.03.032. PMC 2453312. PMID 18468667.
  8. Howell, L.; Carroll, F.; Votaw, J.; Goodman, M.; Kimmel, H. (2007). "Effects of combined dopamine and serotonin transporter inhibitors on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 320 (2): 757–765. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.108324. PMID 17105829.
  9. Navarro, H.; Howard, J.; Pollard, G.; Carroll, F. (2009). "Positive allosteric modulation of the human cannabinoid (CB1) receptor by RTI-371, a selective inhibitor of the dopamine transporter". British Journal of Pharmacology. 156 (7): 1178–1184. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00124.x. PMC 2697692. PMID 19226282.
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