The Vympel R-37 (NATO reporting name: AA-X-13/AA-13 Arrow) is a Russian hypersonic air-to-air missile with very long range. The missile and its variants also had the names K-37, izdeliye 610 and R-VD (Ракета Высокой Дальности (Raketa-Vysokoy Dalnosty), "Very Long Range Missile"), and the NATO codenames 'Arrow' and 'Andi'. It was developed from the R-33.
R-37M at 2013 MAKS Airshow
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Used by||Russian Federation Air Force (RFAF)|
|Mass||600 kilograms (1,320 lb)|
|Length||4.20 metres (13 ft 9 in)|
|Diameter||38 centimetres (15 in)|
|Warhead weight||60 kg (135 lb)|
|Wingspan||0.7 m (2 ft 4 in)|
|Speed||Mach 6 (7,350 km/h; 4,567 mph)|
|Inertial with mid-course update, semi-active and active radar homing|
The missile was designed in the early 1980s and first flown in 1989. Testing of the R-37 continued through the 1990s, and in 1994, a trial round scored a kill at a range of 162 nautical miles (300 km). However, the program appears to have been dropped around 1998 on grounds of cost.
The R-37 is now in production to equip upgraded Russian MiG-31BM interceptors. Despite the early intent to integrate the weapon on the Flanker family, this has yet to be reported.
The R-37 was developed from the R-33. For compatibility with aircraft that did not have the MiG-31's sophisticated radar, the semi-active seeker was replaced with a variant of the Agat 9B-1388 active seeker; mid-body strakes enhance lift and hence range, and folding tail controls allow semi-conformal carriage on planes that are not as big as the MiG-31. According to Defence Today, the range depends on the flight profile, from 80 nautical miles (150 km) for a direct shot to 215 nautical miles (398 km) for a cruise glide profile. According to Jane's there are two variants, the R-37 and the R-37M; the latter has a jettisonable rocket booster that increases the range to "300-400km" (160–220 nm).
The R-37M designation has since been used for a modernized variant of the missile, also known as RVV-BD (Raketa Vozduh-Vozduh Bolyshoy Dalnosty, English for Long-Range Air-to-Air Missile). It will be carried by the modernized MiG-31BM interceptors and Su-35S and Su-57 multirole fighters. It is not known if the long range air-to-air missile for the Su-57, designated as Izdeliye 810, is a derivative of the R-37M.
- "Missiles in the Asia Pacific" (PDF), Defence Today: 67, May 2005, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 January 2009
- "R-37, R-37M (AA-X-13) (Russian Federation), AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - BEYOND VISUAL RANGE". janes.com. 12 January 2009. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008.
- "New Russian long-range AAM integration to expand to four fighter models - Jane's 360". janes.com. 9 July 2018. Archived from the original on 27 November 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "Russian Air Force Tests New Air-to-Air Missile". Sputnik (news agency). 24 January 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "Russia's New R-37M Air-to-Air Missile: Unique and Unmatched". strategic-culture.org. 15 October 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- "Russia's Su-57 jet gets hypersonic missile that can shoot down enemy aircraft '300km away'". rt.com. 26 September 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- "Управляемая авиационная ракета класса "воздух-воздух" большой дальности РВВ-БД". missile.ru. October 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2019.