R-37 (missile)

The Vympel R-37 (NATO reporting name: AA-X-13/AA-13 Arrow)[2] is a Russian hypersonic air-to-air missile with very long range. The missile and its variants also had the names K-37, izdeliye 610 and R-VD (Ракета Высокой Дальности (Raketa-Vysokoy Dalnosty), "Very Long Range Missile"), and the NATO codenames 'Arrow' and 'Andi'.[3] It was developed from the R-33.

AA-X-13 Arrow
R-37M at 2013 MAKS Airshow
Typeair-to-air missile
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service2019
Used byRussian Federation Air Force (RFAF)
Production history
Mass600 kilograms (1,320 lb)
Length4.20 metres (13 ft 9 in)
Diameter38 centimetres (15 in)
WarheadHE, fragmenting
Warhead weight60 kg (135 lb)

Wingspan0.7 m (2 ft 4 in)
PropellantSolid rocket
150-398 km [1]
SpeedMach 6 (7,350 km/h; 4,567 mph)
Inertial with mid-course update, semi-active and active radar homing

It was designed to shoot down tankers, AWACS and other C4ISTAR aircraft[2] whilst keeping the launch platform out of range of any fighters that might be protecting the target.


The missile was designed in the early 1980s and first flown in 1989.[3] Testing of the R-37 continued through the 1990s,[3] and in 1994, a trial round scored a kill at a range of 162 nautical miles (300 km).[2] However, the program appears to have been dropped around 1998 on grounds of cost.[3]

Work on the missile appears to have restarted in late 2006,[3] as part of the MiG-31BM program to update the Foxhound with a new radar and ground attack capability.[3]

In 2018, the R-37M had finished its operational validation tests.[4][5]


The R-37 is now in production to equip upgraded Russian MiG-31BM interceptors. Despite the early intent to integrate the weapon on the Flanker family, this has yet to be reported.[6]


The R-37 was developed from the R-33. For compatibility with aircraft that did not have the MiG-31's sophisticated radar, the semi-active seeker was replaced with a variant of the Agat 9B-1388 active seeker;[2] mid-body strakes enhance lift[2] and hence range, and folding tail controls allow semi-conformal carriage[2] on planes that are not as big as the MiG-31. According to Defence Today, the range depends on the flight profile, from 80 nautical miles (150 km) for a direct shot[2] to 215 nautical miles (398 km) for a cruise glide profile.[2] According to Jane's there are two variants, the R-37 and the R-37M; the latter has a jettisonable rocket booster that increases the range to "300-400km" (160220 nm).[3]

The R-37M designation has since been used for a modernized variant of the missile, also known as RVV-BD (Raketa Vozduh-Vozduh Bolyshoy Dalnosty, English for Long-Range Air-to-Air Missile). It will be carried by the modernized MiG-31BM interceptors and Su-35S and Su-57 multirole fighters.[7][8] It is not known if the long range air-to-air missile for the Su-57, designated as Izdeliye 810, is a derivative of the R-37M.

The missile can attack targets ranging in altitude between 15–25,000 meters. Missiles can be guided semi-actively or actively through Agat 9B-1388 system.[9]

Similar weapons


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