# Quasisymmetric map

In mathematics, a quasisymmetric homeomorphism between metric spaces is a map that generalizes bi-Lipschitz maps. While bi-Lipschitz maps shrink or expand the diameter of a set by no more than a multiplicative factor, quasisymmetric maps satisfy the weaker geometric property that they preserve the relative sizes of sets: if two sets A and B have diameters t and are no more than distance t apart, then the ratio of their sizes changes by no more than a multiplicative constant. These maps are also related to quasiconformal maps, since in many circumstances they are in fact equivalent.

## Definition

Let (X, dX) and (Y, dY) be two metric spaces. A homeomorphism f:X  Y is said to be η-quasisymmetric if there is an increasing function η : [0, ∞)  [0, ∞) such that for any triple x, y, z of distinct points in X, we have

${\frac {d_{Y}(f(x),f(y))}{d_{Y}(f(x),f(z))}}\leq \eta \left({\frac {d_{X}(x,y)}{d_{X}(x,z)}}\right).$ ## Basic properties

Inverses are quasisymmetric
If f : X  Y is an invertible η-quasisymmetric map as above, then its inverse map is $\eta '$ -quasisymmetric, where $\eta '$ (t) = 1/η(1/t).
Quasisymmetric maps preserve relative sizes of sets
If A and B are subsets of X and A is a subset of B, then
${\frac {1}{2\eta ({\frac {{\text{diam }}A}{{\text{diam }}B}})}}\leq {\frac {{\text{diam }}f(B)}{{\text{diam }}f(A)}}\leq \eta \left({\frac {2{\text{diam }}B}{{\text{diam }}A}}\right).$ ## Examples

### Weakly quasisymmetric maps

A map f:X→Y is said to be H-weakly-quasisymmetric for some H > 0 if for all triples of distinct points x,y,z in X, we have

$|f(x)-f(y)|\leq H|f(x)-f(z)|\;\;\;{\text{ whenever }}\;\;\;|x-y|\leq |x-z|$ Not all weakly quasisymmetric maps are quasisymmetric. However, if X is connected and X and Y are doubling, then all weakly quasisymmetric maps are quasisymmetric. The appeal of this result is that proving weak-quasisymmetry is much easier than proving quasisymmetry directly, and in many natural settings the two notions are equivalent.

### δ-monotone maps

A monotone map f:H  H on a Hilbert space H is δ-monotone if for all x and y in H,

$\langle f(x)-f(y),x-y\rangle \geq \delta |f(x)-f(y)|\cdot |x-y|.$ To grasp what this condition means geometrically, suppose f(0) = 0 and consider the above estimate when y = 0. Then it implies that the angle between the vector x and its image f(x) stays between 0 and arccos δ < π/2.

These maps are quasisymmetric, although they are a much narrower subclass of quasisymmetric maps. For example, while a general quasisymmetric map in the complex plane could map the real line to a set of Hausdorff dimension strictly greater than one, a δ-monotone will always map the real line to a rotated graph of a Lipschitz function L:ℝ  ℝ.

## Doubling measures

### The real line

Quasisymmetric homeomorphisms of the real line to itself can be characterized in terms of their derivatives. An increasing homeomorphism f:ℝ  ℝ is quasisymmetric if and only if there is a constant C > 0 and a doubling measure μ on the real line such that

$f(x)=C+\int _{0}^{x}\,d\mu (t).$ ### Euclidean space

An analogous result holds in Euclidean space. Suppose C = 0 and we rewrite the above equation for f as

$f(x)={\frac {1}{2}}\int _{\mathbb {R} }\left({\frac {x-t}{|x-t|}}+{\frac {t}{|t|}}\right)d\mu (t).$ Writing it this way, we can attempt to define a map using this same integral, but instead integrate (what is now a vector valued integrand) over ℝn: if μ is a doubling measure on ℝn and

$\int _{|x|>1}{\frac {1}{|x|}}\,d\mu (x)<\infty$ then the map

$f(x)={\frac {1}{2}}\int _{\mathbb {R} ^{n}}\left({\frac {x-y}{|x-y|}}+{\frac {y}{|y|}}\right)\,d\mu (y)$ is quasisymmetric (in fact, it is δ-monotone for some δ depending on the measure μ).

## Quasisymmetry and quasiconformality in Euclidean space

Let Ω and Ω´ be open subsets of ℝn. If f : Ω  Ω´ is η-quasisymmetric, then it is also K-quasiconformal, where K > 0 is a constant depending on η.

Conversely, if f : Ω  Ω´ is K-quasiconformal and B(x, 2r) is contained in Ω, then f is η-quasisymmetric on B(x, r), where η depends only on K.