Pudong

Pudong is a district of Shanghai located east of the Huangpu River across from the historic city center of Shanghai in Puxi. The name refers to its historic position as "The East Bank" of the Huangpu River, which flows through central Shanghai, although it is now administered as the Pudong New Area, a state-level new area which extends all the way to the East China Sea.

Pudong

浦东新区
Pudong New Area
Pudong landmarks & skyline
Location within Shanghai
CountryPeople's Republic of China
MunicipalityShanghai
District Gov't Established1993
Government
  CPC Pudong District SecretaryWeng Zuliang
  District GovernorHang Yingwei (杭迎偉)
Area
  Total1,210.4 km2 (467.3 sq mi)
Population
 (2018 est.)
  Total5,599,600
  Density4,600/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (China Standard Time)
Postal code
200120
Area code(s)021
GDP2018[1]
 - Total¥1.046 trillion
$158 billion (nominal)
$299 billion (PPP)
 - Per capita¥187,522
$28,338 (nominal)
$53,425 (PPP)
Websitepudong.gov.cn
Pudong
"Pudong" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese浦东
Traditional Chinese浦東
PostalPootung
Literal meaning"East of the Pu [River]"

The traditional area of Pudong is now home to the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and the Shanghai Stock Exchange and many of Shanghai's best-known buildings, such as the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Jin Mao Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center, and the Shanghai Tower. These modern skyscrapers directly face Puxi's historic Bund, a remnant of former foreign concessions in China. The rest of the new area includes the Port of Shanghai, the Shanghai Expo and Century Park, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai Pudong International Airport, the Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve, Nanhui New City, and the Shanghai Disney Resort.

History

Pudongliterally "The East Bank of the Huangpu River"originally referred only to the less-developed land across from Shanghai's Old City and foreign concessions. The area was mainly farmland and only slowly developed, with warehouses and wharfs near the shore administered by the districts of Puxi on the west bank: Huangpu, Yangpu, and Nanshi. Pudong was originally established as a county in 1958 until 1961 which the county was split among Huangpu, Yangpu, Nanshi, Wusong and Chuansha County. In October 1, 1992 the original area of Pudong County and Chuansha County merged and established Pudong New Area.

In 1993, the Chinese government set up a Special Economic Zone in Chuansha, creating the Pudong New Area. The western tip of the Pudong district was designated as the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and has become a financial hub of modern China. Several landmark buildings were constructed, including the Oriental Pearl Tower, and the supertall Jin Mao Building (420.5 m or 1,380 ft), Shanghai World Financial Center (494 m or 1,621 ft) and Shanghai Tower (632 m or 2,073 ft), the world's first trio of adjacent supertall skyscrapers. These buildingsall along Century Avenue and visible from the historic Bundnow form the most common skyline of Shanghai.

On May 6, 2009, it was disclosed that the State Council had approved the proposal to merge Nanhui District with Pudong and comprise the majority of eastern Shanghai. In 2010, Pudong was host to the main venues of the Shanghai Expo, whose grounds now form a public park.

Pudong New Area consist of the original Pudong County (northeastern portion of Shanghai County), Chuansha County, and Nanhui County.

Government

Districts of the direct-controlled municipality of Shanghai are administratively on the same level as prefecture-level cities. However, the government of Pudong has a status equivalent to that of a sub-provincial city, which is a half-level above a prefecture-level city. This is due to Pudong's size and importance as the financial hub of China. The Pudong Communist Party Secretary is the top office of the district, followed by the district governor of Pudong. The Pudong party chief is customarily also a member of the Shanghai Party Standing Committee.

On April 27, 2015, People's Government of Pudong New Area is working with China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone Administrative Committee.[2]

Demographics

Pudong literally means "East Bank". Pudong is bounded by the Huangpu River in the west and the East China Sea in the east. Pudong is distinguished from Puxi ("West Bank"), the older part of Shanghai. It has an area of 1,210.4 square kilometres (467.3 sq mi) and according to the 2010 Census, a population of 5,044,430 inhabitants, 1.9 million more than in 2000. Currently, at least 2.1 million of residents of Pudong are newcomers from other provinces or cities in China.[3]

Pudong is the most populous district in Shanghai. According to the 2010 Census, it has 5,044,430 people in 1,814,802 families, around 1/4 of Shanghai's total population, an explosive growth since the last census thanks to immigrants.[4] Pudong's resident population growth is well above national average because it is a popular immigration destination. The 2010 census shows a 58.26% increase in the last decade, or an annual pace of 4.7%. In particular, the district saw am immigration growth of 189.5%, or an annual pace of 11.22%.

Excluding immigrants, the birth rate is 0.806% while the death rate is 0.729, resulting a net growth of 0.077%. The total fertility rate is 1.03, well below the replacement level.[5] The district actually has a negative registered household population growth if immigrants are excluded, thus the growth is purely driven by immigration.

The 2010 Census shows a population density of 3,909/km2. About 3/4 of the population live in the northern part and part of city center called "Northern Territory". 1/4 live in the "Southern Territory" that was the Nanhui District. The Northern Territory has a 6,667 population density, while the Southern Territory has 1,732/km2. Suburbs saw a greater increase in population during 2000-2010 with the help of the city's suburb expansion policy. Some counties in the traditional city center saw a population decrease.

Subdistricts and towns

NameChinese (S)Hanyu PinyinShanghainese RomanizationPopulation (2010)[6]Area (km2)
Weifang Xincun Subdistrict潍坊新村街道Wéifāng Xīncūn Jiēdàovij vaon sin tsen ka do100,5483.89
Lujiazui Subdistrict陆家嘴街道Lùjiāzuǐ Jiēdàoloq ka tzyu ka do112,5076.89
Zhoujiadu Subdistrict周家渡街道Zhōujiādù Jiēdàotzoe ka du ka do144,6685.52
Tangqiao Subdistrict塘桥街道Tángqiáo Jiēdàodaon djio ka do76,9163.86
Shanggang Xincun Subdistrict上钢新村街道Shànggāng Xīncūn Jiēdàozaon kaon sin tsen ka do104,9327.54
Nanmatou Road Subdistrict南码头路街道Nánmǎtóulù Jiēdàoneu mau doe lu ka do107,1304.22
Hudong Xincun Subdistrict沪东新村街道Hùdōng Xīncūn Jiēdàowu ton sin tsen ka do112,0315.51
Jinyang Xincun Subdistrict金杨新村街道Jīnyáng Xīncūn Jiēdàocin yan sin tsen ka do206,0178.02
Yangjing Subdistrict洋泾街道Yángjīng Jiēdàoyan cin ka do146,2377.38
Puxing Road Subdistrict浦兴路街道Pǔxìnglù Jiēdàophu xin lu ka do177,4686.25
Dongming Road Subdistrict东明路街道Dōngmínglù Jiēdàoton min lu ka do121,4495.95
Huamu Subdistrict花木街道Huāmù Jiēdàohau moq ka do221,32720.93
Chuanshaxin Town* (Chwansha)川沙新镇Chuānshāxīn Zhèntseu sa sau sin tzen420,045139.73
Gaoqiao town高桥镇Gāoqiáo Zhènko djio tzen184,48638.73
Beicai town北蔡镇Běicài Zhènpoq tsa tzen276,54724.91
Heqing town合庆镇Héqìng Zhènreq chin tzen132,03841.97
Tang town唐镇Tángzhèndaon tzen129,26732.16
Caolu town曹路镇Cáolù Zhèndzo lu tzen186,01245.58
Jinqiao town金桥镇Jīnqiáo Zhèncin djio tzen81,53725.28
Gaohang town高行镇Gāoháng Zhènko raon tzen137,62522.85
Gaodong town高东镇Gāodōng Zhènko ton tzen110,55236.24
Zhangjiang town张江镇Zhāngjiāng Zhèntzan kaon tzen165,29742.10
Sanlin town三林镇Sānlín Zhènse lin tzen360,51634.19
Huinan town惠南镇Huìnán Zhènwe neu tzen213,84565.24
Zhoupu town周浦镇Zhōupǔ Zhèntzoe phu tzen147,32942.60
Xinchang town新场镇Xīnchǎng Zhènsin dzan tzen84,18354.30
Datuan Town大团镇Dàtuán Zhènda deu tzen71,16250.45
Kangqiao town康桥镇Kāngqiáo Zhènkhaon djio tzen174,67241.25
Hangtou town航头镇Hángtóu Zhènraon doe tzen110,06060.40
Zhuqiao town祝桥镇Zhùqiáo Zhèntzoq djio tzen104,945154.60
Nicheng town泥城镇Níchéng Zhèngnij zen tzen62,51961.50
Xuanqiao town宣桥镇Xuānqiáo Zhènsi djio tzen59,56745.78
Shuyuan town书院镇Shūyuàn Zhènsyu yeu tzen59,32366.90
Wanxiang Town万祥镇Wànxiáng Zhènve zian tzen24,34623.35
Laogang town老港镇Lǎogǎng Zhènlo kaon tzen37,40838.90
Nanhui Xincheng Town**南汇新城镇Nánhuì Xīnchéng Zhènneu we sin zen tzen47,38167.76
Luchaogang Farm芦潮港农场Lúcháogǎng Nóngchǎnglu dzo kaon non dzan6889.40
Donghai Farm东海农场Dōnghǎi Nóngchǎngton he non dzan50815.20
Chaoyang Farm朝阳农场Cháoyáng Nóngchǎngdzo yan non dzan86210.67
Waigaoqiao Free-trade Zone外高桥保税区Wàigāoqiáo Bǎoshuìqūnga ko djio po seu chiu1,34910.00
Jinqiao Export Processing Zone金桥经济技术开发区Jīnqiáo Jīngjì Jìshù Kāifāqūcin djio cin tzij djij dzeq khe faq chiu5,51467.79
Zhangjiang Hi-tech Park张江高科技园区Zhāngjiāng Gāo Kējì Yuánqūtzan kaon ko khu djij yeu chiu23,61775.90

Education

Universities and higher education

Primary and secondary schools

Public schools:

International schools:

Other private schools:

Economy

With the Nanhui District merger in May 2009, the size of Pudong's economy grew. The district's 2015 gross domestic product amounts to an estimated 789.8 billion RMB (~US$113.5 billion), with services comprising 70% of economic output.[15] Its GDP per capita in terms of purchasing power parity is approximately $50,783. The area is divided into four distinct economic districts. Apart from Lujiazui Trade and Finance Zone, there is Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, the largest free trade zone in mainland China covering approximately 10 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) in north-east Pudong. The Jinqiao Export Processing Zone is another major industrial area in Pudong covering 19 square kilometres (7.3 sq mi) Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park is a special area for technology-oriented businesses.

The Pudong area continues to experience rapid development, especially in the commercial sector, with 1.3 million square meters of prime office space reaching completion in 2008, more than the previous two years combined.[16] Pudong has also attracted considerable fixed asset and real estate investment, reporting 87.268 billion RMB in fixed asset investment and 27.997 billion RMB in real estate investment in 2008.[17]

The newest Disney resort, with a Disneyland included, is located in Pudong, which is open to tourists in June 2016.[18]

Businesses

Bao Steel has its head office in the Bao Steel Tower (simplified Chinese: 宝钢大厦; traditional Chinese: 寶鋼大廈; pinyin: Bǎogāng Dàshà) in Pudong.[19] Comac has its head office in Pudong.[20] The headquarters of Yangtze River Express, a cargo airline, are in the Pufa Tower (浦发大厦; 浦发大廈; Pǔfā Dàshà) in Pudong.[21]

Hang Seng Bank has its mainland offices in the Hang Seng Bank Tower in Pudong.[22] Kroll has an office in the Hang Seng Bank Tower.[23] Google has its Shanghai offices in the Shanghai World Financial Center.[24]

Skyscrapers in Pudong

Transportation

The Shanghai Pudong International Airport opened its doors in 1999, shortening the travel time for visitors.

In the same year, Line 2 of the Shanghai Metro commenced services. An extension brought the line further east, where it serves the airport. Other lines, namely Lines 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13 and 16 also have sections that serve parts of Pudong. A magnetic levitation train began operating in 2004, moving passengers between the airport and Longyang Road Metro station.

Pudong is connected to Puxi by several tunnels and four major bridges. The first of these bridges were the Nanpu Bridge (1991) and the Yangpu Bridge (1993). The Xupu Bridge opened in 1996. The latest of these is Lupu Bridge, which is the world's second longest arch bridge and was completed in 2002. Currently there are five tunnels that link the two sides, Dapu Rd. Tunnel, the first tunnel across the Huangpu River, Yan'an Rd. Tunnel, running east-west, and Dalian Rd. Tunnel, running north-south, Fuxing Rd. Tunnel, complementing the Yan'an Rd. Tunnel, Waihuan Tunnel, one part of Shanghai Outer Ring Express. Two new tunnels linking Lujiazui to Puxi are under construction.

Roads in Pudong have no particular longitudinal or latitudinal orientation. Major thoroughfares Pudong Avenue, Zhangyang Road and Yanggao Road run east-west until Yangpu Bridge before turning gradually to become north-south. Century Avenue crosses all three major roads and extends from Lujiazui to Century Park. Yanggao Road extends south to the A20, Shanghai's outer Ring road, which runs east-west from Xupu Bridge and then north-south beginning at the interchange near Renxi Village, when the east-west expressway turns into Yingbin Avenue, headed for Pudong International Airport.

Metro

Pudong is currently served by ten metro lines and one tram line operated by Shanghai Metro and one maglev line operated by Shanghai Maglev Train and one suburban line operated by China Railway:

Twin towns — sister cities

Pudong is twinned with:

Similar central business districts

Central business district relations

Sister central business districts

Friendship central business districts

See also

References

  1. "上海浦东GDP首破万亿元大关". guancha.cn. 2019-01-01.
  2. 上海自贸区空间扩大4倍 将与浦东新区合署办公. People's Daily. April 27, 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
  3. (in Chinese) China Statistical Office. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  4. Summary of Pudong Data from the Sixth National Population Census http://gov.pudong.gov.cn/pudongNews_inform/Info/Detail_365360.htm
  5. Population analysis of Pudong, 2011 http://rkjsw.sh.gov.cn/dr/qxinfo/310115/2012227/000000003500038000944464363.html?openpath=spfp/qxinfo/310115 Archived 2015-01-09 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
  7. "Contact Us." Dulwich College Shanghai. Retrieved on October 12, 2013. "DCS MAIN CAMPUS 266 LanAn Rd, JinQiao, PuDong, 201206 地址:上海市浦东金桥蓝桉路266号,201206" and "DUCKS 425 LanAn Rd, Jin Qiao, PuDong 201206 地址:上海市浦东金桥蓝桉路425号,201206"
  8. "Home Archived 2014-05-17 at the Wayback Machine." French School of Shanghai. Retrieved on 23 May 2014. "Campus de Pudong : 1555, Jufeng Lu, Pudong District 201208 Shanghai (Chine)"
  9. "Kontakte." German School of Shanghai Pudong. Retrieved on 23 May 2014. "DS Shanghai Pudong 1100 Jufeng Lu 201206 Shanghai - VR China" - Chinese address: "上海德国学校浦东校园201206上海市巨峰路1100号综合楼"
  10. Home page. Shanghai American School. Retrieved on February 19, 2014. "Puxi Campus 258 Jinfeng Road Huacao Town, Minhang Dist. Shanghai, China 201107 6221-1445" and "Pudong Campus Shanghai Links Executive Community 1600 Lingbai Road Sanjiagang, Pudong Shanghai, China 201201 6221-1445"
  11. "Shanghai Japanese School Pudong Campus." Shanghai Japanese School. Retrieved on February 18, 2014. "上海日本人学校 浦東校 〒200127 上海市浦東新区錦康路277号"
  12. "Home." SJS Senior High School. Retrieved on February 18, 2014. "〒200127 上海市浦東新区錦康路277号"
  13. "Contact Us." Wellington College International Shanghai. Retrieved on September 30, 2015. "Wellington College No. 1500 Yao Long Road (near the Oriental Sports Center) Pudong, Shanghai 200126 上海惠灵顿国际学校 上海市浦东新区 耀龙路1500号 (靠东方体育中心) 邮编:200126"
  14. "Concordia International School Shanghai". Home Page. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  15. 经济发展. 2016-12-08.
  16. Knight Frank China Knight Frank China, Shanghai Commercial Market Quarterly Report, Q4 2009
  17. Knight Frank China Knight Frank China, Shanghai Commercial Market Quarterly Report, Q1 2009
  18. "." THE WALT DISNEY COMPANY REACHES ANOTHER MAJOR MILESTONE ON SHANGHAI THEME PARK PROJECT. Retrieved on July 7, 2010.
  19. "Contact Us." Baosteel. Retrieved on November 10, 2012. "ADD:Baosteel Tower, Pu Dian Road 370, Pudong New District, Shanghai, 200122, P.R. China Postal Code:200122" - Chinese: "上海市浦东新区浦电路370号宝钢大厦"
  20. "Contact Us." Comac. Retrieved on November 10, 2012. "25 Zhangyang Road, Shanghai" - Chinese: "上海市张杨路25号"
  21. "Yangtze River Express Airlines Company Limited Archived 2016-05-02 at the Wayback Machine." HNA Group. Retrieved on February 24, 2014. "Address: Pufa Tower, 588 Pudong South Road, Pudong New Area, Shanghai" - Address in Chinese Archived 2014-03-01 at the Wayback Machine: "地址:上海市浦东新区浦东南路588号浦发大厦 邮编:200120"
  22. "Mainland Service Network." Hang Seng Bank. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. "Hang Seng Bank(China)Limited Address: 34/F & 36/F, Hang Seng Bank Tower, 1000 Lujiazui Ring Road, Pudong, Shanghai, China"
  23. "Office locations." Kroll Inc. Retrieved on 14 August 2011. "Shanghai Room 3031, 30F 1000 Lujiazui Ring Road, Hang Seng Bank Tower Pudong New Area Shanghai 200120 China"
  24. "Google locations." Google. Retrieved on May 25, 2016. "Google Shanghai 60F, Shanghai World Financial Center 100 Century Avenue, Pudong New Area Shanghai 200120, China"
  25. "Sister Cities Committee". City of Beverly Hills. 2019-07-01. Retrieved 2019-07-01.
  26. "Vice Chairman of Shanghai visited Kuopio". Kuopio Innovation. 2013-06-04. Retrieved 2015-12-01.

Further reading

  • Kris Olds, “Globalizing Shanghai: The ‘Global Intelligence Corps’ and the Building of Pudong," Cities 12, no. 3 (1997) 109-23.

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