Protein dimer

In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound. Many macromolecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids, form dimers. The word dimer has roots meaning "two parts", di- + -mer. A protein dimer is a type of protein quaternary structure.

A protein homodimer is formed by two identical proteins. A protein heterodimer is formed by two different proteins.

Most protein dimers in biochemistry are not connected by covalent bonds. An example of a non-covalent heterodimer is the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is composed of two different amino acid chains.[1] An exception is dimers that are linked by disulfide bridges such as the homodimeric protein NEMO.[2]

Some proteins contain specialized domains to ensure dimerization (dimerization domains) and specificity.[3]

Examples

See also

References

  1. Sluis-Cremer N, Hamamouch N, San Félix A, Velazquez S, Balzarini J, Camarasa MJ (August 2006). "Structure-activity relationships of [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-D-ribofuranosyl]- 3'-spiro-5' '-(4' '-amino-1' ',2' '-oxathiole-2' ',2' '-dioxide)thymine derivatives as inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase dimerization". J. Med. Chem. 49 (16): 4834–41. doi:10.1021/jm0604575. PMID 16884295.
  2. Herscovitch M, Comb W, Ennis T, Coleman K, Yong S, Armstead B, Kalaitzidis D, Chandani S, Gilmore TD (February 2008). "Intermolecular disulfide bond formation in the NEMO dimer requires Cys54 and Cys347". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 367 (1): 103–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.12.123. PMC 2277332. PMID 18164680.
  3. Amoutzias, Grigoris D.; Robertson, David L.; Van de Peer, Yves; Oliver, Stephen G. (2008-05-01). "Choose your partners: dimerization in eukaryotic transcription factors". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 33 (5): 220–229. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2008.02.002. ISSN 0968-0004. PMID 18406148.
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