Protectorate of South Arabia
Protectorate of South Arabia
محمية الجنوب العربي
Map of the Protectorate and the Federation of South Arabia.
|Historical era||Cold War|
|January 18 1963|
|November 30 1967|
|Currency||East African shilling|
The background of the Protectorate of South Arabia is part of an effort of the British Empire to protect the East India Route, the sea route between the Mediterranean Sea and India, in and through the southern coasts of Arabia. Already before the opening of the Suez Canal, industrial Britain with its rapidly expanding economy, needed improved communication with British India.
The coastal plains of the peninsula had been devastated earlier in the 19th century by Wahhabi puritan Muslims from Central Arabia followed by an Egyptian invasion. From the first commercial treaty with the Sultanate of Lahej in 1802, various efforts were made to avoid looting of East India ships, leading to the annexing of Aden by the East India Company in 1839. The Aden Protectorate was established in 1869, the same year of the opening of the Suez Canal which heralded a new era of trade and communication.
The Protectorate of South Arabia was designated on 18 January 1963 as consisting of those areas of the Aden Protectorate that did not join the Federation of South Arabia, and it broadly, but not exactly, corresponded to the division of the Aden Protectorate which was called the Eastern Aden Protectorate.
The protectorate included the Hadhrami states of Kathiri, Mahra, and Qu'aiti except the three Wahidi Sultanates in the Eastern Aden Protectorate, with Upper Yafa in the Western Aden Protectorate. The Protectorate of South Arabia was dissolved on 30 November 1967 and its constituent states quickly collapsed, leading to the abolition of their monarchies. The territory was absorbed into the newly independent People's Republic of South Yemen, which became part of the Republic of Yemen in 1990.
|Mahra Sultanate||15th century||1886|
|Kathiri State||14th century||1888|
|Upper Yafa||circa 1800||1903||Consisted of five Sheikhdoms: Al-Busi, Al-Dhubi, Al-Hadrami, Al-Muflihi, and Al-Mausata|
|Sheikhdom of al-Hawra||19th century||1890|
|Sheikhdom of al-`Irqa||19th century||1890|
|Sultanate of Barhut||Unknown||Unknown||Some sources mention a "Sultanate of Barhut" which existed until 1967. It is absent from a 1946 map.|
|Sultanate of Qasm||Unknown||Unknown||Some sources mention a "Sultanate of Qasm" which existed until 1967. It is absent from a 1946 map.|
|Sultanate of Shabwa||Unknown||Unknown||Absorbed by Say'un (Kathiri) in the 20th century.|
|Sultanate of Tarim||Unknown||Unknown||Absorbed by Say'un (Kathiri) in 1945.|
- Sarah Searight, The Charting of the Red Sea. History Today, 2003
- Frank Edwards, The Gaysh: A History Of The Aden Protectorate Levies 1927-61 And The Federal Regular Army Of South Arabia 1961-67
- "States of the Aden Protectorates". www.worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2019-06-26.
- "WHKMLA : History of Yemen". www.zum.de. Retrieved 2019-06-23.
- Division, Great Britain Admiralty Naval intelligence (1946). Geographical Handbook Series: Western Arabia and the Red Sea. H.M. Stationery Office.