# Process gain

In a spread-spectrum system, the **process gain** (or "processing gain") is the ratio of the spread (or RF) bandwidth to the unspread (or baseband) bandwidth. It is usually expressed in decibels (dB).

For example, if a 1 kHz signal is spread to 100 kHz, the process gain expressed as a numerical ratio would be 100000/1000 = 100. Or in decibels, 10 log_{10}(100) = 20 dB.

Note that process gain does not reduce the effects of wideband thermal noise. It can be shown that a direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) system has exactly the same bit error behavior as a non-spread-spectrum system with the same modulation format. Thus, on an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel without interference, a spread system requires the same transmitter power as an unspread system, all other things being equal.

Unlike a conventional communication system, however, a DSSS system does have a certain resistance against narrowband interference, as the interference is not subject to the process gain of the DSSS signal, and hence the signal-to-interference ratio is improved.

In frequency modulation (FM), the processing gain can be expressed as

where:

*G*_{p}is the processing gain,*B*_{n}is the noise bandwidth,- Δ
*f*is the peak frequency deviation, *W*is the sinusoidal modulating frequency.