Primo Carnera

Primo Carnera (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpriːmo karˈnɛːra]; 26 October 1906 – 29 June 1967), nicknamed the Ambling Alp, was an Italian professional boxer and wrestler who reigned as the boxing World Heavyweight Champion from 29 June 1933 to 14 June 1934.

Primo Carnera
Height6 ft 5 12 in (197 cm)
Reach85 in (216 cm)
Born(1906-10-26)26 October 1906
Sequals, Italy
Died29 June 1967(1967-06-29) (aged 60)
Sequals, Italy
Boxing record
Total fights103
Wins by KO72
No contests0

Personal life

Primo Carnera was born in Sequals, then in the Province of Udine, now in the Province of Pordenone, Friuli-Venezia Giulia at the north-easternmost corner of Italy.[1]

On 13 March 1939, Carnera married Giuseppina Kovačič (1913–1980), a post office clerk from Gorizia.[2]

In 1953 they became American citizens. They settled in Los Angeles, where Carnera opened a restaurant and a liquor store. They had two children, Umberto and Giovanna Maria. Umberto became a medical doctor.[3]

Carnera died in 1967 in his native town of a combination of liver disease and complications from diabetes.[4]


Professional boxing career


Carnera was touted in America as being 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m) tall, and thus the tallest heavyweight in history (up until that time), but he was actually 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) tall.[5] He fought at as much as 275 pounds (125 kg).[6] Jess Willard who stood 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m) was the tallest world heavyweight champion in boxing history until Nikolai Valuev, at 7 ft 0 in (2.13 m) and 328 pounds (149 kg). Though an inch shorter than Willard, Carnera was around 40 lb heavier and was the heaviest champion in boxing history until Valuev.[7]

At a time when the average height in Italy was approximately 5 ft 5 in (1.65 m) and in the United States 5 ft 7 in (1.70 m),[8] Carnera was considered a giant.

He enjoyed a sizable reach advantage over most rivals, and when seen on fight footage, he seems like a towering giant compared to many heavyweights of his era, who were usually at least 60 pounds (27 kg) lighter and 7 inches (18 cm) shorter. One publicity release about him read in part: "For breakfast, Primo has a quart of orange juice, two quarts of milk, nineteen pieces of toast, fourteen eggs, a loaf of bread and half a pound of Virginia ham."[9] His size earned him the nickname "The Ambling Alp".[10] Time magazine called him "The Monster".[11]

World Heavyweight Champion

12 September 1928 was the date of Carnera's first professional fight, against Leon Sebilo, in Paris. Carnera won by knockout in round two.[12] He won his first six bouts, then lost to Franz Diener by disqualification in round one at Leipzig. Then, he won seven more bouts in a row before meeting Young Stribling. He and Stribling exchanged disqualification wins, Carnera winning the first in four rounds, and Stribling winning the rematch in round seven. In Carnera's next bout he avenged his defeat to Diener with a knockout in round six.[13]

In 1930, he moved to the United States, where he toured extensively, winning his first seventeen bouts there by knockout. George Godfrey broke the knockout streak in Philadelphia by losing to Carnera by disqualification in the fifth round.[14] In 1932, Carnera faced the tallest heavyweight in history up to that point, Santa Camarão, a 6 ft 9 in (2.06 m) Portuguese fighter. Carnera won the fight in a sixth-round knockout.[15]

On 10 February 1933, he knocked out Ernie Schaaf in thirteen rounds in New York City. Schaaf died four days later.[16] Schaaf had suffered a severe beating and knockout in a bout with future heavyweight champion Max Baer six months earlier, on 31 August 1932. Furthermore, an autopsy revealed that Schaaf had meningitis, a swelling of the brain, and was still recovering from a severe case of influenza when he entered the ring with Carnera.[17][18]

For his next fight, Carnera faced the world heavyweight champion, Jack Sharkey, on June 29, at the Madison Square Garden Bowl in Queens, New York. Carnera became world champion by knocking out Sharkey in round six.[19]

He retained the title against Paulino Uzcudun and Tommy Loughran, both by decision in 15 rounds, but in his next fight on 14 June 1934 against Max Baer, Carnera was knocked down multiple times in 11 rounds, before referee Arthur Donovon stopped the fight. There is disagreement regarding how many times Carnera was knocked down, with sources giving conflicting totals of 7, 10, 11 (per Associated Press) and 12 (per The Ring magazine founder Nat Fleischer, ringside for the fight, who wrote that Carnera was knocked down 12 times and slipped once after a missed punch).[20]

After that, Carnera won his next four fights, three of them as part of a South American tour that took him to Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, as well as two exhibitions fought on the South American continent. But then, on 25 June 1935, he was knocked out in six rounds by Joe Louis.

For the next two and a half years, he won five and lost three of eight total fights. But in 1938, Carnera, a diabetic, had to have a kidney removed, which forced him into retirement by 1944.[2] Carnera's record was 89 wins and 14 losses. His 72 wins by knockout made him a member of the exclusive club of boxers that won 50 or more bouts by knockout.

Legacy in boxing

Carnera was the third European to hold the world heavyweight championship after Bob Fitzsimmons and Max Schmeling. He would be the last until Ingemar Johansson claimed the title against Floyd Patterson in 1959, over a quarter of a century later.

Carnera's 1933 title defense against Tommy Loughran held the record for the greatest weight differential between two combatants in a world title fight (86Ibs)[21] for 73 years until the reign of Nikolai Valuev, who owns the current record for the 105½Ibs weight advantage he held in his 2006 defense against Monte Barrett.

Valuev also broke Carnera's record of 270Ibs to become the heaviest world champion in history, weighing as high as 328Ibs during his reign. Carnera still ranks as the second-heaviest, over eighty years after he held the title.[7]

Carnera's 1933 title defense against Paulino Uzcudun in Italy was the first Heavyweight title fight to be held in Europe since Jack Johnson's title defence against Frank Moran in Paris in 1913. It would be the last such occasion until Muhammad Ali defended the title against Henry Cooper in London in 1966. Carnera-Uzcudun was the first World Heavyweight championship fight to be contested between two Europeans. It was not until Lennox Lewis defended the WBC heavyweight title against fellow-Englishman Frank Bruno in 1993, sixty years later, that this would occur again.

Trailing only Ezzard Charles and his 95 wins, Carnera holds the second-most victories of all heavyweight champions with 88. Carnera's 71 career knockouts is the most of any world heavyweight champion.[22]

Acting career

Carnera appeared in a short film in 1931. During his tenure as world champion he played a fictional version of himself in the 1933 film The Prizefighter and the Lady starring Max Baer and Myrna Loy. Here he plays the heavyweight champion who barely holds onto his title with a draw decision after a furious fight with Baer. The film was made just the year before Carnera fought Baer for real, in a bout that was as wild as the film version, but ended with a knockout loss for Carnera.[23]

Carnera had a silent bit part in the 1949 movie Mighty Joe Young.[23] He played himself in the tug-of-war scene with the giant gorilla. After being pulled by the ape into a pool of water, Carnera throws a couple of futile punches to Joe's chin.

He also played a bully boy wrestler in Carol Reed's film A Kid for Two Farthings (1955) based around London's Petticoat Lane Market where he has a match against a local bodybuilder who is getting married to Diana Dors.

Primo appeared in at least 10 Italian films between 1939 and 1943,[24] as well as several in the 1950s, like Prince Valiant,[25] in the role of Sligon. His last screen role was as the giant Antaeus alongside Steve Reeves in Hercules Unchained (USA Title, filmed in Italy, 1959, original title Ercole e la regina di Lidia).[26]

Professional wrestling career

In 1945 he returned temporarily to boxing and won two fights. But the next year, after three losses against Luigi Musina his talent for wrestling was discovered. In 1946 he became a professional wrestler and was immediately a huge success at the box office. For several years he was one of the top draws in wrestling. Carnera continued to be an attraction into the 1960s. Max Baer attended at least one of Carnera's wrestling matches.[27] Carnera won his debut on 22 August 1946, when he defeated Tommy O'Toole in California. On 23 October 1946, Carnera won his 41st consecutive wrestling match by defeating Jules Strongbow.[28] On 19 November 1946, Carnera beat Harry Kruskamp to remain undefeated at 65-0-0.

Primo Carnera went 120 straight wrestling matches undefeated (119-0-1) before suffering his first loss to Yvon Robert in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, on 20 August 1947. Carnera's greatest victory took place on 7 December 1947 when he defeated former world heavyweight champion Ed "Strangler" Lewis.

In May 1948, Carnera took a 143-1-1 record against world heavyweight champion Lou Thesz. Thesz defeated Carnera in a world title defense.

In The Ring, August 1962, page 38, Carnera "flattened" Ox Anderson in a heavyweight wrestling match in Los Angeles.

Mob Accusations

According to boxing historian Herbert Goldman, Carnera was "very much mob controlled."[29] Carnera met his first serious heavyweight contender, Young Stribling, in 1929, and won when Stribling fouled him. In a rematch, he fouled Stribling. His 1930 fight against California club fighter Bombo Chevalier in Emeryville was considered fixed, and Carnera was banned from fighting in California.[30] His 1930 match against George Godfrey was controversial, as Godfrey was disqualified in the sixth round when he was clearly getting the better of Carnera.[31]

Time magazine, in a 5 October 1931 cover story on Carnera before he won the heavyweight title, commented on his odd career:[32]

Since his arrival in the US, backed by a group of prosperous but shady entrepreneurs, Carnera's career has been less glorious than fantastic. His first opponents—Big Boy Peterson, Elzear Rioux, Cowboy Owens—were known to be incompetent but their feeble opposition to Carnera suggested that they had been bribed to lose. Suspicion concerning the Monster's abilities became almost universal when another adversary, Bombo Chevalier, stated that one of his own seconds had threatened to kill him unless he lost to Carnera. Against the huge, lazy, amiable Negro George Godfrey (249 lb), he won on a foul. But only one of 33 US opponents has defeated Monster Carnera—fat, slovenly Jimmy Maloney, whom Sharkey beat five years ago. In a return fight, at Miami last March, Carnera managed to outpoint Maloney.

In film

Requiem for a Heavyweight, Rod Serling's 1956 Emmy Award-winning teleplay for Playhouse 90 directed by Ralph Nelson (who also won an Emmy), focused on down-and-out former heavyweight boxer Harlan "Mountain" McClintock. The travails of McClintock, who was played by Jack Palance (Sean Connery played the part on British television and Anthony Quinn essayed the role in the 1962 film), was thought by many boxing fans to resemble Carnera's life.[33]

In 1947, fighting aficionado Budd Schulberg wrote The Harder They Fall, a novel about a giant boxer whose fights are fixed. It was adapted into Mark Robson's 1956 film, which starred Humphrey Bogart and Rod Steiger. A highlight was the appearance of Max Baer, playing a fighter the mob could not fix who destroys the giant in his first fair fight. Critics drew parallels with the real-life Baer-Carnera fight two decades before. In response, Carnera unsuccessfully sued the film's company.

Carnera played himself in the 1949 movie Mighty Joe Young.

Carnera was played by Matthew G. Taylor in the 2005 film Cinderella Man, a film about the life of fellow boxer James J. Braddock.

In 2008, the actor Andrea Iaia played Carnera in the Italian biographical film Carnera: The Walking Mountain, directed by Renzo Martinelli.

In 2013, Emporio Elaborazioni Meccaniche named a motorbike, the 1983 BMW R80RT Carnera, in honor of Carnera.[34]

In comics

In 1947, Carnera, an Italian comic book series sporting a fictional version of Primo Carnera, was produced.[35] In 1953, it was translated into German.[36] A facsimile version was published in 2010.[37]

Another popular Italian comic character, Dick Fulmine, was graphically inspired by Carnera.[35]

In literature

Carnera is mentioned by Bertie Wooster in the 1934 novel Right Ho, Jeeves, by P.G. Wodehouse on p. 234.

In his 1933 collection of short stories Mulliner Nights, Wodehouse described one character as follows: "He was built on large lines, and seemed to fill the room to overflowing. In physique he was not unlike what Primo Carnera would have been if Carnera hadn't stunted his growth by smoking cigarettes when a boy."[38]

In music

The Yeasayer song Ambling Alp, from their 2010 album Odd Blood references Carnera by his nickname in the title and second verse. Both Carnera and German boxer Max Schmeling are referenced for their bouts with American Joe Louis.

In mathematics

The definition of the number googolplex was originally suggested by a child to be "one, followed by writing zeroes until you get tired." The mathematician involved, Edward Kasner, decided to adopt the more formal definition of 10(10100) because "different people get tired at different times and it would never do to have Carnera a better mathematician than Dr. Einstein, simply because he had more endurance and could write for longer."[39]

Professional boxing record

Result Record Opponent Type Round Time Date Location Notes
Loss89–14 Luigi MusinaUD8 12 May 1946Gorizia, Italy
Loss89–13 Luigi MusinaPTS8 19 March 1946Trieste, Italy
Loss89–12 Luigi MusinaTKO7 21 November 1945Milan, Italy
Win89–11 Sam GardnerKO1 25 September 1945Trieste, Italy
Win88–11 Michel BlevensKO3 22 July 1945Udine, Italy
Win87–11 Joseph ZupanKO2 (10) 4 December 1937Zirkus, Budapest, Hungary
Loss86–11 Albert di MeglioPTS10 18 November 1937Salle Wagram, Paris, France
Loss86–10 Leroy HaynesTKO3 (10) 27 May 1936Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA
Loss86–9 Leroy HaynesTKO3 (10) 16 March 1936Arena, Philadelphia, USA
Win86–8 Isidoro GastanagaTKO5 (10) 6 March 1936Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA
Win85–8 Big Boy BrackeyTKO4 (10)1:06 9 December 1935Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, USA
Win84–8 Ford SmithUD10 25 November 1935Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Win83–8 Walter NeuselTKO4 (15) 1 November 1935Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA
Loss82–8 Joe LouisTKO6 (15)2:32 25 June 1935Yankee Stadium, The Bronx, New York, USA
Win82–7 Ray ImpelletiereTKO9 (10) 15 March 1935Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA
Win81–7 Erwin KlausnerKO6 (12) 22 January 1935Estádio Manuel Schwartz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Win80–7 Seal HarrisKO7 (10) 13 January 1935Estádio da Floresta, São Paulo, Brazil
Win79–7 Victorio CampoloPTS12 1 December 1934Club Atlético Independiente, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Loss78–7 Max BaerTKO11 (15)2:16 14 June 1934Madison Square Garden Bowl, Long Island City, New York, USA Lost NBA, NYSAC and lineal heavyweight titles
Win78–6 Tommy LoughranUD15 1 March 1934Madison Square Garden Stadium, Miami, USA Retained NBA, NYSAC and lineal heavyweight titles
Win77–6 Paulino UzcudunUD15 22 October 1933Piazza di Siena, Rome, Italy Won IBU Heavyweight title.
Win76–6 Jack SharkeyKO6 (15)2:27 29 June 1933 Madison Square Garden Bowl, Long Island City, New York, USA  Won NBA, NYSAC and lineal heavyweight titles
Win75–6 Ernie SchaafKO13 (15) 10 February 1933Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA  SCHAAF KILLED
Win74–6 Young SpenceKO1 (10) 30 December 1932Fair Park Arena, Dallas, USA
Win73–6 James MerriottKO1 (10) 20 December 1932City Auditorium, Galveston, Texas, USA
Win72–6 Joe RiceKO2 (10) 19 December 1932Fort Worth, Texas, USA
Win71–6 KO ChristnerKO4 (10) 15 December 1932City Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
Win70–6 Big Boy PetersonTKO2 (10) 13 December 1932Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA
Win69–6 King LevinskyPTS10 9 December 1932Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Win68–6 John SchwakeKO7 (10)2:16 2 December 1932Coliseum, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Win67–6 Jose SantaTKO6 (10) 18 November 1932Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA
Win66–6 Les KennedyKO3 (10) 4 November 1932Arena, Boston, USA
Win65–6 Jack TaylorKO2 (10) 17 October 1932Jefferson County Armory, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
Win64–6 Gene StantonKO6 (10) 13 October 1932114th Infantry Armory, Camden, New Jersey, USA
Win63–6 Ted SandwinaKO4 (10) 7 October 1932Benjamin Field Arena, Tampa, Florida, USA
Win62–6 Art LaskyNWS10 1 September 1932Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA
Win61–6 Jack GagnonKO1 (10)1:35 19 August 1932Tiverton, Rhode Island, USA
Loss60–6 Stanley PoredaPTS10 16 August 1932Dreamland Park, Newark, New Jersey, USA
Win60–5 Hans BirkiePTS10 2 August 1932Queensboro Stadium, Long Island City, New York, USA
Win59–5 Jerry PavelecTKO5 (10)0:51 28 July 1932Playground Arena, West New York, New Jersey, USA
Win58–5 Jack GrossTKO7 (10)2:50 20 July 1932Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA
Loss57–5 Larry GainsPTS10 30 May 1932White City Stadium, London, England, UK
Win57–4 Hans SchoenrathTKO3 (10) 15 May 1932San Siro, Milan, Italy
Win56–4 Maurice GriselleTKO10 (10) 29 April 1932Palais des Sports, Paris, France
Win55–4 Don McCorkindalePTS10 7 April 1932Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK
Win54–4 George CookKO4 (10) 23 March 1932Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK
Win53–4 Pierre CharlesPTS10 29 February 1932Palais des Sports, Paris, France
Win52–4 Ernst GühringTKO5 (10) 5 February 1932Sportpalast, Berlin, Germany
Win51–4 Moise BouquillonTKO2 (10) 25 January 1932Palais des Sports, Paris, France
Win50–4 Victorio CampoloKO2 (15)1:27 27 November 1931Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA
Win49–4 King LevinskyPTS10 19 November 1931Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Loss48–4 Jack SharkeyUD15 12 October 1931Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA This match was billed as being for the American Heavyweight title.
Win48–3 Armando de CarolisKO2 (10)1:08 6 August 1931Shellpot Park, Brandywine Hundred, Delaware, USA
Win47–3 Roberto RobertiTKO3 (10)2:25 4 August 1931Dreamland Park, Newark, New Jersey, USA
Win46–3 Knute HansenKO1 (10)2:10 24 July 1931Edgerton Park Arena, Rochester, New York, USA
Win45–3 Bud GormanKO2 (10)2:35 30 June 1931Mutual Street Arena, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Win44–3 Umberto TorrianiKO2 (10)0:43 26 June 1931Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, USA
Win43–3 Pat RedmondKO1 (10)2:24 15 June 1931Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA
Win42–3 Jim MaloneyPTS10 5 March 1931Madison Square Garden Stadium, Miami, USA
Win41–3 Reggie MeenTKO2 (6) 18 December 1930Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK
Win40–3 Paulino UzcudunSD10 30 November 1930Estadio Montjuïc, Barcelona, Spain
Loss39–3 Jim MaloneyPTS10 7 October 1930Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Win39–2 Jack GrossKO4 (10) 17 September 1930Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Win38–2 Pat McCarthyKO2 (10)1:16 8 September 1930Velodrome, Newark, New Jersey, USA
Win37–2 Riccardo BertazzoloTKO3 (15) 30 August 1930Auditorium, Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA
Win36–2 George CookKO2 (10) 29 July 1930Taylor Bowl, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Win35–2 Bearcat WrightKO4 (10) 17 July 1930Omaha, Nebraska, USA
Win34–2 George GodfreyDQ5 (10)1:13 23 June 1930Shibe Park, Philadelphia, USA
Win33–2 KO ChristnerKO4 (10)1:20 5 June 1930Fairgrounds Coliseum, Detroit, Michigan, USA
Win32–2 Sam BakerKO1 (10) 22 April 1930Ice Coliseum, Portland, Oregon, USA
Win31–2 Leon ChevalierTKO6 (10) 14 April 1930Oaks Park, Emeryville, California, USA
Win30–2 Neal ClisbyKO2 (10)0:40 8 April 1930Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, USA
Win29–2 Jack McAuliffe IIKO1 (10)2:18 28 March 1930Stockyards Stadium, Denver, Colorado, USA
Win28–2 George TraftonKO1 (10)0:54 26 March 1930Memphis, Tennessee, USA
Win27–2 Frank ZavetaKO1 (10)1:51 20 March 1930Jacksonville, Florida, USA
Win26–2 Chuck WigginsKO2 (10) 17 March 1930Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Win25–2 Sully MontgomeryKO2 (10)1:15 11 March 1930Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Win24–2 Roy Ace ClarkKO6 (10)2:38 3 March 1930Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Win23–2 Farmer LodgeKO2 (10)1:22 24 February 1930Heinemann Park, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
Win22–2 Johnny EricksonKO2 (10)1:45 17 February 1930Coliseum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA
Win21–2 Jim SigmanKO1 (8)1:35 14 February 1930Memphis, Tennessee, USA
Win20–2 Buster MartinKO2 (10)0:56 11 February 1930Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Win19–2 Billy OwensKO2 (10)2:22 6 February 1930Armory, Newark, New Jersey, USA
Win18–2 Elzear RiouxKO1 (10)0:47 31 January 1930Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Win17–2 Big Boy PetersonKO1 (10)1:10 24 January 1930Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA
Win16–2 Franz DienerTKO6 (15) 17 December 1929Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK
Loss15–2 Young StriblingDQ7 (10) 7 December 1929Vélodrome d'hiver, Paris, France
Win15–1 Young StriblingDQ4 (15) 18 November 1929Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK
Win14–1 Jack StanleyTKO1 (8)1:45 17 October 1929Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK
Win13–1 Hermann JaspersKO3 (10) 18 September 1929Salle Wagram, Paris, France
Win12–1 Feodor NikolaeffKO1 30 August 1929Dieppe, Seine-Maritime, France
Win11–1 Joe ThomasTKO4 25 August 1929Arènes du Prado, Marseille, France
Win10–1 José LetéUD10 14 August 1929Atocha, San Sebastián, Spain
Win9–1 Jack HumbeeckTKO6 (10) 26 June 1929Salle Wagram, Paris, France
Win8–1 Marcel NillesTKO3 (10) 30 May 1929Cirque de Paris, Paris, France
Win7–1 Moise BouquillonPTS10 22 May 1929Salle Wagram, Paris, France
Loss6–1 Franz DienerDQ1 (10) 28 April 1929Leipzig, Germany
Win6–0 Ernst RoesemannTKO5 (8) 18 January 1929Sportpalast, Berlin, Germany
Win5–0 Constant BarrickKO3 1 December 1928Vélodrome d'hiver, Paris, France
Win4–0 Epifanio IslasUD10 25 November 1928Palazzo Dello Sport, Milan, Italy
Win3–0 Salvatore RuggirelloTKO4 (10) 30 October 1928Cirque de Paris, Paris, France
Win2–0 Joe ThomasKO3 25 September 1928Cirque de Paris, Paris, France
Win1–0 Leon SebiloTKO2 12 September 1928Salle Wagram, Paris, France Carnera's professional debut.

Championships and accomplishments


Professional wrestling

See also


  1. Page 2010, p. 5.
  2. Page 2010, p. 179.
  3. Page 2010, p. 212.
  4. Page 2010, p. 7, 214.
  5. "Primo Carnera – Boxrec Boxing Encyclopaedia". Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  6. "Cyber Boxing Zone -- Primo Carnera".
  7. Page 2010, p. 209.
  8. Steckel, Richard H. "A History of the Standard of Living in the United States". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  9. Cinderella Man: James J. Braddock, Max Baer, and the Greatest Upset in ... – Jeremy Schaap – Google Boeken. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  10. Page 2010, p. 3.
  11. Page 2010, p. 137.
  12. Page 2010, p. 11-12.
  13. Page 2010, p. 22.
  14. Page 2010, p. 52.
  15. Page 2010, p. 93-94.
  16. Page 2010, p. 100.
  17. Johnson, Catherine (2007). "FAQs". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  18. Hunnicutt, Michael (2005-04-05). "Max Baer and the Death of Ernie Schaaf". International Boxing Research Organization. Archived from the original on 2007-04-19. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  19. Page 2010, p. 117.
  20. "Primo Carnera vs. Max Baer– Boxrec Boxing Encyclopaedia". Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  21. "TOMMY LOUGHRAN DIES AT 79". The New York Times. 10 July 1982. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  22. "All-Time List: Most Career KOs By a Heavyweight Champ". Boxing Scene. 3 March 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  23. Page 2010, p. 189.
  24. "Primo Carnera".
  25. "Prince Valiant". 5 April 1954 via IMDb.
  26. "Hercules Unchained". 13 July 1960 via IMDb.
  27. The Strange Case of Carnera, By Jack Sher, Sport, February 1948
  28. Page 2010, p. 187.
  29. Bodner, Alan (1997). When Boxing Was a Jewish Sport. Praeger Publishers. p. 133. ISBN 978-0275953539.
  30. Johnston, Chuck. "Famous 'fixes' in boxing history..." BoxRec. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  31. "Primo Carnera vs. George Godfrey". BoxingRec. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  32. "TIME Magazine Cover: Primo Carnera - Oct. 5, 1931". Time. 5 October 1931. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  33. Donelson, Tom; Lotierzo, Frank (2004). More Tales From Ringside. iUniverse. p. 125. ISBN 0-595-30588-1.
  34. Holly (3 August 2013). "The Carnera by Emporio Elaborazioni Meccaniche".
  35. Maria Grazia Perini. "Carnera". Enciclopedia Mondiale del Fumetto. Editoriale Corno, 1978. p.238.
  36. "Primo Carnera". Retrieved 27 October 2014. Auch als Comicheld hatte Carnera "Karriere" gemacht: Von 1953 bis 1954 erschien im Walter Lehning Verlag, Hannover, mit insgesamt 46 Heften die (ursprünglich aus Italien stammende) Piccolo-Serie "CARNERA"
  37. "Primo Carnera". Retrieved 27 October 2014. Die Carnera-Beilage in der "Sprechblase"
  38. Sherrin, Ned (Ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Humorous Quotations, Oxford University Press, 2012.
  39. Edward Kasner & James R. Newman (1940) Mathematics and the Imagination, page 23, New York: Simon & Schuster


Preceded by
Jack Sharkey
World Heavyweight Champion
29 June 1933 – 14 June 1934
Succeeded by
Max Baer
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