Potassium citrate (also known as tripotassium citrate) is a potassium salt of citric acid with the molecular formula K3C6H5O7. It is a white, hygroscopic crystalline powder. It is odorless with a saline taste. It contains 38.28% potassium by mass. In the monohydrate form it is highly hygroscopic and deliquescent.
3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E332(ii) (antioxidants, ...)|
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||306.395 g/mol|
|Appearance||white powder |
|Melting point||180 °C (356 °F; 453 K)|
|Boiling point||230 °C (446 °F; 503 K)|
|Solubility||soluble in glycerin |
insoluble in ethanol (95%)
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|170 mg/kg (IV, dog)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Potassium citrate is rapidly absorbed when given by mouth and is excreted in the urine. Since it is an alkaline salt it is effective in reducing the pain and frequency of urination when these are caused by highly acidic urine. It is used for this purpose in dogs and cats, but is chiefly employed as a non-irritating diuretic.
It is widely used to treat urinary calculi (kidney stones) and is often used by patients with cystinuria. A study of 500 patients with recurrent stones found that it reduced the frequency of stones from 2 per year to a half per year.
It is also used as an alkalizing agent in the treatment of mild urinary tract infections such as cystitis.
Potassium citrate is usually administered by mouth in dilute aqueous solution. This is because of its somewhat caustic effect on the stomach lining, and the potential for other mild health hazards.
- Tanner, G.A. "Potassium citrate improves renal function in rats with polycystic kidney disease". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Retrieved December 17, 2016.