Plaid Cymru

Plaid Cymru (English: /ˌpld ˈkʌmri/ PLYDE KUM-ree;[17] Welsh: [plaid ˈkəmri]; officially Plaid Cymru – The Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating Welsh independence from the United Kingdom within the European Union.[18][19]

Plaid Cymru – Party of Wales
LeaderAdam Price
Deputy leadersRhun ap Iorwerth
Siân Gwenllian
House of Commons
group leader
Liz Saville Roberts
ChairmanAlun Ffred Jones
Honorary PresidentThe Lord Wigley
Founded5 August 1925 (1925-08-05)
HeadquartersTŷ Gwynfor
Marine Chambers
Anson Court
Atlantic Wharf
CF10 4AL
Youth wingPlaid Ifanc
LGBT wingPlaid Pride
Membership (2018) 11,500[1]
Political positionCentre-left[10][11] to
European affiliationEuropean Free Alliance
International affiliationNone
European Parliament groupGreens/EFA
House of Commons (Welsh seats)
4 / 40
House of Lords[15]
1 / 793
European Parliament (Welsh seats)
1 / 4
National Assembly for Wales
10 / 60
Local government in Wales[16]
206 / 1,253
Police and Crime Commissioner (Wales)
2 / 4

Plaid was formed in 1925 and won its first seat in the UK Parliament in 1966. By 2018, it held one of four Welsh seats in the European Parliament, four of 40 Welsh seats in the UK Parliament, 10 of 60 seats in the National Assembly for Wales, and 202 of 1,264 principal local authority councillors.[20] It is a member of the European Free Alliance.


Plaid Cymru's goals as set out in its constitution are:

  1. To promote the constitutional advancement of Wales with a view to attaining independence within the European Union;
  2. To ensure economic prosperity, social justice and the health of the natural environment, based on decentralist socialism;
  3. To build a national community based on equal citizenship, respect for different traditions and cultures and the equal worth of all individuals, whatever their race, nationality, gender, colour, creed, sexuality, age, ability or social background;
  4. To create a bilingual society by promoting the revival of the Welsh language;
  5. To promote Wales's contribution to the global community and to attain membership of the United Nations.

In September 2008, a senior Plaid assembly member spelled out her party's continuing support for an independent Wales. The Welsh Minister for Rural Affairs, Elin Jones, began Plaid's annual conference by pledging to uphold the goal of making Wales a European Union member state. She told the delegates in Aberystwyth that the party would continue its commitment to independence under the coalition with the Welsh Labour Party.[21]



While both the Labour and Liberal parties of the early 20th century had accommodated demands for Welsh home rule, no political party existed for the purpose of establishing a Welsh government. Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru (English: The National Party of Wales) was formed on 5 August 1925, by Moses Gruffydd, H. R. Jones and Lewis Valentine, members of Byddin Ymreolwyr Cymru ("The Home Rule Army of Wales"; literally, "The Self-Rulers' Army of Wales"); and Fred Jones, Saunders Lewis and David John Williams of Y Mudiad Cymreig ("The Welsh Movement").[22] Initially, home rule for Wales was not an explicit aim of the new movement; keeping Wales Welsh-speaking took primacy, with the aim of making Welsh the only official language of Wales.[23]

In the 1929 general election the party contested its first parliamentary constituency, Caernarvonshire, polling 609 votes, or 1.6% of the vote for that seat. The party contested few such elections in its early years, partly due to its ambivalence towards Westminster politics. Indeed, the candidate Lewis Valentine, the party's first president, offered himself in Caernarvonshire on a platform of demonstrating Welsh people's rejection of English dominion.[24]


By 1932, the aims of self-government and Welsh representation at the League of Nations had been added to that of preserving Welsh language and culture. However, this move, and the party's early attempts to develop an economic critique, did not broaden its appeal beyond that of an intellectual and socially conservative Welsh language pressure group.[25] The alleged sympathy of the party's leading members (including President Saunders Lewis) towards Europe's totalitarian regimes compromised its early appeal further.[26]

Saunders Lewis, David John Williams and Lewis Valentine set fire to the newly constructed RAF Penyberth air base on the Llŷn Peninsula in Gwynedd in 1936, in protest at its siting in the Welsh-speaking heartland. The leaders' treatment, including the trial judge's dismissal of the use of Welsh and their subsequent imprisonment in Wormwood Scrubs, led to "The Three" becoming a cause célèbre. This heightened the profile of the party dramatically and its membership had doubled to nearly 2,000 by 1939.[23][27]


Penyberth, and Plaid Cymru's neutral stance during the Second World War, prompted concerns within the UK Government that it might be used by Germany to insert spies or carry out other covert operations.[28] In fact, the party adopted a neutral standpoint and urged (with only limited success) conscientious objection to war service.[29]

In 1943 Saunders Lewis contested the University of Wales parliamentary seat at a by-election, gaining 1,330 votes, or 22%. In the 1945 general election, with party membership at around 2,500, Plaid Cymru contested seven seats, as many as it had in the preceding 20 years, including constituencies in south Wales for the first time. At this time Gwynfor Evans was elected president.


Gwynfor Evans's presidency coincided with the maturation of Plaid Cymru (as it now began to refer to itself) into a more recognisable political party. Its share of the vote increased from 0.7% in the 1951 general election to 3.1% in 1955 and 5.2% in 1959. In the 1959 election, the party contested a majority of Welsh seats for the first time. Proposals to flood the village of Capel Celyn in the Tryweryn valley in Gwynedd in 1957 to supply the city of Liverpool with water played a part in Plaid Cymru's growth. The fact that the parliamentary bill authorising the dam went through without support from any Welsh MPs showed that the MPs' votes in Westminster were not enough to prevent such bills from passing.[30]


Support for the party declined slightly in the early 1960s, particularly as support for the Liberal Party began to stabilise from its long-term decline. In 1962 Saunders Lewis gave a radio talk entitled Tynged yr Iaith (The fate of the language) in which he predicted the extinction of the Welsh language unless action was taken. This led to the formation of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (the Welsh Language Society) the same year.[31]

Labour's return to power in 1964 and the creation of the post of Secretary of State for Wales appeared to represent a continuation of the incremental evolution of a distinctive Welsh polity, following the Conservative government's appointment of a Minister of Welsh Affairs in the mid-1950s and the establishment of Cardiff as Wales's capital in 1955.

However, in 1966, less than four months after coming in third in the constituency of Carmarthen, Gwynfor Evans captured the seat from Labour at a by-election. This was followed by two further by-elections in Rhondda West in 1967 and Caerphilly in 1968 in which the party achieved massive swings of 30% and 40% respectively, coming within a whisker of victory. The results were caused partly by an anti-Labour backlash. Expectations in coal mining communities that the Wilson government would halt the long-term decline in their industry had been dashed by a significant downward revision of coal production estimates.[32] However, particularly in Carmarthen, Plaid also successfully depicted Labour's policies as a threat to the viability of small Welsh communities.[33]


In the 1970 general election Plaid Cymru contested every seat in Wales for the first time and its vote share surged from 4.5% in 1966 to 11.5%. Gwynfor Evans lost Carmarthen to Labour, but regained the seat in October 1974, by which time the party had gained a further two MPs, representing the constituencies of Caernarfon and Merionethshire.

Plaid campaigned to leave The Common Market in the 1975 referendum.[34][35] Wales and The UK voted to remain.

Plaid Cymru's emergence (along with the Scottish National Party) prompted the Wilson government to establish the Kilbrandon Commission on the constitution. The subsequent proposals for a Welsh Assembly were, however, heavily defeated in a referendum in 1979. Despite Plaid Cymru's ambivalence toward home rule (as opposed to outright independence) the referendum result led many in the party to question its direction.[24]

At the 1979 general election the party's vote share declined from 10.8% to 8.1% and Carmarthen was again lost to Labour, although Caernarfon and Merionethshire were held by the Party.


Caernarfon MP Dafydd Wigley succeeded Gwynfor Evans as president in 1981, inheriting a party whose morale was at an all-time low. In 1981 the party adopted "community socialism" as a constitutional aim. While the party embarked on a wide-ranging review of its priorities and goals, Gwynfor Evans fought a successful campaign (including the threat of a hunger strike) to oblige the Conservative government to fulfill its promise to establish S4C, a Welsh-language television station.[36] In 1984 Dafydd Elis-Thomas was elected president, defeating Dafydd Iwan, a move that saw the party shift to the left. Ieuan Wyn Jones (later Plaid Cymru leader) captured Ynys Môn from the Conservatives in 1987. In 1989 Dafydd Wigley once again assumed the presidency of the party.


In the 1992 general election the party added a fourth MP, Cynog Dafis, when he gained Ceredigion and Pembroke North from the Liberal Democrats. Dafis was endorsed by the local branch of the Green Party. The party's vote share recovered to 9.9% at the 1997 general election.

In 1997, following the election of a Labour government committed to devolution for Wales, a further referendum was narrowly won, establishing the National Assembly for Wales. Plaid Cymru became the main opposition to the ruling Labour Party, with 17 seats to Labour's 28. In doing so, it appeared to have broken out of its rural Welsh-speaking heartland, and captured traditionally strong Labour areas in industrial South Wales.

Assembly era

First National Assembly, 1999–2003

In the 1999 election Plaid Cymru gained seats in traditional Labour areas such as Rhondda, Islwyn and Llanelli, achieving by far its highest share of the vote in any Wales-wide election. While Plaid Cymru regarded itself as the natural beneficiary of devolution, others attributed its performance in large part to the travails of the Labour Party, whose nomination for Assembly First Secretary, Ron Davies, was forced to stand down in an alleged sex scandal. The ensuing leadership battle, won by Alun Michael, did much to damage Labour, and thus aided Plaid Cymru, whose leader was the more popular and higher profile Dafydd Wigley. The Labour Party's UK national leadership was seen to interfere in the contest and deny the popular Rhodri Morgan victory.[37] Less than two months later, in elections to the European parliament, Labour support slumped further, and Plaid Cymru came within 2.5% of achieving the largest share of the vote in Wales. Under the new system of proportional representation, the party also gained two MEPs.

Plaid Cymru then developed political problems of its own. Dafydd Wigley resigned, citing health problems but amid rumours of a plot against him.[38] His successor, Ieuan Wyn Jones, struggled to impose his authority, particularly over controversial remarks made by a councillor, Seimon Glyn.[39] At the same time, Labour leader and First Minister Alun Michael was replaced by Rhodri Morgan.

In the 2001 general election, notwithstanding Plaid Cymru recording its highest-ever vote share in a general election, 14.3%, the party lost Wyn Jones's former seat of Ynys Môn to Albert Owen, although it gained Carmarthen East and Dinefwr, where Adam Price was elected.

Second National Assembly, 2003–07

The Assembly elections of May 2003 saw the party's representation drop from 17 to 12, with the seats gained in the 1999 election falling again to Labour and the party's share of the vote declining to 21%. Plaid Cymru narrowly remained the second-largest party in the National Assembly ahead of the Conservatives, Liberal Democrats and Forward Wales.

On 15 September 2003 folk-singer and county councillor Dafydd Iwan was elected as Plaid Cymru's president. Ieuan Wyn Jones, who had resigned from his dual role as president and Assembly group leader following the losses in the 2003 Assembly election, was re-elected in the latter role. Elfyn Llwyd remained the Plaid Cymru leader in the Westminster Parliament. Under Iwan's presidency the party formally adopted a policy of independence for Wales within Europe.

The 2004 local election saw the party lose control of the two South Wales councils it gained in 1999, Rhondda Cynon Taff and Caerphilly, while retaining its stronghold of Gwynedd in the north-west. The results enabled the party to claim a greater number of ethnic minority councillors than all the other political parties in Wales combined,[40] along with gains in authorities such as Cardiff and Swansea, where Plaid Cymru representation had been minimal. In the European Parliament elections of the same year, the party's vote share fell to 17.4%, and the reduction in the number of Welsh MEPs saw its representation reduced to one.

In the general election of 5 May 2005, Plaid Cymru lost the Ceredigion seat to the Liberal Democrats; this result was a disappointment to Plaid, who had hoped to gain Ynys Môn. Overall therefore, Plaid Cymru's Parliamentary representation fell to three seats, the lowest number for the party since 1992. The party's share of the vote fell to 12.6%.[41]

In 2006, the party voted constitutional changes to formally designate the party's leader in the assembly as its overall leader, with Ieuan Wyn Jones being restored to the full leadership and Dafydd Iwan becoming head of the voluntary wing of the party. 2006 also saw the party unveil a radical change of image, opting to use "Plaid" as the party's name, although "Plaid Cymru — the Party of Wales" would remain the official title. The party changed its logo in 2006, from the traditional green and red triban (three peaks) used since 1933, to a yellow Welsh poppy (Meconopsis cambrica).[42]

Third National Assembly, 2007–2011

In the National Assembly election of 3 May 2007, Plaid Cymru increased its number of seats from 12 to 15, regaining Llanelli, gaining one additional list seat and winning the newly created constituency of Aberconwy. The 2007 election also saw Plaid Cymru's Mohammad Asghar become the first ethnic minority candidate elected to the Welsh Assembly.[43] The party's share of the vote increased to 22.4%.

After weeks of negotiations involving all four parties in the Assembly, Plaid Cymru and Labour agreed to form a coalition government. Their agreed "One Wales" programme included a commitment for both parties to campaign for a Yes vote in a referendum on full law-making powers for the Assembly, to be held at a time of the Welsh Assembly Government's choosing.[44] Ieuan Wyn Jones was subsequently confirmed as Deputy First Minister of Wales[45] and Minister for the Economy and Transport. Rhodri Glyn Thomas was appointed Heritage Minister. He later stood down, and Alun Ffred Jones took over. Ceredigion AM Elin Jones was appointed to the Rural Affairs brief in the new 10-member cabinet. Jocelyn Davies became Deputy Minister for Housing, and later, Regeneration.

In the 2010 general election, Plaid returned three MPs to Westminster. They took part in the Yes for Wales cross-party campaign for the March 2011 referendum.

Fourth National Assembly, 2011–16

In the 2011 National Assembly election Plaid slipped from second place to third, being overtaken by the Welsh Conservative Party and losing its deputy leader Helen Mary Jones. The party held an inquiry into the election result.[46] The internal investigation led to the adoption of wide-ranging changes to its constitution, including a streamlining of the leadership structure.[47]

In May 2011, Ieuan Wyn Jones announced he would stand down as leader within the first half of the Assembly term.[48] A leadership election was held in which three candidates eventually stood: Elin Jones, Dafydd Elis-Thomas and Leanne Wood;[49] Simon Thomas withdrew his candidacy before ballots were cast.[50]

On 15 March 2012, Plaid Cymru elected Leanne Wood as its new leader. She received 55% of the vote, over second-placed Elin Jones with 41%.[51] Wood was the party's first female leader, and its first not to be a fluent Welsh speaker.[52][53] Soon after her election as leader she appointed former MP Adam Price to head an economic commission for the party "focussed on bringing together tailor-made policies in order to transform our economy".[54][55] On 1 May 2012, it was confirmed Leanne Wood would not be taking the £23,000 pay increase that every other party leader in the Assembly receives.[56]

On 12 November 2012, Wood announced she would be abandoning her relatively safe list seat to stand in a constituency at the 2016 National Assembly elections;[57] she later confirmed she would contest the Rhondda.[58] Adam Price was subsequently selected as the party's candidate for Carmarthen East and Dinefwr.[59] Lindsay Whittle confirmed he would contest the Caerffili constituency.[60]

On 20 June 2013, former party leader Ieuan Wyn Jones stood down from the Assembly as the member for Ynys Môn.[61] Plaid Cymru's candidate Rhun ap Iorwerth was elected as the new Assembly Member for the constituency, receiving 12,601 votes (a 58% share) with a majority of 9,166 over the Labour candidate.[62]

Fifth National Assembly, 2016–present

Following the 2016 Welsh Assembly elections, having gained one seat, Plaid Cymru became the Assembly's second-largest party and briefly became the official opposition to the Welsh Government with 12 seats.[63] As of February 2018 Plaid Cymru had ten Assembly Members, following the resignation of Dafydd Elis-Thomas in 2016[64][65] and the permanent expulsion from Plaid's Assembly group of Neil McEvoy in 2018.[66]

Despite campaigning to leave in 1975,[67] Plaid campaigned for a remain vote in the 2016 referendum on the UK's membership of the EU.[68] Wales voted 52.5% in favour of leave.[69]

Immediately following the referendum, Leanne Wood publicly stated that voters 'must be respected' and criticised calls for a second EU referendum.[70] Since then Plaid Cymru has changed its policy, and now supports a People's Vote.[71]

In September 2018, Adam Price won the party's leadership election, defeating the incumbent Leanne Wood and fellow challenger Rhun ap Iorwerth.

In the Brecon and Radnorshire by-election Plaid Cymru decided not to put up a candidate, and instead to support the Liberal Democrat candidate Jane Dodds in order to maximise the chance of an anti-Brexit candidate winning.[72]

Undeb Credyd Plaid Cymru

Undeb Credyd Plaid Cymru Credit Union Limited is a savings and loans co-operative established for party members in 1986.[73] Based in Roath, Cardiff, it is a member of the Association of British Credit Unions Limited.[74] The credit union is authorised by the Prudential Regulation Authority and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority and the PRA. Ultimately, like the banks and building societies, members’ savings are protected against business failure by the Financial Services Compensation Scheme.[75]

Party leadership

Name and portrait Party office Constituency
(if any)
Adam Price
Party Leader since 28 September 2018 AM for Carmarthen East and Dinefwr [76]
Liz Saville-Roberts
Westminster Group Leader
Dwyfor Meirionydd [77]
Dafydd Wigley
Party President
From 2001
House of Lords Former Party President
Member of the House of Lords
Jill Evans
European Parliament
Group Leader
MEP for Wales Former Party President
5 Gareth Clubb Chief Executive


Leader From To
1 Lewis Valentine 1925 1926
2 Saunders Lewis 1926 1939
3 John Edward Daniel 1939 1943
4 Abi Williams 1943 1945
5 Gwynfor Evans 1945 1981
6 Dafydd Wigley 1981 1984
7 Dafydd Elis-Thomas 1984 1991
8 Dafydd Wigley 1991 2000
9 Ieuan Wyn Jones 2000 2012
10 Leanne Wood 2012 2018
11 Adam Price 2018

Deputy leaders

Deputy Leader From To
Rhodri Glyn Thomas ???? 2007
Alun Ffred Jones 2007 [78] 2008
Helen Mary Jones 2008 2011/2012
Elin Jones 2012 [79] 2016
Vacant 2016 2018
Rhun ap Iorwerth & Sian Gwenllian 2018 [80] date

Elected representatives

UK Parliament

Name Constituency Since
Jonathan Edwards Carmarthen East and Dinefwr 2010
Ben Lake Ceredigion 2017
Liz Saville-Roberts Dwyfor Meirionnydd 2015
Dafydd Wigley House of Lords 2011
Hywel Williams Arfon 2001

European Parliament

Welsh Assembly

Local councillors

Electoral performance

Local elections

Year Votes % +/- Overall control
of Councils
+/- Seats +/-
1995 115,900 12.5% N/A 1 N/A 202 N/A
1999 179,212 18.2% 5.7% 3 2 205 3
2004 149,352 16.4% 1.8% 1 2 175 30
2008 [82] 159,847 16.8% 0.4% 0 1 205 31
2012[83]* 133,961 15.8% 1.1% 0 158 41
2017 [84] 160,519 16.5% 0.5% 1 203 33

*The 2012 figures excludes Anglesey, where the vote was delayed until 2013. The changes in seats and votes shown for 2012 are a direct comparison since the 2008 elections in the 21 councils up for election (i.e. excluding Anglesey).

In 2008 Plaid won 205 seats including six in Anglesey. For the purposes of this table the 205 figure has been reduced to 199 for the 2012 elections where the party lost 41 of the 199 seats it was defending on the night, leaving them with 158 seats.

In the 2013 elections in Anglesey the party won 12 seats, up from the 6 it won in 2008, (although significant boundary changes took place along with a reduction in the total number of seats available from 40 to 30.)

The 2017 figures are based on changes from the 2012 and 2013 elections. (Hence the slight discrepancy in the percentage increase)

European Parliament elections

YearPercentage of
vote in Wales
Total no.
of votes
Seats won
0 / 4
0 / 4
0 / 4
0 / 5
2 / 5
1 / 4
1 / 4
1 / 4
1 / 4

UK general elections

YearPercentage of vote in WalesNo. of total votesSeats wonGovernment
0 / 36
0 / 36
0 / 36
0 / 36
0 / 36
0 / 36
0 / 36
0 / 36
0 / 36
0 / 36
0 / 36
February 197410.8%171,374
2 / 36
October 197410.8%166,321
3 / 36
2 / 36
2 / 38
3 / 38
4 / 38
4 / 40
4 / 40
3 / 40
3 / 40
3 / 40
4 / 40
4 / 40

*Six seats (Blaenau Gwent, Ceredigion & Pembroke North, Islwyn, Monmouth, Newport West and Torfaen) contested on a joint Plaid Cymru/Green Party ticket

National Assembly for Wales elections

YearVotes receivedSeats wonGovernment
ConstituenciesRegional listsConstituenciesRegional top-up seatsTotal
9 / 40
8 / 20
17 / 60
5 / 40
7 / 20
12 / 60
7 / 40
8 / 20
15 / 60
5 / 40
6 / 20
11 / 60
6 / 40
6 / 20
12 / 60

European Free Alliance

and portrait
Party office Constituency
(if any)

Jill Evans
EU Parliament
Group Leader

Plaid retains close links with the Scottish National Party (SNP), with both parties' MPs co-operating closely with one another. They work as a single parliamentary group within Westminster, and were involved in joint campaigning during the 2005 general election campaign. Both Plaid and the SNP, along with Mebyon Kernow of Cornwall,[85] are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA), a pan-European political party for regionalist, autonomist and pro-independence political parties across Europe. The EFA co-operates with the larger European Green Party to form The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) political group in the European Parliament.

See also


  2. Nordsieck, Wolfram (2016). "Wales/UK". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  3. Programme for Opposition. p. 4. Accessed via the official Plaid Cymru website. Accessed on 30 August 2017.
  4. Hamilton, Paul (2008). "Nationalism and Environmentalism". Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview. ABC-CLIO. 3: 881
  5. Frans Schrijver (2006). Regionalism After Regionalisation: Spain, France and the United Kingdom. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 261–290. ISBN 978-90-5629-428-1.
  6. Schrijver, Frans (2006). "Regionalism After Regionalisation: Spain, France and the United Kingdom". Amsterdam University Press: 330 Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. Siaroff, Alan (2000). "Comparative European Party Systems: An Analysis of Parliamentary Elections Since 1945". Garland: 467 Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. Elias, Anwen (2006). "From 'full national status' to 'independence' in Europe: The case of Plaid Cymru — the Party of Wales". European Integration and the Nationalities Question. Routledge: 194
  9. Driver, Stephen (2011). "Understanding British Party Politics". Polity Press: 176 Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. Dimitri Almeida (2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. Taylor & Francis. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-136-34039-0.
  11. Wales and the Brexit dilemma - will radical devolution provide an escape? New Statesman. Published 13 April 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  12. Dunphy, Richard (2004). "Contesting capitalism?: Left parties and European integration". Manchester University Press: 157 Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. McEwen, Nicola; Parry, Richard (2005). "Devolution and the preservation of the United Kingdom welfare state". The Territorial Politics of Welfare. Routledge: 53
  14. Election profile: Plaid Cymru. "Led by Leanne Wood, the first female leader in the party's history, Plaid Cymru sees itself as a left wing party aiming at increasing economic prosperity and social justice, and securing an independent Wales." BBC. Published 27 March 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  15. "Lords by party and type of peerage". UK Parliament.
  16. "Open Council Data UK - compositions councillors parties wards elections". Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  17. "Plaid Cymru, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press. September 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  18. "Plaid Cymru conference calls for independence for Wales". BBC News. 10 September 2011.
  19. "Plaid Cymru Constitution" (PDF). February 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  20. Edkins, Keith Local Council Political Compositions at, 18 February 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  21. "Plaid Cymru want independent Wales". Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  22. Morgan, Kenneth O. (1981). Rebirth of a nation: Wales, 1880–1980. History of Wales. 6 (reprint 2002 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 206. ISBN 0-19-821760-9. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  23. Philip, Alan Butt (1975). The Welsh Question: Nationalism in Welsh Politics, 1945–1970. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-0537-7.
  24. McAllister, Laura (2001). Plaid Cymru: the Emergence of a Political Party. Bridgend: Seren. ISBN 1-85411-310-0.
  25. McAllister, L., Plaid Cymru: the Emergence of a Political Party (Seren, 2001), "The tentative moves towards elaborating and broadening Plaid's policy portfolio did not allow it to shake off its early identity as a language movement or a cultural pressure group." See also Philip, A. B., The Welsh Question (University of Wales Press, 1975), "It is clear that the Welsh Nationalist Party was at the outset essentially intellectual and moral in outlook and socially conservative."
  26. Morgan, K. O., Welsh Devolution: the Past and the Future in Scotland and Wales: Nations Again? (ed. Taylor, B., and Thomson, K.), (1999), University of Wales Press. Williams, G. A. When Was Wales?, (1985), Penguin. Davies, J., A History of Wales, (1990, rev. 2007), Penguin. Davies, D. H., The Welsh Nationalist Party 1925–1945 (1983), St. Martin's Press. Morgan, K. O., Rebirth of a Nation, (1981), OUP.
  27. Jones, R. Merfyn (2003). Wrigley, Chris (ed.). A companion to early twentieth-century Britain. Blackwell's Companion to British History. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 99. ISBN 0-631-21790-8. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  28. Inspector Williams the Spy Catcher at South Wales Police website. Retrieved 29 September 2006. Archived 12 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  29. Davies, J., A History of Wales (1990, rev. 2007), Penguin: "Saunders Lewis ... hoped that a substantial number of Welshmen would refuse to be conscripted on the grounds that they were Welsh. He was disappointed by their response."
  30. Davies, J., A History of Wales (1990, rev. 2007), Penguin.
  31. Morgan, K. O., Rebirth of a Nation, (1981), OUP.
  32. Francis, H. and Smith, D., The Fed: A History of the South Wales Miners in the Twentieth Century, (1980), University of Wales.
  33. Tanner, D., Facing the New Challenge: Labour and Politics 1970–2000 in The Labour Party in Wales 1900–2000 (Ed. Tanner, D., Williams, C. and Hopkin, D.), (2000), University of Wales Press.
  35. "EU referendum: Parallels with 1975". BBC. 10 June 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  36. "Plaid pioneer Gwynfor Evans dies". BBC News. 21 April 2005. Retrieved 31 July 2008. Mr Evans changed the face of British politics when he became Plaid's first MP in the 1966 Carmarthen by-election. Fourteen years later he threatened to starve himself to death in the cause of Welsh language television, leading to the foundation of S4C.
  37. "Morgan is more popular — Michael". BBC News. 17 February 1999. Retrieved 31 July 2008. Mr Michael, who has Prime Minister Tony Blair's backing, has been widely predicted to come first due to the form of electoral system used. An electoral college composed of three groups — politicians, trade unions and party members — will determined the winner. Large unions such as AEEU that have made their choice after a ballot of a small number of delegates are backing Mr Michael, but Mr Morgan has won every union member vote, including the shopworkers' union Usdaw on Tuesday night. Mr Morgan, a left-wing backbencher, has also repeatedly topped opinion polls taken among Labour Party members in Wales.
  38. "'Wigley downfall' plot denied". BBC News. 14 July 2000. Retrieved 31 July 2008. Mr Wigley's announcement that he was to give up the presidency of Plaid Cymru in May came as a shock. Although he had been in hospital undergoing heart surgery, he was expected to resume his career. Some Assembly members said privately that he had taken on too much — being an MP, AM, party president and also group leader in the National Assembly. But there was also the suggestion that there was a conspiracy to oust him.
  39. "Moderate with a hard act to follow". BBC News. 4 April 2003. Retrieved 31 July 2008. But Mr Jones was soon facing questions about his credentials for the job. Seimon Glyn, until then a fairly obscure Plaid Cymru councillor from Gwynedd, had made controversial comments on BBC Radio Wales about inward migration into Welsh-speaking communities. The issue was raised when Mr Jones appeared on the BBC's Question Time in Caernarfon, and he was criticised for his response, in which he at first denied that Mr Glyn had referred to English as a foreign language. There were more problems when Plaid's then chief executive said that Mr Jones was on a learning curve in the job.
  40. "Elfyn Llwyd — Plaid Cymru parliamentary leader ePolitix interview". 6 September 2006. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  41. "Election 2005 results, Wales". BBC News. 1 June 2005. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
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