Pierre, South Dakota

Pierre (/pɪər/;[6] Lakota: čhúŋkaške,[7] "fort") is the capital of the U.S. state of South Dakota and the seat of Hughes County.[8]

Pierre, South Dakota

čhúŋkaške
The South Dakota State Capitol building in downtown Pierre
Motto(s): 
"On The River-On The Move"
Location within Hughes County
Pierre
Location within South Dakota
Pierre
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 44°22′5″N 100°20′11″W
CountryUnited States
StateSouth Dakota
CountyHughes
Founded1880
Incorporated1883[1]
Named forPierre Chouteau Jr.
Government
  MayorSteve Harding
Area
  Total13.07 sq mi (33.85 km2)
  Land13.06 sq mi (33.83 km2)
  Water0.01 sq mi (0.03 km2)  0.08%
Elevation
1,453 ft (442 m)
Population
  Total13,646
  Estimate 
(2018)[4]
13,980
  Density1,044.9/sq mi (403.4/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
  Summer (DST)UTC−5 (Central)
ZIP code
57501
Area code(s)605
FIPS code46-49600
GNIS feature ID1266887[5]
WebsiteCity of Pierre

The population was 13,646 at the 2010 census, making it the second-least populous state capital in the United States, following Montpelier, Vermont. It is the eighth-most populous city in South Dakota. Founded in 1880, it was selected as the state capital when the territory was admitted as a state. Pierre is the principal city of the Pierre Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Hughes and Stanley counties.

History

The city was founded in 1880 on the east bank of the Missouri River opposite Fort Pierre, a former trading post that developed as a community. Pierre was designated as the state capital when South Dakota gained statehood on November 2, 1889.

Huron challenged the city to be selected as the capital, but Pierre was selected because of its location in the geographic center of the state. Fort Pierre had developed earlier, with a permanent settlement since about 1817 around a fur trading post. Fort Pierre Chouteau, preceding the city, was named after Pierre Chouteau, Jr., a major American fur trader from St. Louis, Missouri, who was of colonial French origin.

Development of Pierre was also influenced by construction of the Rapid City, Pierre and Eastern Railroad, which runs east–west through the city. It increased access to markets for regional products and improved transportation for passengers. The railroad crosses the Missouri River on the Chicago and North Western Railroad Bridge.

But the capital city became relatively isolated in the post-World War II era of federally subsidized highway construction, as travelers and freight companies began to use automobiles and trucking. It is one of four state capitals that is not served by an interstate highway, and it is alone in not having access to an expressway. Railways still serve in the Plains states, however.

Geography

Pierre is located at 44°22′5″N 100°20′11″W (44.367966, −100.336378).[9]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.07 square miles (33.85 km2), of which, 13.06 square miles (33.83 km2) is land and 0.01 square miles (0.03 km2) is water.[2]

Pierre is sited on rough river bluffs above the east bank of the Missouri River, overlooking its expanse. It is a few miles away from Lake Oahe, one of the largest man-made lakes in the world. Developed for flood control and irrigation, the lake has become a popular fishing destination.

Climate

Pierre has a relatively dry, four-season, humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa),[10] with long, dry, cold winters, hot summers, and brief spring and autumnal transitions; as with much of the southern half of the state, it lies in USDA Plant Hardiness in zone 5.[11] According to weather maps and their data used as a basis, Pierre can be considered a semi-arid cold climate (Köppen: Bsk) aided by its precipitation near the threshold[12] that reaches even northeast of the city in South Dakota. As such, it is the only capital of the Midwest's states with a non-humid climate.[13][14] The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 19.9 °F (−6.7 °C) in January to 75.4 °F (24.1 °C), though the diurnal temperature variation is significantly greater during summer than in winter. Snow primarily falls in light amounts, with the snowiest months being February and March, while the average seasonal total is 32 inches (0.81 m). In addition, there are 20 nights per year with lows below 0 °F (−17.8 °C),[15] and cold conditions are often intensified by the high winds of the Great Plains. Summers often see spikes in temperature, with 6.4 days of highs above 100 °F (37.8 °C) and 36−37 days with highs above 90 °F (32.2 °C).[15]

On July 23, 1973, an F3 tornado struck Pierre and caused 10 injuries.[16] It was the strongest tornado ever recorded in Hughes County.[17]

The beginning of both May and October represent the last and first, respectively, freezing nights of the cooler season.[15] Precipitation is much lighter in the winter months than it is in late spring and summer, and totals about 20 inches (508 mm) annually. Extremes have ranged from −35 °F (−37 °C) on February 9, 1994 to 117 °F (47 °C) on July 15, 2006.

Climate data for Pierre, South Dakota (Pierre Regional Airport), 1981−2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 68
(20)
75
(24)
88
(31)
98
(37)
105
(41)
112
(44)
117
(47)
114
(46)
108
(42)
98
(37)
87
(31)
77
(25)
117
(47)
Average high °F (°C) 30.0
(−1.1)
34.9
(1.6)
45.4
(7.4)
59.7
(15.4)
70.2
(21.2)
80.0
(26.7)
88.8
(31.6)
87.3
(30.7)
76.5
(24.7)
61.0
(16.1)
44.1
(6.7)
31.3
(−0.4)
59.1
(15.1)
Average low °F (°C) 9.8
(−12.3)
13.8
(−10.1)
23.5
(−4.7)
34.2
(1.2)
45.7
(7.6)
55.4
(13.0)
61.9
(16.6)
60.1
(15.6)
49.2
(9.6)
36.4
(2.4)
23.3
(−4.8)
12.1
(−11.1)
35.6
(2.0)
Record low °F (°C) −33
(−36)
−35
(−37)
−19
(−28)
1
(−17)
21
(−6)
34
(1)
42
(6)
39
(4)
21
(−6)
4
(−16)
−18
(−28)
−31
(−35)
−35
(−37)
Average precipitation inches (mm) .42
(11)
.59
(15)
1.23
(31)
1.81
(46)
3.15
(80)
3.57
(91)
2.61
(66)
1.80
(46)
1.87
(47)
1.65
(42)
.76
(19)
.55
(14)
20.01
(508)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 5.4
(14)
6.0
(15)
5.8
(15)
3.5
(8.9)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
.9
(2.3)
4.8
(12)
4.8
(12)
31.3
(80)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 5.7 4.7 6.3 8.2 10.2 10.7 9.2 7.4 6.8 6.8 5.9 5.8 87.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 5.1 3.8 3.5 1.9 0 0 0 0 0 .6 3.1 4.3 22.3
Source: NOAA (extremes 1933–present)[15][18]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
18903,235
19002,306−28.7%
19103,65658.5%
19203,209−12.2%
19303,65914.0%
19404,32218.1%
19505,71532.2%
196010,08876.5%
19709,699−3.9%
198011,97323.4%
199012,9067.8%
200013,8767.5%
201013,646−1.7%
Est. 201813,980[4]2.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[19]
2017 Estimate[20]

2010 census

As of the census[3] of 2010, there were 13,646 people, 5,778 households, and 3,463 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,044.9 inhabitants per square mile (403.4/km2). There were 6,159 housing units at an average density of 471.6 per square mile (182.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 85.1% White, 0.5% African American, 10.9% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.5% from other races, and 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 1.9% of the population.

There were 5,778 households of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 40.1% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.87.

The median age in the city was 39.3 years. 22.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 7.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.7% were from 25 to 44; 28.9% were from 45 to 64; and 13.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.8% male and 52.2% female.

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 13,876 people, 5,567 households, and 3,574 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,065.8 people per square mile (411.5/km²). There were 5,949 housing units at an average density of 457.0 per square mile (176.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 88.91% White, 0.20% African American, 8.56% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, and 1.56% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1.25% of the population.

There were 5,567 households, out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.8% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35, and the average family size was 2.96.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 27.2% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.4 males.

As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $42,962, and the median income for a family was $52,144. Males had a median income of $32,969 versus $22,865 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,462. About 5.5% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.9% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.

Transportation

Public transit is provided by River Cities Public Transit.

The city's Pierre Regional Airport is served by one commercial airline.

Although in the center of the state, Pierre is one of only four state capitals not served by an Interstate highway (along with Dover, Delaware, Jefferson City, Missouri, and Juneau, Alaska). It is the only one that is not served by any expressways.[21] The nearest Interstate highway is Interstate 90, about 34 mi (55 km) south of Pierre via the four-lane U.S. Highway 83.I-390 is proposed to connect Pierre to I-90.

The Rapid City, Pierre and Eastern Railroad runs east–west through the city. The railroad crosses the Missouri River on the Chicago and North Western Railroad Bridge.

Education

The Pierre School District oversees three elementary schools, a middle school and a high school, T. F. Riggs High School. The only private school is St. Joseph, a Catholic elementary school. It is administered by the local parish and the Diocese of Sioux Falls.

Media

Television

Television

Channel
(Digital)
Callsign Network Owner Web site
7.1K14IO-D
(Translator of KTTW)
FoxIndependent Communications
11.1KPLO-LD
(Translator of KELO)
CBSNexstar Media Group
11.2KPLO-LD
(Translator of KELO)
MyNetworkTVNexstar Media Group
13.1KPRY
(Satellite of KSFY)
ABCGray Television
13.2KPRY
(Satellite of KSFY)
The CWGray Television
13.3KPRY
(Satellite of KSFY)
MeTVGray Television
34.1K34GM-DThree Angels Broadcasting NetworkDanny Shelton
46.1K27HJ-D
(Translator of KDLT)
NBCRed River Broadcasting
46.2K27HJ-D
(Translator of KDLT)
Antenna TVRed River Broadcasting

AM radio

AM radio stations
FrequencyCall signNameFormatOwnerCity
1060 AMKGFXClassic CountryDakota Radio GroupPierre
1240 AMKCCRFull ServiceRiverfront Broadcasting LLCPierre

FM radio

FM radio stations
FrequencyCall signNameFormatOwnerTarget city/marketCity of license
89.1 FMKVFLVCY AmericaChristianVCY AmericaPierrePierre
89.5 FMK208FMMoody RadioChristian
WJSO translator
Moody Bible InstitutePierrePierre
90.3 FMKSLPPower 107.3Contemporary Christian
KSLT translator
Bethesda Christian BroadcastingPierreFort Pierre
91.7 FMKTSDSouth Dakota Public BroadcastingNPRSD Board of Directors for Educational TelecommunicationsPierreReliance
92.7 FMKGFX-FMRiver 92.7CHRDakota Radio GroupPierrePierre
94.5 FMKPLO-FM94 CountryCountryDakota Radio GroupPierreReliance
95.3 FMKLXSCountry 95.3CountryRiverfront Broadcasting LLCPierrePierre
96.3 FMK242CHSouth Dakota Public BroadcastingNPRSD Board of Directors for Educational TelecommunicationsPierrePierre
100.1 FMKJBI100.1 The EagleClassic HitsDakota Radio GroupPierreFort Pierre
100.5 FMK263AW94 CountryCountryDakota Radio GroupPierreFort Pierre
104.5 FMKCCR-FMCapitol City Rock 104.5Active RockRiverfront Broadcasting LLCPierreBlunt
105.1 FMKPGN-LPPierre's Good News StationChristianPierre Educational Radio, IncPierrePierre
107.1 FMK296FI1060 KGFXClassic Country
KGFX-AM translator
Dakota Radio GroupPierrePierre

Newspaper

The Capital Journal is the local newspaper and has been in circulation since 1881. OaheTV is the local Public/Education/Government cable channel serving Pierre, Fort Pierre on Midcontinent Communications Cable.

Notable people

In 2015, in honor of the 80th anniversary of the "Monopoly" board game, Hasbro held an online vote to determine which cities should be included in an updated version of the "Here and Now: The US Edition" of the game. The top "Boardwalk" spot went to an unexpected contender: Pierre. It received the most votes, beating New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Boston.[22][23] The outcome may have been influenced by the image that accompanied the name of the city in the balloting: the well-known Mount Rushmore. But the sculpture is 150 miles west of Pierre, in Keystone and the Black Hills section of the state.[24]

Pierre's attractions include the Oahe Dam and its associated lake, popular for recreation such as fishing. The world's largest Menards, a regional home improvement store, opened in the city in .[25]

References

  1. William D. Halsey, ed. (1976). "Pierre". Collier's Encyclopedia. 19. New York: Macmillan Educational Corporation. pp. 42–43.
  2. "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
  3. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2018-03-16. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
  4. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Archived from the original on May 4, 2018. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  5. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Archived from the original on February 26, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. "Broadcast Pronunciation Guide and South Dakota Pronunciations". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2011-06-14. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
  7. Ullrich, Jan F. (2014). New Lakota Dictionary (2nd ed.). Bloomington, IN: Lakota Language Consortium. ISBN 978-0-9761082-9-0. Archived from the original on 2016-10-18. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  8. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  9. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Archived from the original on 2002-05-27. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  10. Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A.: Updated American map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Archived 2011-06-28 at the Wayback Machine Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633–1644, 2007.
  11. "What is my arborday.org Hardiness Zone?". Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  12. Data, US Climate. "Climate Pierre - South Dakota and Weather averages Pierre - Weather history january 2018". www.usclimatedata.com. Archived from the original on 2018-10-17. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  13. "Interactive United States Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification Map". www.plantmaps.com. Archived from the original on 2018-10-11. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  14. "Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map of the world". people.eng.unimelb.edu.au. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  15. "Station Name: SD PIERRE RGNL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-03-10.
  16. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-04-04. Retrieved 2018-04-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-04-04. Retrieved 2018-04-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. National Weather Service Corporate Image Web Team. "National Weather Service Climate". Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  19. United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
  20. "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 28, 2019. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  21. "The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways - Part VII - Miscellaneous Interstate Facts". Federal Highway Administration. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  22. Burbach, Kevin (March 19, 2015). "Pierre Gets Top Spot on New Monopoly Game". Argus Leader. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
  23. "Monopoly". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  24. "Distance between Pierre, SD and Keystone, SD". www.distance-cities.com. Archived from the original on 2016-06-11. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  25. Lee.zion@capjounrnal.com, Lee Zion. "Big Menards opens". Capital Journal. Archived from the original on 2016-05-17. Retrieved 2016-06-09.

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.