Pieksänmaa was formed in 2004 when the municipalities of Pieksämäen maalaiskunta, Jäppilä and Virtasalmi were consolidated to a single municipality. Pieksänmaa itself was consolidated to Pieksämäki three years later.
It is located in the province of Eastern Finland and is part of the Southern Savonia region. The municipality had a population of 8,754 (2003) and covered an area of 1,788.17 km² of which 249.40 km² was water. The population density was 5.7 inhabitants per km².
The municipality was unilingually Finnish.