Pi (letter)

Pi (/p/; uppercase Π, lowercase π and ϖ; Greek: πι [pi]) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the sound [p]. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 80. It was derived from the Phoenician letter Pe (). Letters that arose from pi include Cyrillic Pe (П, п), Coptic pi (Ⲡ, ⲡ), and Gothic pairthra (𐍀).

Symbol

The upper-case letter Π is used as a symbol for:

In science and engineering:

The lower-case letter π is used as a symbol for:

History

An early form of pi was , appearing almost like a gamma with a hook.

Variant pi

Variant pi or "pomega" ( or ϖ) is a glyph variant of lower case pi sometimes used in technical contexts as though it were a lower-case omega with a macron, though historically it is simply a cursive form of pi, with its legs bent inward to meet. It is used as a symbol for:

Character encodings

The various forms of pi are present in Unicode as:

  • U+03A0 Π GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PI (HTML Π · Π)
  • U+03C0 π GREEK SMALL LETTER PI (HTML π · π)
  • U+03D6 ϖ GREEK PI SYMBOL (HTML ϖ · ϖ)
  • U+220F N-ARY PRODUCT (HTML ∏ · ∏)
  • U+1D28 GREEK LETTER SMALL CAPITAL PI (HTML ᴨ)
  • U+1D70B 𝜋 MATHEMATICAL ITALIC SMALL PI (HTML 𝜋)
  • U+1D6D1 𝛑 MATHEMATICAL BOLD SMALL PI (HTML 𝛑).[3]

Character encodings tables

  • Greek / Coptic Pi[4]
CharacterΠπϖ
Unicode nameGREEK CAPITAL LETTER PIGREEK SMALL LETTER PIGREEK PI SYMBOLCOPTIC CAPITAL LETTER PICOPTIC SMALL LETTER PI
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode928U+03A0960U+03C0982U+03D611424U+2CA011425U+2CA1
UTF-8206 160CE A0207 128CF 80207 150CF 96226 178 160E2 B2 A0226 178 161E2 B2 A1
Numeric character referenceΠΠππϖϖⲠⲠⲡⲡ
Named character referenceΠπϖ
DOS Greek1438F167A7
DOS Greek-2198C6234EA
Windows 1253208D0240F0
TeX\Pi\pi\varpi
  • Mathematical Pi
Character𝚷𝛑𝛱𝜋
Unicode nameN-ARY PRODUCTN-ARY COPRODUCTMATHEMATICAL BOLD
CAPITAL PI
MATHEMATICAL BOLD
SMALL PI
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
CAPITAL PI
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
SMALL PI
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode8719U+220F8720U+2210120503U+1D6B7120529U+1D6D1120561U+1D6F1120587U+1D70B
UTF-8226 136 143E2 88 8F226 136 144E2 88 90240 157 154 183F0 9D 9A B7240 157 155 145F0 9D 9B 91240 157 155 177F0 9D 9B B1240 157 156 139F0 9D 9C 8B
UTF-168719220F8720221055349 57015D835 DEB755349 57041D835 DED155349 57073D835 DEF155349 57099D835 DF0B
Numeric character reference∏∏∐∐𝚷𝚷𝛑𝛑𝛱𝛱𝜋𝜋
Named character reference∏
Character𝜫𝝅𝝥𝝿𝞟𝞹
Unicode nameMATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
CAPITAL PI
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
SMALL PI
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD CAPITAL PI
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD SMALL PI
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL PI
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC SMALL PI
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode120619U+1D72B120645U+1D745120677U+1D765120703U+1D77F120735U+1D79F120761U+1D7B9
UTF-8240 157 156 171F0 9D 9C AB240 157 157 133F0 9D 9D 85240 157 157 165F0 9D 9D A5240 157 157 191F0 9D 9D BF240 157 158 159F0 9D 9E 9F240 157 158 185F0 9D 9E B9
UTF-1655349 57131D835 DF2B55349 57157D835 DF4555349 57189D835 DF6555349 57215D835 DF7F55349 57247D835 DF9F55349 57273D835 DFB9
Numeric character reference𝜫𝜫𝝅𝝅𝝥𝝥𝝿𝝿𝞟𝞟𝞹𝞹
Character
Unicode nameDOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL PIDOUBLE-STRUCK SMALL PI
Encodingsdecimalhexdecimalhex
Unicode8511U+213F8508U+213C
UTF-8226 132 191E2 84 BF226 132 188E2 84 BC
Numeric character referenceℿℿℼℼ

These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.

See also

References

  1. "Pomega". Eric Weisstein's World of Physics. wolfram.com.
  2. Outline for Weeks 14&15, Astronomy 225 Spring 2008 Archived 2010-06-15 at the Wayback Machine
  3. "Unicode characters supported by the Calibri font". fileformat.info.
  4. Unicode Code Charts: Greek and Coptic (Range: 0370-03FF)
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