Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province

Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya (or Ayutthaya, Thai: พระนครศรีอยุธยา, pronounced [pʰráʔ ná(ʔ).kʰɔ̄ːn sǐː ʔā.jút.tʰā.jāː]) is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Ang Thong, Lop Buri, Saraburi, Pathum Thani, Nonthaburi, Nakhon Pathom and Suphan Buri.

Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya

พระนครศรีอยุธยา

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): 
Ayutthaya
Map of Thailand highlighting Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province
CountryThailand
CapitalAyothaya
Government
  GovernorPanu Yaemsi
(since October 2019)[1]
Area
  Total2,557 km2 (987 sq mi)
Area rankRanked 63rd
Population
 (2018)[3]
  Total817,441
  RankRanked 30th
  Density320.0/km2 (829/sq mi)
  Density rankRanked 11th
Human Achievement Index
  HAI (2017)0.6811 "high"
Ranked 2nd
Time zoneUTC+7 (ICT)
Postal code
13xxx
Calling code035
ISO 3166 codeTH-14

Toponymy

The name Ayutthaya derives from the Sanskrit word Ayodhyā, found in the Ramayana, which means "the invincible [city]". Grammatically, this word is composed of the morphemes a- 'not' + yodhya 'defeatable' (from the root yudh- 'to fight') + ā, a feminine suffix.

Geography

Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, covering 2,557 square kilometres (987 sq mi)[2], is on the flat river plain of the Chao Phraya River valley. The presence of the Lopburi and Pa Sak rivers makes the province a major rice farming area. The province is one of only 10 provinces with no forests.[5]

History

Ayutthaya was founded in 1351[a] by King U-Thong. It was the capital of Thailand (then called Siam) for 417 years from 1351 until it was sacked by the Burmese army in 1767. During this era, now usually referred as the Ayutthaya period or Ayutthaya kingdom, Ayutthaya was ruled by 33 kings of five different dynasties. The kingdom became a major regional player, and a trade center of the East, a meeting point of European merchants and Asian traders. Notable monarchs during the Ayutthaya period include King Naresuan the Great, who liberated Ayutthaya from the first Burmese occupation and embarked on a reign of conquest, and King Narai the Great, who initiated diplomatic relations with France, during the reign of Louis XIV. His reign was the golden age of trade and culture.

The city was strategically positioned. During several months of the year, the flood plains around the cities would be flooded by the many rivers around the city. Enemy sieges were thus impossible, and forced to withdraw. This advantage was a contributing factor in the many failed Burmese invasions.

The ruins of the old capital in the Ayutthaya historical park have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since December 1991. The province is also home to the Bang Pa-in summer palace complex.

Originally named Krung Kao (กรุงเก่า), the province was renamed Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya in 1919.[6]

Symbols

According to legend, King Ramathibodi I found a beautiful conch shell buried in the ground, and chose the site as the place for his capital. He then placed the shell on a pedestal tray and built a pavilion around it. The seal shows this pavilion with the provincial tree behind it.

The provincial flower is the ดอกโสน (RTGS: dok sano) Sesbania aculeata, and the provincial tree is the fragrant manjack (Cordia dichotoma). The provincial slogan ราชธานีเก่า อู่ข้าวอู่น้ำ เลิศล้ำกานท์กวี คนดีศรีอยุธยา can be translated as "Old capital city, food larder of the country, poets laureate galore, and national heroes".

Economy

Honda has an automobile factory in the province. Honda produces hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and batteries for electric vehicles there, and at its factory in Prachin Buri. Honda's Ayutthaya factory has an annual capacity of 300,000 units.[7]

Administrative divisions

The province is divided into sixteen districts (amphoe), 209 communes (tambon)/sub-districts and 1,328 villages (muban). Ayutthaya is unique among the provinces of Thailand in that the district of its seat of government is not called Mueang District [Ayutthaya], as the common scheme would suggest, but rather Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya District:

  1. Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
  2. Tha Ruea
  3. Nakhon Luang
  4. Bang Sai (1404)
  5. Bang Ban
  6. Bang Pa-in
  7. Bang Pahan
  8. Phak Hai
  1. Phachi
  2. Lat Bua Luang
  3. Wang Noi
  4. Sena
  5. Bang Sai (1413)
  6. Uthai
  7. Maha Rat
  8. Ban Phraek

Climate

Ayutthaya, on the central plains, historically has three seasons:

  • Hot season: March – May
  • Rainy season: June – October
  • Cool season: November - February
Climate data for Ayutthaya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.0
(87.8)
33.3
(91.9)
35.4
(95.7)
35.9
(96.6)
34.3
(93.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.0
(89.6)
31.4
(88.5)
31.3
(88.3)
31.3
(88.3)
30.7
(87.3)
30.0
(86.0)
32.4
(90.3)
Average low °C (°F) 17.0
(62.6)
19.4
(66.9)
22.3
(72.1)
24.3
(75.7)
24.5
(76.1)
24.3
(75.7)
24.0
(75.2)
23.8
(74.8)
23.5
(74.3)
22.5
(72.5)
20.0
(68.0)
17.4
(63.3)
21.9
(71.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 2.4
(0.09)
18.8
(0.74)
43.5
(1.71)
67.9
(2.67)
208.0
(8.19)
223.0
(8.78)
180.8
(7.12)
260.0
(10.24)
213.9
(8.42)
167.6
(6.60)
37.1
(1.46)
0.8
(0.03)
1,423.8
(56.05)
Average rainy days 0 1 4 6 15 16 17 19 17 12 3 1 111
Source: Thai Meteorological Department[8]

Transport

  • Rail: Ayutthaya's main station is Ayutthaya Railway Station.
  • Boat: Ayutthaya has many piers that can be boarded by river cruise from Bangkok pier.

Health

Ayutthaya's main hospital is Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Hospital, operated by the Ministry of Public Health.

Human achievement index 2017

Index for the province Ayutthaya[4]
HAI indices Map Index Rank list
Health20.77013rd
Education30.540517th
Employment40.81403rd
Income50.628516th
Housing and environment60.807252nd
Family and community life70.616138th
Transport and communication80.716810th
Participation90.556040th
HAI 201710.68112nd


Since 2003, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Thailand has tracked progress on human development at sub-national level using the Human achievement index (HAI), a composite index covering all the eight key areas of human development. National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) has taken over this task since 2017.[4]
Province Ayutthaya, with an HAI 2017 value of 0.6811, takes the 2nd place in the rankings. This is "high" between the values of 0.6246 and 0.6885.

Tourism

Ayutthaya is 76 kilometres north of Bangkok and boasts numerous ruins. Such ruins indicate that Ayutthaya was one of Indochina's most prosperous cities. The Ayutthaya Historical Park is a vast stretch of historical sites in the heart of Ayutthaya city.

There were three palaces in Ayutthaya: Grand Palace, Chantharakasem Palace or the Front Palace, and Wang Lang or the Rear Palace. In addition, there were many other palaces and buildings for royal visits outside the city area of Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, such as Bang Pa-In Palace at Bang Pa-in and Nakhon Luang Building in the Nakhon Luang District.

Notes

a The city was founded on Friday, the 6th day of the waxing moon of the 5th month, 1893 Buddhist Era, corresponding to Friday, 4 March 1351 Common Era, according to the calculation of the Fine Arts Department of Thailand.[9]

References

  1. "ประกาศสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง แต่งตั้งข้าราชการพลเรือนสามัญ" [Announcement of the Prime Minister's Office regarding the appointment of civil servants] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 136 (Special 242 Ngor). 13. 28 September 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  2. Advancing Human Development through the ASEAN Community, Thailand Human Development Report 2014, table 0:Basic Data (PDF) (Report). United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Thailand. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-974-680-368-7. Retrieved 17 January 2016, Data has been supplied by Land Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, at Wayback Machine.
  3. "ร่ยงานสถิติจำนวนประชากรและบ้านประจำปี พ.ศ.2561" [Statistics, population and house statistics for the year 2018]. Registration Office Department of the Interior, Ministry of the Interior. stat.bora.dopa.go.th (in Thai). 31 December 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  4. ดัชนีความก้าวหน้าของคน ปี2560 [Human Achievement Index - HAI year 2017] (PDF). social.nesdb.go.th (Report) (in Thai). National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB). 2017. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-974-9769-33-1. Retrieved 14 September 2019, Maps 1-9
  5. "Governor bemoans lack of green areas". Bangkok Post. 29 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  6. ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง เปลี่ยนนามมณฑลกรุงเก่าและจังหวัดกรุงเก่า (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 35 (0 ก): 24–27. March 23, 1919.
  7. Theparat, Chatrudee; Maikaew, Piyachart (26 July 2018). "BoI gives blessing to B30bn in plans". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  8. "30 year Average (1961-1990) - AYUTTHAYA". Thai Meteorological Department. Retrieved 2011-11-12.
  9. Rotchanaratha, Wina, ed. (1999). Prachum Phongsawadan Chabap Kanchanaphisek Lem Nueng ประชุมพงศาวดาร ฉบับกาญจนาภิเษก เล่ม ๑ [Golden Jubilee Collection of Historical Archives, Volume 1] (in Thai). Bangkok: Fine Arts Department of Thailand. p. 211. ISBN 9744192151.

See also

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