Pesanggrahan River

Pesanggrahan River (Indonesian: Sungai Pesanggrahan or Kali Pesanggrahan) is a river with the upstream in the Bogor Regency, flowing through the cities of Depok, Jakarta and Tangerang, Banten.[1] The river passes the districts of Tanah Sereal, Bojong Gede, Sawangan, Limo, Kebayoran Lama, Pesanggrahan, Kembangan, and Kebun Jeruk before flowing into the Cengkareng Drain. Based on the 2005 data, 55 percent watershed area of Pesanggrahan River is occupied by housing, only 7 percent is still forests, 20 percent rice fields, and 13 percent other agriculture fields.[2]

Pesanggrahan River
Pesanggrahan River ("K. Pesanggrahan"), middle left in the map of rivers and canals of Jakarta (2012)
Location of the mouth
Pesanggrahan River (Indonesia)
Native nameKali Pesanggrahan,
Sungai Pesanggrahan
Location
CountryIndonesia
StateJakarta, West Java, Banten
Physical characteristics
Source 
  locationBogor Regency
MouthCengkareng Drain
  coordinates
6°10′25″S 106°45′00″E

Geography

The river flows in the northwest area of Java with predominantly tropical rainforest climate (designated as Af in the Köppen-Geiger climate classification).[3] The annual average temperature in the area is 29 °C. The warmest month is October, when the average temperature is around 30 °C, and the coldest is January, at 28 °C.[4] The average annual rainfall is 3674 mm. The wettest month is December, with an average of 456 mm rainfall, and the driest is September, with 87 mm rainfall.[5]

Flooding

The river causes regular flooding on both banks. In August to October 2010 the river walls were broken three times due to high debit and old wall age.[6] The decreasing capacity and low maintenance caused the flooding in November 2012, affecting 2 area in Ulujami.[7] On 10 August 2017 the river overflows and floods 4 area in Pondok Pinang.[8]

Water quality

The joint research by HSBC, Green Radio, Sanggabuana, and Transformasi Hijau during June 2011 discovered that the water of Pesanggrahan river was considered 100 percent polluted, so could not be used for fish farming.[9] The water condition was dirty with oxygen level 3.2 ppm compared to the normal level of 6 ppm. Only two river biota was found, namely snails and worms. Moreovoer, heavy metal pollutants were also detected, including lead, mercury, and hexavalent chromium.[9] Therefore, the river could not be categorized as category C source water anymore. The decrease in water quality was thought to be the results of higher density of housing on the river banks.[9]

Normalisation projects

In December 2010 river normalisation was planned to increase the debit from 50 cubic meter to 115 cubic meter, but was delayed multiple times due to long contractor selection process. The project was continued through Jakarta Emergency Dredging Initiative (JEDI)[10] of the government of Jakarta with the ministry of general work at the end of 2013 until 2014,[11] with the support of the building project to straighten the flow of Pesanggrahan river around ITC Cipulir,[12] and the building of dams in South Jakarta to hold the water at upriver, as to lessen the burdens of the downstream rivers in Jakarta.[13][14]

The dam building was halted as the inhabitants requested more reimbursements, but could be resolved by the direct negotiation with Joko Widodo, the governor of Jakarta at that time.[15]

See also

References

  1. Kali Pesanggrahan - Geonames.org.
  2. Yanto, Petrus.Perhitungan Debit Limpasan.... Accessed from Lontar UI, 2 January 2014
  3. Peel, M C; Finlayson, B L; McMahon, T A (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.
  4. "NASA Earth Observations Data Set Index". NASA. 30 January 2016.
  5. "NASA Earth Observations: Rainfall (1 month - TRMM)". NASA/Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission. 30 January 2016.
  6. Prijanto Tinjau Pelebaran Kali Pesanggrahan. Diakses dari situs berita Okezone.com pada 2 Februari 2014
  7. Kali Pesanggrahan Meluap, 2 RT di Ulujami Banjir. Merdeka.com. Accessed 2 February 2014
  8. Tolong! Kali Pesanggrahan Meluap, Ratusan Rumah di Pondok Pinang Kebanjiran. Fadel Prayoga - OkeZone -·10 August 2017.
  9. Air Kali Pesanggrahan Tercemar 10 Persen. Diakses dari situs Berita Tempo pada 2 Januari 2014
  10. Atasi Banjir, DKI Gelontorkan Rp 1,12Triliun. Kompas. Accessed 2 February 2014
  11. Percepatan Normalisasi Kali Pesanggrahan. Diakses dari situs Kementrian Pekerjaan Umum pada 2 Februari 2014
  12. Proyek Sodetan Kali Pesanggrahan akan Dimulai 2014. Diakses dari situs berita Sindonews pada 2 Januari 2014
  13. Atasi Banjir Pesanggrahan, Jokowi Ubah Rawa Jadi Waduk. Accessed from Berita Merdeka.com
  14. Lima Waduk akan Dibangun di Jakarta Selatan. Berita PoskotaNews. Accessed 2 February 2014
  15. Nego Harga Tanah, Jokowi Temui Warga Pesanggrahan Pekan Depan. Berita Liputan6. Accessed 2 February 2014
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