Persona non grata
In diplomacy, a persona non grata (Latin: "person not appreciated", plural: personae non gratae) is a foreign person whose entering or remaining in a particular country is prohibited by that country's government. Being so named is the most serious form of censure which a country can apply to foreign diplomats, who are otherwise protected by diplomatic immunity from arrest and other normal kinds of prosecution.
Under Article 9 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, a receiving state may "at any time and without having to explain its decision" declare any member of a diplomatic staff persona non grata. A person so declared is considered unacceptable and is usually recalled to his or her home nation. If not recalled, the receiving state "may refuse to recognize the person concerned as a member of the mission".
With the protection of mission staff from prosecution for violating civil and criminal laws, depending on rank, under Articles 41 and 42 of the Vienna Convention, they are bound to respect national laws and regulations. Breaches of these articles can lead to a persona non grata declaration being used to punish erring staff. It is also used to expel diplomats suspected of espionage, described as "activities incompatible with diplomatic status", or any overt criminal act such as drug trafficking. The declaration may also be a symbolic indication of displeasure.
So-called "tit for tat" exchanges have occurred (whereby ambassadors of countries involved in a dispute each expel the ambassador of the other country), notably during the Cold War. A notable occurrence outside of the Cold War was an exchange between the United States and Ecuador in 2011: the Ecuadorian government expelled the United States ambassador, as a result of diplomatic cables leaking (WikiLeaks); the United States responded by expelling the Ecuadorian ambassador.
The most notable recent example was the backlash after the 2018 Novichok attacks in Salisbury. 146 Russian diplomats were expelled from 29 different countries(and 7 from NATO). In response the Russians expelled the same number of diplomats from each country, to which the U.K. recalled a further 27 of their diplomats.
- VanOpdorp, Davis (6 March 2019). "What does it mean to be declared persona non grata?". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- "Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations". eDiplomat. Article 9. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Eaton, William J. (20 October 1986). "Soviets Oust 5 U.S. Diplomats as Spies : Shultz Promises Action in Response to Unprecedented Mass Expulsion". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
The Soviet Foreign Ministry accused the five Americans of engaging in "actions which are incompatible with their official status"--the normal diplomatic jargon for espionage.
- "Spain-Russia spy row leads to diplomats' expulsion". BBC News. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
The Spanish foreign ministry spokesman said the two Russians had been expelled "for activities incompatible with their status as diplomats" - the diplomatic term for spying.
- Cavell, Anna (14 November 2012). "'Persona non grata' in South Sudan". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
"Persona non grata" (PNG), is the most serious form of censure a government can take against a person with diplomatic immunity and often used by governments as symbolic expressions of displeasure.
- "US expels Ecuadorian ambassador in diplomatic tit-for-tat". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- "Persona non grata definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary". Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
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