Perm Krai (Russian: Пе́рмский край, tr. Permsky kray, IPA: [ˈpʲɛrmskʲɪj ˈkraj]) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug. The city of Perm is the administrative center. The population of the krai was 2,635,276 according to the (2010 Census).
Coat of arms
|Coordinates: 59°14′N 56°08′E|
|Established||December 1, 2005|
|• Body||Legislative Assembly|
|• Governor||Maksim Reshetnikov (Acting)|
|• Total||160,600 km2 (62,000 sq mi)|
|• Estimate||2,623,122 (-0.5%)|
|• Density||16/km2 (42/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5 (MSK+2 |
|ISO 3166 code||RU-PER|
|License plates||59, 81, 159|
Komi-Permyak Okrug retained its autonomous status within Perm Krai during the transitional period of 2006–2008. It also retained a budget separate from that of the krai, keeping all federal transfers. Starting in 2009, Komi-Permyak Okrug's budget became subject to the budgeting law of Perm Krai. The transitional period was implemented in part because Komi-Permyak Okrug relies heavily on federal subsidies, and an abrupt cut would have been detrimental to its economy.
- length from north to south – 645 kilometres (401 mi)
- length from west to east – 417.5 kilometres (259.4 mi)
The krai borders stretch for over 2,200 kilometres (1,400 mi). The highest point is Mount Tulymsky Kamen at 1,496 metres (4,908 ft).
Rivers of Perm Krai belong to the Kama River Basin, the largest tributary of Volga River. There are more than 29,000 rivers in Perm Krai. The total length of all rivers is more than 90,000 kilometres (56,000 mi).
There are about 40 rivers with lengths from 100 to 500 kilometres (62 to 311 mi). The longest of them are:
- Sylva River — 493 km (306 mi)
- Kolva River — 460 km (285 mi)
- Vishera River — 415 km (258 mi)
- Yayva River — 403 km (250 mi)
- Kosva River — 283 km (176 mi)
- Kosa River — 267 km (165 mi)
- Veslyana River — 266 km (165 mi)
- Inva River — 257 km (159 mi)
- Obva River — 247 km (153 mi)
There are also many small rivers, but some of them have historical significance, for example Yegoshikha River, in mouth of which city Perm was founded.
Perm krai has a continental climate. Winters are long and snowy, with average temperatures in January varying from −18 °C (0 °F) in the northeast part of krai to −15 °C (5 °F) in southwest part. The record lowest recorded temperature was −53 °C (−63 °F) (in the north).
Oil in its area was first discovered in 1929 near settlement Verhnechusovskie Gorodki. Currently there are known more than 180 oil and gas fields. Among them are developed: 89 oil, 2 gas and 18 both oil and gas fields. Most of them are small and extracted in central and southern districts of krai. The northern fields are less developed because the oil lies deep under salt layers.
Coal has been mined in Perm Krai for more than 200 years. For a long time it played an important role in the fuel and energy balance in the region. Maximum mining was in 1960 and reached 12 million tonnes, after it mining decrease and there are no exploration of new fields.
The Verkhnekamskoye deposit of potassium salts is one of the largest in the world. Its is approx. 1,800 km², and the thickness of the salt layers reaches 514 m.
Flora and fauna
Forests cover about 71% of Perm krai's area. Coniferous forests predominate, with deciduous forests more common in the south. There are 62 species of mammals, more than 270 species of birds, 39 species of fishes, 6 species of reptile and 9 species of amphibians.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Perm CPSU Committee (who in reality had the greatest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Perm Krai is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Perm Krai is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Administratively, the krai is divided into thirty-three districts, fourteen cities of krai significance, and one closed administrative-territorial formation. Six administrative districts are grouped into Komi-Permyak Okrug, which is an administrative unit with special status formed within Perm Krai as a result of the 2005 merger of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug, both of which used to be the federal subjects.
Municipally, the territories of all administrative districts and those of nine cities of krai significance are incorporated as municipal districts. The remaining five cities are incorporated as urban okrugs.
|ГУ МВД России по Пермскому краю|
MVD's Directorate of Perm Krai
|Common name||Полиция Перми|
|Motto||служа закону, Служим народу|
by serving the law, we serve the people
|Headquarters||Komsomolskiy Pr. 74, Perm|
|Elected officer responsible|
The Directorate of the Ministry for Internal Affairs in Perm Krai (ГУ МВД России по Пермскому краю) or the Police of Perm (Полиция Перми) is the main law enforcement agency of the government of Perm Krai, Russia. It is answerable to the regional MVD and the governor of Perm Krai. The chief of police is Yuri Valyaev.
Nonferrous metallurgy is based on ore processing Verkhnekamskoye potash deposit containing magnesium and rare metals. The factories are located in Berezniki (Titanium Magnesium Plant Corporation VSMPO) and Solikamsk (JSC Solikamsk magnesium plant).
In engineering plays an important role military production. The largest center of engineering is Perm; manufactured aircraft and rocket engines, oil field and mining equipment, Petrol motive-powered saws, communication equipment, vessels, cable and other products. The largest enterprises are Motovilikha Plants and Perm Motors. Timber Complex edge based on the use of the richest forest resources of Prikamye. Logging facilities are located mainly in the north of the region.
Ethnic groups, as of the 2010 Census, are: Russians (87.1%), Komi-Permyaks (3.2%), Tatars (4.6%), Bashkirs (1,3%), Ukrainians (0,6%), Udmurts (0,8%), Belarusians (0,3%), Germans (0,3%) and others. Additionally, 119,538 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
Tatars live in almost all settlements of Perm Krai. There are several different ethnographical groups of Tatar people. In this territory there were longtime active contacts between Tatars and Bashkirs, so in some cases it is difficult to delineate the ethnic groups, especially in such areas as Kuyedinsky District and Tulva River basin.
Vital Statistics for 2007: Source
- Birth Rate: 12.05 per 1000
- Death Rate: 15.70 per 1000
- Net Immigration: -1.0 per 1000
- NGR: -0.37% per Year
- PGR: -0.48% per Year
- Vital statistics for 2012
Death rates in some of the remote and rural areas in Perm Krai are very high, never seen before during times other than major wars or natural calamities. Just five districts out of a total of 47 have a surplus of births over death in Perm Krai. The birth rate in Perm Krai is much higher compared to other European regions. For example, the birth rate for Germany was 8.3 per 1000 in 2007. Perm as a whole is having 50% higher birth rate, and even the district with the lowest birth rate is having 20% higher BR compared to Germany. In 2008, the birth rate in Perm Krai was 8% higher than that of 2007. Close to 35.5 thousand births were recorded with the heaviest increases in City of Perm (+11%) and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (+18%). Among the districts, Kudymkar City recorded a 46% rise in birth rates for 2008 compared to 2007, while Usolsky recorded a 31% rise and Kyshertsky recorded a 29% rise. In 13 of the districts, there were more births than deaths, among them Ordynsky, Karagaysky, Kudimkar, Chernushynsky, Chaykovsky & Permsky.
Total fertility rate:
1995 - 1,31 | 2000 - 1,26 | 2005 - 1,34 | 2006 - 1,34 | 2007 - 1,47 | 2008 - 1,57 | 2009 - 1,61 | 2010 - 1,77 | 2011 - 1,78 | 2012 - 1,91 | 2013 - 1,93 | 2014 - 1,98 | 2015 - 2,02 | 2016 - 1,99(e)
Demographics for 2007
As of a 2012 survey 43% of the population of Perm Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% declares to be generically unaffiliated Christian, 4% are Muslims, 2% are Rodnovers (Slavic folk religion), 1% are Old Believers, 1% Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to churches or are members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 8% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey. In addition, 24% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 14% to be either atheist or not religious.
Perm Krai is home of several museums:
- Perm State Art Galery
- Perm Museum of Local History
- Museum of Motovilikha Plants
- Architectural-Ethnographic Museum Khokhlovka and others.
Ordinsky is home to the Orda underwater caves. Located near Orda village in Perm region, Ural, Orda Cave is also the biggest underwater gypsum crystal cave in the world.
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