In the area of abstract algebra known as ring theory, a left perfect ring is a type of ring in which all left modules have projective covers. The right case is defined by analogy, and the condition is not left-right symmetric; that is, there exist rings which are perfect on one side but not the other. Perfect rings were introduced in (Bass 1960).
A semiperfect ring is a ring over which every finitely generated left module has a projective cover. This property is left-right symmetric.
The following equivalent definitions of a left perfect ring R are found in (Anderson,Fuller & 1992, p.315):
- Every left R module has a projective cover.
- R/J(R) is semisimple and J(R) is left T-nilpotent (that is, for every infinite sequence of elements of J(R) there is an n such that the product of first n terms are zero), where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R.
- (Bass' Theorem P) R satisfies the descending chain condition on principal right ideals. (There is no mistake; this condition on right principal ideals is equivalent to the ring being left perfect.)
- Every flat left R-module is projective.
- R/J(R) is semisimple and every non-zero left R module contains a maximal submodule.
- R contains no infinite orthogonal set of idempotents, and every non-zero right R module contains a minimal submodule.
- Right or left Artinian rings, and semiprimary rings are known to be right-and-left perfect.
- The following is an example (due to Bass) of a local ring which is right but not left perfect. Let F be a field, and consider a certain ring of infinite matrices over F.
- Take the set of infinite matrices with entries indexed by ℕ× ℕ, and which have only finitely many nonzero entries, all of them above the diagonal, and denote this set by . Also take the matrix with all 1's on the diagonal, and form the set
- It can be shown that R is a ring with identity, whose Jacobson radical is J. Furthermore R/J is a field, so that R is local, and R is right but not left perfect. (Lam & 2001, p.345-346)
For a left perfect ring R:
- From the equivalences above, every left R module has a maximal submodule and a projective cover, and the flat left R modules coincide with the projective left modules.
- An analogue of the Baer's criterion holds for projective modules.
Let R be ring. Then R is semiperfect if any of the following equivalent conditions hold:
- R/J(R) is semisimple and idempotents lift modulo J(R), where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R.
- R has a complete orthogonal set e1, ..., en of idempotents with each ei R ei a local ring.
- Every simple left (right) R-module has a projective cover.
- Every finitely generated left (right) R-module has a projective cover.
- The category of finitely generated projective -modules is Krull-Schmidt.
Examples of semiperfect rings include:
- Left (right) perfect rings.
- Local rings.
- Left (right) Artinian rings.
- Finite dimensional k-algebras.
Since a ring R is semiperfect iff every simple left R-module has a projective cover, every ring Morita equivalent to a semiperfect ring is also semiperfect.
- Anderson, Frank W; Fuller; Kent R (1992), Rings and Categories of Modules, Springer, pp. 312–322, ISBN 0-387-97845-3
- Bass, Hyman (1960), "Finitistic dimension and a homological generalization of semi-primary rings", Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, 95 (3): 466–488, doi:10.2307/1993568, ISSN 0002-9947, JSTOR 1993568, MR 0157984
- Lam, T. Y. (2001), A first course in noncommutative rings, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 131 (2 ed.), New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. xx+385, doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-8616-0, ISBN 0-387-95183-0, MR 1838439