People's Bank of China
The People's Bank of China (PBC or PBOC; Chinese: 中国人民银行; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Yínháng) is the central bank of the People's Republic of China responsible for carrying out monetary policy and regulation of financial institutions in mainland China, as determined by People's Bank Law and Commercial Bank Law. Valued at US$3.21 trillion, The People's Bank of China has had the largest financial asset holdings of any central bank in the world since July 2017. Though possessing a high degree of independence by Chinese standards, it remains a department of the State Council.
|Headquarters||Beijing and Shanghai|
|Coordinates||39°54′24″N 116°21′14″E (Beijing)|
|Established||1 December 1948|
|Ownership||State Council of the People's Republic of China|
|Central bank of|
CNY (ISO 4217)
|Reserves||US$3.21 trillion (November 2017)|
|Interest on reserves||3.5%|
|People's Bank of China|
|Literal meaning||China People Bank|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||People Bank|
|Second alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||People's Bank|
|Zhuang||Cunghgoz Yinzminz Yinzhangz|
|Uyghur||جۇڭگو خەلق بانكا|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The bank was established on December 1, 1948, based on the consolidation of the Huabei Bank, the Beihai Bank and the Xibei Farmer Bank. The headquarters was first located in Shijiazhuang, Hebei, and then moved to Beijing in 1949. Between 1950 and 1978 the PBC was the only bank in the People's Republic of China and was responsible for both central banking and commercial banking operations. All other banks within Mainland China such as the Bank of China were either organized as divisions of the PBC or were non-deposit taking agencies.
From 1952 to 1955 government shares were added to private banks to make state-private banks, until under the first Five Year plan from 1955 to 1959 the PBOC had complete control of the private banks, making them branches of the PBOC, closely resembling the vision of Vladimir Lenin. With aid from the Soviet Union, the shares of private enterprises and with them industrial output followed a similar path, forming a Soviet-style planned economy.
With the exception of special allocations for rural development, the monolithic PBOC dominated all business transactions and credit until 1978, when, as part of the Chinese economic reforms, the State Council split off the commercial banking functions of the PB into four independent but state-owned banks, including the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), the Bank of China (BOC), the Agricultural Bank of China (ABC), and the China Construction Bank (CCB). In 1983, the State Council promulgated that the PBC would function as the central bank of China.
Chen Yuan was instrumental in modernizing the bank in the early 1990s. Its central bank status was legally confirmed on March 18, 1995 by the 3rd Plenum of the 8th National People's Congress, and was granted a high degree of independence by an act that year. In 1998, the PBC underwent a major restructuring. All provincial and local branches were abolished, and the PBC opened nine regional branches, whose boundaries did not correspond to local administrative boundaries. In 2003, the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress approved an amendment law for strengthening the role of PBC in the making and implementation of monetary policy for safeguarding the overall financial stability and provision of financial services.
The top management of the PBC are composed of the governor and a certain number of deputy governors. The governor of the PBC is appointed into or removed by the National People's Congress or its Standing Committee. The candidate for the governor of the PBC is nominated by the Premier of the People's Republic of China approved by the National People's Congress. When the National People's Congress is in adjournment, the Standing Committee sanctions the candidacy for the governor of the PBC. The deputy governors of the PBC are appointed to or removed from office by the Premier of the State Council.
The PBC adopts a governor responsibility system under which the governor supervises the overall work of the PBC while the deputy governors provide assistance to the governor to fulfill his or her responsibility.
The current governor is Yi Gang. Deputy governors of the management team include: Wang Huaqing, Pan Gongsheng, Fan Yifei, Guo Qingping, Zhang Xiaohui, and Yang Ziqiang. Former top-level managers include: Ms. Hu Xiaolian, Liu Shiyu, Li Dongrong and Ms. Jin Qi.
The PBC has established 9 regional branches, one each in Tianjin, Shenyang, Shanghai, Nanjing, Jinan, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Xi'an, 2 operations offices in Beijing and Chongqing, 303 municipal sub-branches and 1809 county-level sub-branches.
It has 6 overseas representative offices (PBC Representative Office for America, PBC Representative Office (London) for Europe, PBC Tokyo Representative Office, PBC Frankfurt Representative Office, PBC Representative Office for Africa, Liaison Office of the PBC in the Caribbean Development Bank).
- General Administration Department
- Legal Affairs Department
- Monetary Policy Department
- Financial Market Department
- Financial Stability Bureau
- Financial Survey and Statistics Department
- Accounting and Treasury Department
- Payment System Department
- Technology Department
- Currency, Gold and Silver Bureau
- State Treasury Bureau
- International Department
- Internal Auditing Department
- Personnel Department
- Research Bureau
- Credit Information System Bureau
- Anti-Money Laundering Bureau (Security Bureau)
- Education Department of the CPC PBC Committee
- China Anti-Money Laundering Monitoring and Analysis Center
- PBC Graduate School
- China Financial Publishing House
- Financial News
- China National Clearing Center
- China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation
- China Gold Coin Incorporation
- China Financial Computerization Corporation
- China Foreign Exchange Trade System
The PBOC is active in promoting financial inclusion policy and a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion.
List of governors
|№||Name||Took office||Left office||Premier||Notes|
|1||Nan Hanchen (南汉宸)||October 1949||October 1954||Zhou Enlai|
|2||Cao Juru (曹菊如)||October 1954||October 1964||Zhou Enlai|
|3||Hu Lijiao (胡立教)||October 1964||1966||Zhou Enlai|
|post abolished during Cultural Revolution|
|4||Chen Xiyu (陈希愈)||May 1973||January 1978||Zhou Enlai|
|5||Li Baohua (李葆华)||January 1978||April 1982||Hua Guofeng|
|6||Lü Peijian (吕培俭)||April 1982||March 1985||Zhao Ziyang|
|7||Chen Muhua (陈慕华)(female)||March 1985||April 1988||Zhao Ziyang||State Councilor (1982–1988)|
|8||Li Guixian (李贵鲜)||April 1988||July 1993||Li Peng||State Councilor (1988–1998)|
|9||Zhu Rongji (朱镕基)||July 1993||June 1995||Li Peng||First-ranked Vice-Premier (1993–1998)|
|10||Dai Xianglong (戴相龙)||June 1995||December 2002||Li Peng|
|11||Zhou Xiaochuan (周小川)||December 2002||March 2018||Zhu Rongji|
|Vice Chairman of the CPPCC|
National Committee (2013–2018)
|12||Yi Gang (易纲)||March 2018||Incumbent||Li Keqiang||Serves under party branch secretary Guo Shuqing|
Previously, interest rates set by the bank were always divisible by nine, instead of by 25 as in the rest of the world. However, since the central bank began to increase rates by 0.25 percentage points on October 19, 2010, this is no longer the case.
|Change date||Interest rate|
|August 25, 2015||4.600%|
|June 27, 2015||4.850%|
|May 10, 2015||5.100%|
|February 28, 2015||5.350%|
|November 21, 2014||5.600%|
|July 6, 2012||6.000%|
|June 8, 2012||6.310%|
|July 7, 2011||6.560%|
|April 6, 2011||6.310%|
|February 9, 2011||6.060%|
|December 26, 2010||5.810%|
Reserve requirement ratio
PBC latest reserve requirement ratio (RRR) changes:
Foreign-exchange reserves from 2004:
|Year & month||Foreign-exchange reserves (US$ billion)|
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- James M. Zimmerman 2010. China Law Deskbook. p.449. https://books.google.com/books?id=oDpWHVz2tO0C&pg=PA449
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- James M. Zimmerman 2010. China Law Deskbook. p.450. https://books.google.com/books?id=oDpWHVz2tO0C&pg=PA450
- Becky Chiu, Mervyn Lewis 2006. Reforming China's State-owned Enterprises and Banks. p.203. https://books.google.com/books?id=-GTCsC6AqVUC&pg=PA203
- "Management Team", Pbc.gov.cn, November 23, 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-23.
- The People's Bank of China. "Management and Organizational Structure". Retrieved May 29, 2012.
- The People's Bank of China. "Enterprises and Institutions directly under the PBC". Retrieved May 29, 2012.
- "AFI members". AFI Global. October 10, 2011. Archived from the original on February 20, 2012. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
- "Calendar, Abacus Help Determine Size of Chinese Rate Increases". Bloomberg. May 18, 2007.
- "Viewpoint: The "divisible by nine" rule". Info.gov.hk. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
- "China's Reserve-Ratio Cut May Signal Economic Slowdown Deepening". Bloomberg.com. November 30, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
- "China Lowers Banks' Reserve Requirements to Support Growth". Bloomberg.com. May 12, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
- Wei, Lingling (February 5, 2015). "China Cuts Reserve Requirement Ratio". Wsj.com. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
- "Economists React: China's Aggressive Cut in Banks' Reserve Requirement Ratio". Blogs.wsj.com. April 20, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
- "China Monthly Foreign Exchange Reserves Analysis – CNGFOREX". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 12, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Stephen Bell and Hui Feng. The Rise of the People's Bank of China: The Politics of Institutional Change (Harvard University Press; 2013) 384 pages; Recent history; uses interviews with key figures
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- People's Bank of China official website