Parsons code

The Parsons code, formally named the Parsons code for melodic contours, is a simple notation used to identify a piece of music through melodic motion — movements of the pitch up and down. Denys Parsons developed this system for his 1975 book The Directory of Tunes and Musical Themes. Representing a melody in this manner makes it easier to index or search for pieces, particularly when the notes values are unknown.

The book was also published in Germany in 2002 and reprinted by Piatkus as The Directory of Classical Themes in 2008.

Parsons Code of Ode to Joy
Parsons$ ./contour *RUURDDDDRUURDR
       /   \                  
      *     *                  
     /       \                
  *-*         *         *-*    
               \       /   \  
                *     *     *-*
                 \   /        

The code

The first note of a melody is denoted with an asterisk (*), although some Parsons code users omit the first note. All succeeding notes are denoted with one of three letters to indicate the relationship of its pitch to the previous note:

  • * = first tone as reference,
  • u = "up", for when the note is higher than the previous note,
  • d = "down", for when the note is lower than the previous note,
  • r = "repeat", for when the note has the same pitch as the previous note.

Some examples

See also


  • "The Parsons Code for Melodic Contours". Musipedia.
  • Parsons, Denys (1975). The Directory of Tunes and Musical Themes. S. Brown. ISBN 0-904747-00-X.
  • Parsons, Denys (2002). The Directory of Tunes and Musical Themes. Bohmeier. ISBN 3-89094-370-5.
  • Parsons, Denys (2008). The Directory of Classical Themes. Piatkus. ISBN 978-0-7499-5178-8.
  • "Was Parsons right? An experiment in usability of music ..." (PDF). ismir 2003.
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