A successor of Laozi and Zhuang Zhou in the politically and socially-oriented strain of libertarian Taoism, Pao Ching-yen was, according to Etienne Balazs, "China’s first political anarchist." He extended the arguments in the Zhuangzi to deeply critique State authority and power, writing that "the kings, the oppressors, exploiters of all kinds, are as guilty as the criminals who have emerged from the masses..."
- Rapp, John A. Daoism and Anarchism: Critiques of State Autonomy in Ancient and Modern China. A&C Black, 2012. ISBN 1441132236.
- Graham, Robert. Anarchism. A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas Vol. I - Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939). Montreal: Black Rose Books, 2005. ISBN 1-55164-250-6; Hardcover ISBN 1-55164-251-4.
- Joseph Needham (3 January 1956). Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 2, History of Scientific Thought. Cambridge University Press. pp. 434–. ISBN 978-0-521-05800-1.
- Bao Jingyan, "Neither Lord Nor Subject," in Robert Graham, ed., Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Volume 1: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE-1939), (Montreal 2005), 4.
- John A. Rapp. Daoism and Anarchism: Critiques of State Autonomy in Ancient and Modern China. p. 38.