The Palatine Hill, (//; Latin: Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Italian: Palatino [palaˈtiːno]) which is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome, is one of the most ancient parts of the city and has been called "the first nucleus of the Roman Empire." It stands 40 metres above the Roman Forum, looking down upon it on one side, and upon the Circus Maximus on the other. From the time of Augustus Imperial palaces were built here. Prior to extensions to the Palace of Tiberius and the construction of the Domus Augustana by Domitian, 81-96 AD, the hill was mostly occupied by the houses of the rich. The perimeter measures 2,182 meters and the area is 255,801 square meters or 63 acres, with a circumference of 1,740 meters while the Regionary Catalogues of the fourth century give a perimeter of 11,510 feet or 3,402 meters (equals 131 acres).
|The Palatine Hill|
|One of the seven hills of Rome|
|Latin name||Collis Palatinus|
|People||Cicero, Augustus, Tiberius, Domitian|
|Events||Finding of Romulus and Remus|
|Ancient Roman religion||Temple of Apollo Palatinus, Temple of Cybele, Lupercalia, Secular Games|
|Mythological figures||Romulus and Remus, Faustulus|
The name of the hill is the etymological origin of the word palace and its cognates in other languages (Greek: παλάτιον, Italian: palazzo, French: palais, Spanish: palacio, Portuguese: palácio, German: Palast, Czech: palác, etc.).
The term palace, from Old French palais or paleis, stems ultimately from the proper name of Palatine Hill.
The Palatine Hill is also the etymological origin (via the Latin adjective palatinus) of "palatine", a 16th century English adjective that originally signified something pertaining to the Caesar's palace, or someone who is invested with the king's authority. Later its use shifted to a reference to the German Palatinate. The office of the German count palatine (Pfalzgraf) had its origins in the comes palatinus, an earlier office in Merovingian and Carolingian times.
Another modern English word "paladin", came into usage to refer to any distinguished knight (especially one of the Twelve Peers of Charlemagne) under Charlemagne in late renditions of Matter of France.
According to Livy (59 BC – AD 17) the Palatine hill got its name from the Arcadian settlement of Pallantium. More likely, it is derived from the noun palātum "palate"; Ennius uses it once for the "heaven", and it may be connected with the Etruscan word for sky, falad.
Another legend occurring on the Palatine is Hercules' defeat of Cacus after the monster had stolen some cattle. Hercules struck Cacus with his characteristic club so hard that it formed a cleft on the southeast corner of the hill, where later a staircase bearing the name of Cacus was constructed.
Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Excavations show that people have lived in the area since the 10th century BC. Excavations performed on the hill in 1907 and again in 1948 unearthed a collection of huts believed to have been used for funerary purposes between the 9th and 7th century BC approximating the time period when the city of Rome was founded.
According to Livy, after the immigration of the Sabines and the Albans to Rome, the original Romans lived on the Palatine. The Palatne Hill was also the site of the ancient festival of the Lupercalia.
Many affluent Romans of the Republican period (c.509 BC – 44 BC) had their residences there.
From the start of the Empire (27 BC) Augustus built his palace there and the hill gradually became the exclusive domain of emperors; the ruins of the palaces of at least Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), Tiberius (14 – 37 AD) and Domitian (81 – 96 AD) can still be seen.
Augustus also built a temple to Apollo here.
The great fire of 64 AD destroyed Nero's palace, but he replaced it by 69 AD with the even larger Domus Aurea over which was built Domitian's Palace
The Palatine Hill is an archaeological site open to the public (requires payment).
Later emperors particularly the Severans made significant additions to the buildings.
Houses of Livia and Augustus
The House of Livia, the wife of Augustus, is conventionally attributed to her based only on the generic name on a clay pipe and circumstantial factors such as proximity to the House of Augustus.
The building is located near the Temple of Magna Mater at the western end of the hill, on a lower terrace from the temple. It is notable for its beautiful frescoes.
The Palace of Domitian
Temple of Cybele
Temple of Apollo Palatinus
During Augustus' reign, an area of the Palatine Hill was roped off for a sort of archaeological expedition, which found fragments of Bronze Age pots and tools. He declared this site the "original town of Rome." Modern archaeology has identified evidence of Bronze Age settlement in the area which predates Rome's founding. There is a museum on the Palatine in which artifacts dating from before the official foundation of the City are displayed. The museum also contains Roman statuary.
In July 2006, archaeologists announced the discovery of the Palatine House, which they believe to be the birthplace of Rome's first Emperor, Augustus. Head archaeologist Clementina Panella uncovered a section of corridor and other fragments under Rome's Palatine Hill, which she described on July 20 as "a very ancient aristocratic house." The two story house appears to have been built around an atrium, with frescoed walls and mosaic flooring, and is situated on the slope of the Palatine that overlooks the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine. The Republican-era houses on the Palatine were overbuilt by later palaces after the Great Fire of Rome (64), but apparently this one was not; the tempting early inference is that it was preserved for a specific and important reason. On the ground floor, three shops opened onto the Via Sacra.
The location of the domus is important because of its potential proximity to the Curiae Veteres, the earliest shrine of the curies of Rome.
In January 2007, Italian archeologist Irene Iacopi announced that she had probably found the legendary Lupercal cave beneath the remains of Augustus' residence, the Domus Livia (House of Livia) on the Palatine. Archaeologists came across the 16-metre-deep cavity while working to restore the decaying palace. The first photos of the cave show a richly decorated vault encrusted with mosaics and seashells. The Lupercal was probably converted to a sanctuary by Romans in later centuries.
In November 2007 archaeologists unveiled photographs of the cave. Partially collapsed and decorated with seashells and colored marble, the vaulted sanctuary is buried 16 metres inside the Palatine hill. A white eagle was found atop the sanctuary's vault. Most of the sanctuary is collapsed or filled with earth, but laser scans allowed experts to estimate that the circular structure has a height of 8 metres and a diameter of 7.3 metres. Adriano La Regina (former Rome’s archaeological superintendent 1976–2004, professor of Etruscology at Rome’s La Sapienza University), Prof. Fausto Zevi (professor of Roman Archaeology at Rome's La Sapienza University) and Prof. Henner von Hesberg (head of the German Archaeological Institute, Rome) denied the identification of the grotto with Lupercal on topographic and stylistic grounds. They concluded that the grotto is actually a nymphaeum or underground triclinium from Neronian times.
- Seven hills of Rome
- Aventine Hill (Aventino)
- Caelian Hill (Celio)
- Capitoline Hill (Capitolino)
- Cispian Hill (Cispio)
- Esquiline Hill (Esquilino)
- Janiculum Hill (Gianicolo)
- Monte Mario
- Oppian Hill (Oppio)
- Pincian Hill (Pincio)
- Quirinal Hill (Quirinale)
- Vatican Hill (Vaticano)
- Velian Hill (Velia)
- Viminal Hill (Viminale)
- The different spellings originate from the different languages that used the title throughout the ages (a phenomenon called lenition).
- This word came into use after an obsolete English "palasin" (from OF palaisin) came into disuse.
- Charles Merivale, History of Rome to the Reign of Trajan (London and Toronto: J.M. Dent, 1928 [orig. 1910, first published 1875 as A General History of Rome from the Foundation of the City to the Fall of Augustulus], p. 5.
- Palatine Hill. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 25, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: britannica.com Archived 2007-11-09 at the Wayback Machine
- The Atlas of Ancient Rome, Edited by Andrea Carandini, 2012, Vol. I p. 217 ISBN 978-0-691-16347-5
- "Palace". From the Oxford English Dictionary
- "Palatine". From the Oxford English Dictionary
- Stowe, George B. (1995). Kibler, William; Zinn, Grover A. (eds.). Palatinates. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Garland. p. 576. ISBN 9780824044442.
- "Paladin". From the Oxford English Dictionary
- Livy 1.5.1.
- Ernout and Meillet, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine, s.v. palātum.
- CACUS: Giant of the Land of Latium". theoi.com.
- https://www.world-archaeology.com/great-discoveries/palatine-hill/World Archeology 03MAR2011
- Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:33
- Rome, An Oxford Archaeological Guide, A. Claridge, 1998 ISBN 0-19-288003-9, p. 120
- "The House of Livia - Rome, Italy - History and Visitor Information". www.historvius.com. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire, 184p.
- For a classical account of the birth (and birthplace) of Augustus, refer to: Suetonius, Life of Augustus, 5.
- Varro Linguae Latinae 5.155; Festus L 174; Tacitus Annales 12.24
- "Sacred Cave of Rome's Founders Found, Scientists Say". news.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Aloisi, Silvia "Expert doubts Lupercale 'find'" The Australian November 24, 2007 theaustralian.news.com
- "È uno splendido ninfeo, ma il Lupercale non era lì" la Repubblica November 23, 2007
- Schulz, Matthia "Is Italy's Spectacular Find Authentic?"Spiegel Online November 29, 2007 spiegel.de Archived 2012-02-02 at the Wayback Machine
- Tomei, Maria Antonietta. "The Palatine." Trans. Luisa Guarneri Hynd. Milano: Electa (Ministero per i Beni e le Actività Culturali Sopraintendenza Archeologica di Roma), 1998.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Palatine hill.|
- Samuel Ball Platner, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome: Palatine Hill
- The Palatine Hill: Two Millennia of Landscaping
- "Aerial view of Palatine Hill". Bing Maps. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- "Aerial view of Palatine Hill". Google Maps. Retrieved October 14, 2005.
- Photos from Palatine Museum
- High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of Palatine Hill | Art Atlas