Pakatan Harapan

The Alliance of Hope (Malay: Pakatan Harapan; abbrev: PH) is a political coalition in Malaysia. It is a successor to Pakatan Rakyat (the other being Gagasan Sejahtera). It was established in 2015 as an opposition to the former-ruling Barisan Nasional coalition that ruled the country since independence (Barisan Nasional's direct predecessor was known as the Alliance Party coalition). It is the largest bloc in the Dewan Rakyat and is the current ruling party of Malaysia. The coalition is allied with the Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN) and the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO) in the state of Sabah. At the state level, the coalition is the largest party in 8 of 13 state legislative assemblies and forms the government in the states of Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Malacca, Johor and Sabah.[note 1] Pakatan Harapan also form a government with two-thirds majority in the states of Penang, Selangor and Johor.

Alliance of Hope
Chinese name希望联盟
Xīwàng liánméng
Malay namePakatan Harapan
ڤاكتن هارڤن
Tamil nameநம்பிக்கை கூட்டணி
Nambikkai Koodtani
AbbreviationPH
ChairmanMahathir Mohamad
LeaderAnwar Ibrahim
PresidentWan Azizah Wan Ismail
Deputy PresidentsLim Guan Eng
Mohamad Sabu
Muhyiddin Yassin
Vice-PresidentsChong Chieng Jen
Mohamed Azmin Ali
Salahuddin Ayub
Mukhriz Mahathir
M. Kulasegaran
Christina Liew[1]
Founded22 September 2015 (2015-09-22)
Legalised16 May 2018 (2018-05-16)[2]
Preceded byPakatan Rakyat
HeadquartersKuala Lumpur (DAP and AMANAH)
Petaling Jaya (PKR)
Putrajaya (BERSATU)
NewspaperThe Rocket
Roketkini
Suara Keadilan
Suara Amanah
Keadilan Daily
Suara Pakatan Daily
Student wingMahasiswa Pakatan Harapan
Youth wingPemuda Pakatan Harapan[3][4]
Women's wingWanita Pakatan Harapan[5]
IdeologySocial democracy
Progressivism
Reformism
Political positionCentre-left
Colours     Red and white
SloganPakatan Harapan Rakyat!
Dewan Negara:
28 / 70
Dewan Rakyat:
139 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri:
289 / 592
Election symbol
Website
pakatanharapan.com.my
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The coalition was formed on 22 September 2015, consisting of the Democratic Action Party, People's Justice Party, National Trust Party and Malaysian United Indigenous Party.[6] The coalition was formed as an alliance of centre-left to centre-right parties to contest the 2018 Malaysian general election. The coalition contested the election under the logo of a component party, the People's Justice Party (PKR), due to inability to register as an official coalition.

After the 2018 general elections, Pakatan Harapan chairman Mahathir Mohamad was appointed as the Prime Minister of Malaysia while its president, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, was appointed as the Deputy Prime Minister. Mahathir Mohamad became the first prime minister from Pakatan Harapan, and the first prime minister to have tenures with two different parties.

History

Formation

Pakatan Harapan is a direct successor to the three-party Pakatan Rakyat coalition that consisted of the People's Justice Party (PKR), the Democratic Action Party (DAP) and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS). Pakatan Harapan was founded on 22 September 2015, two years after the 2013 general election, due to disagreements and conflicts between PAS and DAP mainly regarding the issue of the implementation of the sharia law, resulting in PAS splitting off from Pakatan Rakyat and the break-up of the coalition on 16 June 2015.[7][8] The dissolution resulted in the formation of a new coalition named Pakatan Harapan, consisting the former Pakatan Rakyat parties, PKR and DAP, and a PAS split-off party, the National Trust Party (AMANAH).[9][10]

On 12 November 2016, a United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) split-off party, the Malaysian United Indigenous Party (BERSATU), founded and led by former Malaysian Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, confirmed that the party was committed to joining the opposition bloc Pakatan Harapan.[11][12] Later, on 13 December, the party formed an electoral pact with Pakatan Harapan,[13] and finally on 14 March 2017, BERSATU officially joined Pakatan Harapan as a member party.[14]

2018 general election

On 14 July 2017, the Presidential council line-up was confirmed. A common logo was also introduced with the word “Harapan” with the “A” shaped as a chevron in white on a red background. The logo was initially planned to be used by all participating candidates for the 2018 general election, but the use of the logo and registration of the coalition was denied by the Election Commission.[15] To pursue the coalition's plan to contest under a common logo, Pakatan announced that the PKR logo will be used by all component parties of the coalition as its election symbol in the elections,[16] excluding for DAP who chose to contest under their own party flag in Sabah and Sarawak.[17][18][19]

The coalition secured an electoral pact with the Sabah-based Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN) for the 2018 general election. WARISAN's president, Shafie Apdal, promised that the party would be represented on the federal cabinet if the coalition came to power,[20] adding that through the electoral pact they will only co-operate with Pakatan as an ally, and not joining the pact as a component party since they will only contest in Sabah, not in Peninsular Malaysia.[21] Following the victory of Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN in the general election, the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO) announced that they have left Barisan Nasional and will form a new Sabah state government with WARISAN and Pakatan Harapan.[22] UPKO and WARISAN are currently both the allies for Pakatan Harapan since both parties are also allied towards each others in Sabah.[23]

Registration

On 16 May 2018, the coalition was officially registered.[24]

Member parties, allied parties and strategic partners

Flag Name Ideology Leader(s) Seats
contested
2018 result Current
seats
Votes (%) Seats Composition
Member parties
PKR People's Justice Party
Parti Keadilan Rakyat
Progressivism Anwar Ibrahim 71 16.937%
47 / 222
50 / 139
DAP Democratic Action Party
Parti Tindakan Demokratik
Social democracy Lim Guan Eng 47 17.365%
42 / 222
42 / 139
BERSATU Malaysian United Indigenous Party
Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia
Ketuanan Melayu Mahathir Mohamad 52 5.948%
13 / 222
26 / 139
AMANAH National Trust Party
Parti Amanah Negara
Islamic modernism Mohamad Sabu 34 5.426%
11 / 222
11 / 139
Allied parties
WARISAN Sabah Heritage Party
Parti Warisan Sabah
Sabahan Regionalism Shafie Apdal 17 2.322%
8 / 222
9 / 139
UPKO United Progressive People of Kinabalu Organisation
Pertubuhan Kinabalu Progresif Bersatu
Sabahan Regionalism Madius Tangau 4
(under BN)
0.472%
1 / 222
1 / 139
MAP Malaysian Advancement Party
Parti Kemajuan Malaysia
Egalitarianism, Hinduism Waytha Moorthy Ponnusamy N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 139
Strategic partners
MIRA Minority Rights Action Party
Parti Tindakan Hak Minoriti
Liberal democracy S. Gobi Krishnan - -
0 / 222
0 / 139

Leadership Structure

Elected representatives

Dewan Negara (Senate)

Senators

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)

Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian Parliament

Pakatan Harapan has 138 members in the House of Representatives (with allied parties).

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
 PerlisP002KangarNoor Amin AhmadPKR
 KedahP004LangkawiMahathir MohamadBERSATU
P005JerlunMukhriz MahathirBERSATU
P006Kubang PasuAmiruddin HamzahBERSATU
P008Pokok SenaMahfuz OmarAMANAH
P009Alor SetarChan Ming KaiPKR
P010Kuala KedahAzman IsmailPKR
P014MerbokNurin Aina Abdullah (Nor Azrina Surip)PKR
P015Sungai PetaniJohari AbdulPKR
P017Padang SeraiKaruppaiya MuthusamyPKR
P018Kulim-Bandar BaharuSaifuddin Nasution IsmailPKR
 KelantanP027Tanah MerahIkmal Hisham Abdul AzizBERSATU
P030JeliMustapa MohamedBERSATU
 TerengganuP038Hulu TerengganuRosol WahidBERSATU
 PenangP042Tasek GelugorShabudin YahayaBERSATU
P043BaganLim Guan EngDAP
P044Permatang PauhNurul Izzah AnwarPKR
P045Bukit MertajamSteven Sim Chee KeongDAP
P046Batu KawanKasthuriraani PattoDAP
P047Nibong TebalMansor OthmanPKR
P048Bukit BenderaWong Hon WaiDAP
P049TanjongChow Kon YeowDAP
P050JelutongSanisvara Nethaji Rayer Rajaji RayerDAP
P051Bukit GelugorRamkarpal SinghDAP
P052Bayan BaruSim Tze TzinPKR
P053Balik PulauMuhammad Bakhtiar Wan ChikPKR
 PerakP056LarutHamzah ZainudinBERSATU
P057Parit BuntarMujahid Yusof RawaAMANAH
P058Bagan SeraiNoor Azmi GhazaliBERSATU
P060TaipingTeh Kok LimDAP
P062Sungai SiputKesavan SubramaniamPKR
P063TambunAhmad Faizal AzumuBERSATU
P064Ipoh TimorWong Kah WohDAP
P065Ipoh BaratM. KulasegaranDAP
P066Batu GajahV. SivakumarDAP
P068BeruasJames Ngeh Koo HamDAP
P070KamparThomas Su Keong SiongDAP
P071GopengLee Boon ChyePKR
P074LumutMohd Hatta RamliAMANAH
P076Telok IntanDavid Nga Kor MingDAP
P077Tanjong MalimChang Lih KangPKR
 PahangP080RaubTengku Zulpuri Shah Raja PujiDAP
P082Indera MahkotaSaifuddin AbdullahPKR
P083KuantanFuziah SallehPKR
P088TemerlohAnuar TahirAMANAH
P089BentongWong TackDAP
 SelangorP092Sabak Bernam Mohd. Fasiah Mohd. FakehBERSATU
P093Sungai BesarMuslimin YahayaBERSATU
P094Hulu SelangorJune Leow Hsiad HuiPKR
P096Kuala SelangorDzulkefly AhmadAMANAH
P097SelayangWilliam Leong Jee KeenPKR
P098GombakMohamed Azmin AliPKR
P099AmpangZuraida KamaruddinPKR
P100PandanDr. Wan Azizah Wan IsmailPKR
P101Hulu LangatHasanuddin Mohd. YunusAMANAH
P102BangiOng Kian MingDAP
P103PuchongGobind Singh DeoDAP
P104SubangWong ChenPKR
P105Petaling JayaMaria Chin AbdullahPKR
P106DamansaraTony Pua Kiam WeeDAP
P107Sungai BulohSivarasa RasiahPKR
P108Shah AlamKhalid SamadAMANAH
P109KaparAbdullah Sani Abdul HamidPKR
P110KlangCharles Anthony SantiagoDAP
P111Kota RajaMohamad SabuAMANAH
P112Kuala LangatXavier Jayakumar ArulanandamPKR
P113SepangMohamed Hanipa MaidinAMANAH
 Kuala LumpurP114KepongLim Lip EngDAP
P115BatuPrabakaran M. ParameswaranPKR
P116Wangsa MajuTan Yee KewPKR
P117SegambutHannah Yeoh Tseow SuanDAP
P118SetiawangsaNik Nazmi Nik AhmadPKR
P119TitiwangsaRina Mohd. HarunBERSATU
P120Bukit BintangFong Kui LunDAP
P121Lembah PantaiFahmi FadzilPKR
P122SeputehTeresa Kok Suh SimDAP
P123CherasTan Kok WaiDAP
P124Bandar Tun RazakKamarudin JaffarPKR
 Negeri SembilanP128SerembanAnthony Loke Siew FookDAP
P129Kuala PilahEddin Syazlee ShithBERSATU
P130RasahCha Kee ChinDAP
P132Port DicksonAnwar IbrahimPKR
P133TampinHasan BaharomAMANAH
 MalaccaP134Masjid TanahMas Ermieyati SamsudinBERSATU
P135Alor GajahMohd Redzuan Md YusofBERSATU
P136Tangga BatuRusnah AluaiPKR
P137Hang Tuah JayaShamsul Iskandar Md. AkinPKR
P138Kota MelakaKhoo Poay TiongDAP
 JohorP140SegamatSanthara Kumar RamanaiduPKR
P141SekijangNatrah IsmailPKR
P142LabisPang Hok LiongDAP
P143PagohMuhyiddin YassinBERSATU
P144LedangSyed Ibrahim Syed NohPKR
P145BakriYeo Bee YinDAP
P146MuarSyed Saddiq Syed Abdul RahmanBERSATU
P149Sri GadingShahruddin Md SallehBERSATU
P150Batu PahatMohd Rashid HasnonPKR
P151Simpang RenggamMaszlee MalikBERSATU
P152KluangWong Shu QiDAP
P154MersingAbdul Latiff AhmadBERSATU
P158TebrauSteven Choong Shiau YoonPKR
P159Pasir GudangHassan Abdul KarimPKR
P160Johor BahruAkmal Nasrullah Mohd NasirPKR
P161PulaiSalahuddin AyubAMANAH
P162Iskandar PuteriLim Kit SiangDAP
P163KulaiTeo Nie ChingDAP
 LabuanP166LabuanRozman IsliWARISAN
 Sabah P167 Kudat Abdul Rahim BakriBERSATU
P169Kota BeludIsnaraissah Munirah Majilis @ FakharuddyWARISAN
P170TuaranMadius TangauUPKO
P171SepanggarMohd Azis JammanWARISAN
P172Kota KinabaluChan Foong HinDAP
P173PutatanAwang Husaini SahariPKR
P174PenampangDarell LeikingWARISAN
P175PaparAhmad HassanWARISAN
P177 Beaufort Azizah Mohd DunBERSATU
P178 Sipitang Yamani Hafez MusaBERSATU
P179RanauJonathan YasinPKR
P181TenomNoorita SualDAP
P183 Beluran Ronald KiandeeBERSATU
P184 Libaran Zakaria EdrisBERSATU
P185Batu SapiLiew Vui KeongWARISAN
P186SandakanVivian Wong Shir YeeDAP
P188Lahad Datu (Silam)Mohammadin KetapiWARISAN
P189SempornaMohd. Shafie ApdalWARISAN
P190TawauChristina Liew Chin JinPKR
P191KalabakanMa'mun SulaimanWARISAN
 SarawakP192Mas GadingMordi BimolDAP
P195Bandar KuchingKelvin Yii Lee WuenDAP
P196StampinChong Chieng JenDAP
P198Puncak BorneoWillie MonginPKR
P203Lubok AntuJugah MuyangPKR
P205SaratokAli BijuPKR
P208SarikeiWong Ling BiuDAP
P209JulauLarry Sng Wei ShienPKR
P211LanangAlice Lau Kiong YiengDAP
P212SibuOscar Ling Chai YewDAP
P214SelangauBaru BianPKR
P219MiriMichael Teo Yu KengPKR
TotalPerlis (1), Kedah (10), Kelantan (2), Terengganu (1), Penang (12), Perak (15), Pahang (5), Selangor (21), F.T. Kuala Lumpur (11), Negeri Sembilan (5), Malacca (5), Johor (18), F.T. Labuan (1), Sabah (20), Sarawak (12)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)

General Election Results

Election Total seats won Seats contesed Total votes Voting Percentage Outcome of election Election leader
2018
121 / 222
222 5,615,822 45.56% 125 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad

State election results

Pakatan Harapan state governments

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 JohorMenteri BesarSahruddin JamalBERSATUBukit Kepong
 KedahMenteri BesarMukhriz MahathirBERSATUJitra
 MalaccaChief MinisterAdly ZahariAMANAHBukit Katil
 Negeri SembilanMenteri BesarAminuddin HarunPKRSikamat
 PenangChief MinisterChow Kon YeowDAPPadang Kota
 PerakMenteri BesarAhmad Faizal AzumuBERSATUChenderiang
 SabahChief MinisterShafie ApdalWARISANSenallang
 SelangorMenteri BesarAmirudin ShariPKRSungai Tua

Notes

  1. The state government of Sabah was formed with a confidence and supply agreement with WARISAN and UPKO.

References

  1. Ram Anand (11 September 2017). "Pakatan Harapan adds two VPs to represent Indians, Sabahans". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  2. Yimie Yong (17 May 2018). "It's official! Pakatan gets its certificate of registration from RoS". The Star. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  3. Masriwanie Muhamading (12 May 2017). "Pakatan Harapan youth wings' economic model targeting 1mil jobs for youth". Astro Awani. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  4. "Senarai penuh Majlis Pimpinan Pemuda Pakatan Harapan" (in Malay). Astro Awani. 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  5. "Wanita Pakatan pledges to raise women in politics, economy, social welfare". The Malaysian Insight. 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  6. Melissa Goh (22 September 2015). "Malaysia's opposition band together under new Pakatan Harapan alliance". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  7. "Pakatan Rakyat Split Will Change Country's Political Landscape". Bernama. Malaysian Digest. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  8. Asrul Hadi Abdullah Sani (18 June 2015). "Break up of Malaysia's opposition bloc Pakatan Rakyat: What happened and what's next?". The Straits Times. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  9. Harits Asyraf Hasnan (22 September 2015). "New Pakatan Harapan coalition formed". Astro Awani. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  10. Shannon Teoh (23 September 2015). "Malaysia's opposition forms Pakatan Harapan alliance". The Straits Times. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  11. Melissa Goh (12 November 2016). "'The only way to win is to unite and contest under one party': Mahathir". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  12. Sheridan Mahavera (16 November 2016). "By courting rural Muslims, has Malaysia's opposition found key to winning power for first time in 60 years?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  13. Hana Naz Harun (13 December 2016). "PPBM officially signs agreement to join Pakatan Harapan". New Straits Times. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  14. "PPBM wants name change before joining Pakatan Harapan". Antara Pos. 14 March 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  15. "Dr Mahathir Mohamad is Pakatan chairman, Dr Wan Azizah made president". The Malay Mail. Today Online. 14 July 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  16. Rizalman Hamim; Mohd Fahmi Mohd Yusof (6 April 2018). "Pakatan to use PKR logo in GE14". New Straits Times. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  17. "Opposition Pact to unveil common logo for GE14 on Friday". New Straits Times. 5 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. In a press conference at Parliament lobby on Thursday, Lim Guan Eng however said the change will only be for peninsula in the polls and the four parties will not use the common Pakatan Harapan logo in Sabah and Sarawak for GE14 election campaign. They’re different because they have autonomy. So we respect this and they can use the DAP rocket logo.
  18. Julia Chan (6 April 2018). "Sabah, Sarawak Pakatan parties won't use common logo". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 20 April 2018. This was a big decision for us, to be able to exercise our autonomy and decide for ourselves. We chose to use our own respective party flags. So, PKR, DAP and Amanah flags will be used here.
  19. Sharon Ling (9 April 2018). "Sarawak DAP to use rocket logo for GE14". The Star. Retrieved 20 April 2018. We have decided that DAP will use the rocket symbol while PKR and Amanah will both use the PKR logo.
  20. "Warisan seals electoral pact with DAP and PKR". Malaysiakini. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018. (subscription required)
  21. Suzianah Jiffar (2 April 2018). "Warisan will work only with Pakatan Harapan for GE14". New Straits Times. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  22. Tan Su Lin (10 May 2018). "UPKO umum keluar BN, wujud kerajaan campuran dengan Warisan" (in Malay). Astro Awani. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  23. "UPKO bentuk pakatan dengan Warisan" (in Malay). Berita Harian. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  24. "Pakatan Harapan is officially registered". Free Malaysia Today. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
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