P-800 Oniks

The P-800 Oniks (Russian: П-800 Оникс; English: Onyx), also known in export markets as Yakhont (Russian: Яхонт; English: ruby), is a Soviet / Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr. Its GRAU designation is 3M55, the air launched Kh-61 variant also exists. The missile has the NATO reporting codename SS-N-26 "Strobile". Development officially started in 1983, and in the 1990s the anti-ship missile was tested on the Project 1234.7 ship. In 2002 the missile passed the whole range of trials and was commissioned.[4] It is reportedly a replacement of the P-270 Moskit, but possibly also of the P-700 Granit. The P-800 was used as the basis for the joint Russian-Indian supersonic missile BrahMos.[5]

Yakhont/Oniks missile
Yakhont/Onyx missile at MAKS Airshow in Zhukovskiy, 1997.
TypeCruise missile
Air-launched cruise missile
Submarine-launched cruise missile
Anti-ship missile
Surface-to-surface missile
Land-attack missile
Place of originSoviet Union / Russia
Service history
In service2002–present[1]
Used bySee Operators
WarsSyrian Civil War
Production history
ManufacturerNPO Mashinostroyeniya
Produced1987–present
Specifications
Mass3,000 kg (6,614 lb)
Length8.9 m (29.2 ft)
Diameter0.7 m (2.3 ft)
Warheadnational ver. 300 kg semi-armour piercing HE, thermonuclear; for export 200 kg semi-armour piercing HE[2]
Detonation
mechanism
delay fuze

EngineRamjet
4 tons of thrust
Wingspan1.7 m (5.6 ft)
Propellantkerosene liquid fuel
Operational
range
600 km (370 mi; 320 nmi) (Oniks version for Russia)
120 to 300 km (75 to 186 mi; 65 to 162 nmi) depending on altitude (Yakhont export version)
Flight ceiling14,000 m
Flight altitude10 meters or higher
SpeedMach 2
Guidance
system
midcourse inertial guidance, active radar homing-passive radar seeker head
Accuracy1.5 m[3]
Launch
platform
coastal installations, naval ships, Fixed-wing aircraft

Description

The missile is carried in flight by aerodynamic lift. The solid-propellant booster is located in the ramjet's combustion chamber and is ejected by the airflow after it has burned out.

Advantages

  • Over-the-horizon firing range
  • Full autonomy of combat use ("fire and forget")
  • A set of flexible ("low-profile sea-skimming", "high-low") trajectories
  • High supersonic speed in all phases of flight
  • Full harmonization for a wide range of platforms (surface ships, submarines and land-based launchers)
  • Possible use of the missile in electronic countermeasures environment and under enemy fire

Operational history

Syria

In 2010 Sergei Prikhodko, senior adviser to the Russian President, has said that Russia intends to deliver P-800 to Syria based on the contracts signed in 2007.[6][7] Syria received 2 Bastion missile systems with 36 missiles each (72 in total).[8] The missiles' test was broadcast by Syrian state TV.[9]

In May 2013, Russia continued the contract delivery to the Syrian government supplying missiles with an advanced radar to make them more effective to counter any future foreign military invasion.[10][11] The warehouse containing the Bastion Missile was destroyed in an Israeli air strike on Latakia on 5 July 2013, but US intelligence analysts believe that some missiles had been removed before the attack.[12]

Oniks missiles were reportedly used in 2016 against ISIL targets.[13][14][15]

Specifications

  • Length: 8.9 m
  • Diameter: 0.7 m
  • Wingspan: 1.7 m
  • Weight: 3,100 kg
  • Speed at altitude: 750 m/s (Mach 2.6)
  • Surface speed: Mach 2
  • Engine: ramjet, weight 200 kg, 4 tons of thrust
  • Range: 120–300 km / 600 km for Russian ship/sub deployed non-export model[16]
  • for the combined trajectory (hi-lo) – 300 km
  • for low-altitude trajectory (lo-lo) – 120 km
  • Flight altitude of 10,000–14,000 m
  • Warhead: national version: 300 kg semi-armour piercing HE, thermonuclear; export version: 200 kg HE
  • Fuel: kerosene T-6

Radar homing head

  • all-weather monopulse active-passive, with frequency hopping
  • Immunity: high, from active spoofing, dipole clouds
  • Range: 50 km active[17]
  • Launchable sea state – up to 7 points
  • Warm-up time from power on: no more than 2 min
  • Current consumption at 27 V circuit: up to 38 A
  • Maximum angle of the target search: ± 45 °
  • Homing weight: 85 kg

Variants

  • 3M55 Oniks – Base version for Russia.
  • P-800 Yakhont – Export version of Oniks.
  • P-800 Bolid - Submarine-launched version of Yakhont.[18]
  • Brahmos – Co-developed by Russia and India, based on Oniks, produced by BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited in India. BrahMos-II, a hypersonic version is also being developed.
  • Bastion-P – Coast mobile missile system. Officially it was entered service in 2015.[19]
  • Kh-61 - Air launched air to surface version.
  • Oniks-M - version of Oniks with improved range (up to 800 km), accuracy and ECCM capabilities.[20]

Platforms

Current
Future

Land

Standard batteries of the K-300 Bastion-P (Бастион-П-Подвижный):

  • 4 self-propelled launchers K-340P with 2 "Yakhont" missiles (crew of 3 persons)
  • 1–2 Command and Control vehicles (ASBU) PBRK (crew of 5 persons)
  • 1 security alert car (MOBD)
  • 4 Transportation and loading vehicles (TLV K342P)

Operators

  • Hezbollah – with diverse launching platforms.[21]
  •  Indonesia – 4 VLS (vertical launching system) mounted on Ahmad Yani class frigate KRI Oswald Siahaan (354).[22]
  •  Russia – 3 "Bastion-P" complexes delivered in 2010, all the complexes taken into service with the Russian Black Sea Fleet's 11th Independent Coastal Missile-Artillery Brigade stationed near Anapa[23] and the Project 1234.7 Nakat, a one-off Nanuchka IV-class corvette commissioned in 1987 with 2x6 Oniks.[24] The "Bastion-P" is deployed by Russian forces in Crimea.[25] One more Bastion-P was delivered in 2015.[26] 2 Bastion systems are in service with the Northern Fleet and at least one with Western Military District (Baltic Fleet).[27][28] Two more systems entered service in 2016 with Pacific Fleet.[29][30] Newest class of Russian nuclear-powered attack submarines, Yasen-class submarine, can also launch the missile.[31] Submarine-launched variant entered service in 2016.[32] Two Bastion missile systems delivered in 2017 and one more in 2018.[33][34] Totally 4 Bal and Bastion systems in 2018.[35] One more system delivered for the Pacific Fleet in early 2019.[36][37] Totally 3 Bastion systems in 2019.[38]
  •  Syria – 2 "Bastion-P" complexes delivered in 2011, 72 missiles.[39][40]
  •  Vietnam – 2 "Bastion-P" land-based coastal defense systems delivered, 40 missiles.[41][42]

See also

References

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  2. https://www.navyrecognition.com/index.php/news/defence-news/2019/september/7530-russia-mod-launches-supersonic-anti-ship-oniks-p-800-cruise-missile.html
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