P&O Cruises

P&O Cruises is a British cruise line based at Carnival House in Southampton, England, operated by Carnival UK and owned by Carnival Corporation & plc. It was founded in 1977 as a subsidiary of the shipping company P&O,[1] and traces its heritage to P&O's first passenger operations in 1837.[2] Along with P&O Cruises Australia, a sister company also founded by P&O, it has the oldest heritage of any cruise line in the world.[3][4]

P&O Cruises
Subsidiary
IndustryTransportation
PredecessorP&O
Founded1977[1]
HeadquartersSouthampton, England, UK
Area served
United Kingdom
Key people
  • Josh Weinstein (President, Carnival UK)
  • Paul Ludlow (President, P&O Cruises)
  • David Dingle (Chairman, Carnival UK)
ProductsCruises
ParentCarnival Corporation & plc
WebsiteP&O Cruises

P&O Cruises was divested from P&O in 2000, becoming a subsidiary of P&O Princess Cruises,[5] before coming under its current ownership in 2003, following a merger between P&O Princess Cruises and Carnival Corporation.[6] In 2018, the company had a 2.4% market share of all cruise lines worldwide.[7]

History

Origins

In 1834, Brodie McGhie Willcox, a ship broker from London, and Arthur Anderson, a sailor from the Shetland Islands, formed an association with Captain Richard Bourne, a steamship owner from Dublin.[8] In 1837, the trio won a contract and began transporting mail and passengers from England to the Iberian Peninsula, founding the Peninsular Steam Navigation Company.[9][2] In 1840, the company merged with the Transatlantic Steam Ship Company and expanded their operations to the Orient, becoming the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O).[10] In 1844, P&O expanded its passenger operations from transportation to leisure cruising, operating sailings from England to the Mediterranean that were the first of their kind.[2] By the mid-1900s, passenger shipping for the purposes of transportation was threatened by the increasing affordability of air travel.[11] Consequently, in the 1970s, P&O dedicated its passenger operations entirely to leisure cruising and, in 1977, relisted its passenger ships under the new subsidiary P&O Cruises.[1]

20th century

Initially, P&O Cruises operated Oriana and Canberra from Southampton, serving the UK market,[12][13] and Arcadia from Sydney, serving the Australian market,[14] while Uganda operated educational cruises.[15] In 1979, Arcadia departed the Australian fleet[14] and was replaced by Sea Princess, which had previously been Kungsholm for Flagship Cruises.[16] In 1981, Oriana relocated to serve the Australian market,[12] while Sea Princess relocated to serve the UK market in 1982.[16] The same year, Canberra was requisitioned as a troopship during the Falklands War,[17] while Uganda was requisitioned as a hospital ship.[18] Uganda departed the fleet shortly thereafter, in 1983.[18] Oriana departed the Australian fleet in March 1986,[19] and Sea Princess departed the UK fleet in November 1986.[16] Rather than relocating another ship to Australia, P&O diverged its Australian operations in 1988, acquiring Sitmar Cruises, which already operated a ship in Australia.[12] This led to the formation of P&O Cruises Australia, which would oversee Australian operations, while P&O Cruises continued to oversee UK operations.[3]

In the 1990s, P&O Cruises commissioned its first newbuild cruise ship, the second Oriana, which entered service in April 1995.[20] At 69,153 gross tons, the new Oriana was one of the largest cruise ships in the world.[21] Sea Princess also returned to the fleet in 1995, under the new name Victoria.[16] Canberra departed the fleet in 1997 and was replaced the same year by a second Arcadia, which had previously been Star Princess for Princess Cruises.[13] In 2000, Aurora, another newbuild and a half-sister to Oriana, entered service for P&O Cruises.[22] However, her service suffered an inauspicious start when she was forced to abandon her maiden voyage due to mechanical problems.[22] The same year, P&O divested all its cruise operations and formed the independent company P&O Princess Cruises, which now owned P&O Cruises.[5]

21st century

In 2002, Victoria departed the fleet[16] and Oceana joined, having previously been Ocean Princess for Princess Cruises.[23] In 2003, the ownership of P&O Cruises changed once again when P&O Princess Cruises merged with Carnival Corporation to form Carnival Corporation & plc.[6] Thereafter, Arcadia transferred to Carnival Corporation & plc's new Ocean Village brand.[24] Adonia, previously Sea Princess and a sister to Oceana, replaced Arcadia but returned to Princess Cruises in 2005.[25] Adonia was replaced the same year by a newbuild Arcadia, which was allocated to P&O Cruises after having originally been intended for Holland America Line and thereafter Cunard Line.[26] Arcadia was joined by Artemis, previously Royal Princess for Princess Cruises.[27] The fleet expanded and modernised with the addition of the 116,017-ton newbuild Ventura in 2008,[28] and her sister Azura in 2010.[29] Artemis departed the fleet in 2011[30] and was replaced by a second Adonia, which like Artemis had previously been Royal Princess for Princess Cruises.[31]

In 2012, P&O Cruises celebrated the 175th anniversary of the Peninsular Steam Navigation Company by staging a 'Grand Event', in which the entire fleet was assembled in Southampton.[32] In 2014, the company introduced a new livery, based on the Union Jack, to emphasise its British heritage,[33] and in 2015, the 143,730-ton newbuild Britannia joined the fleet.[34] Adonia transferred to Carnival Corporation & plc's new Fathom brand in April 2016,[35] but would return the following year.[36] In September 2016, P&O Cruises announced that it would build a new 180,000-ton ship in 2020,[37] and in 2018, it announced that a sister would follow in 2022,[38] and that the first of the two would be called Iona.[39] These ships would be the UK's first to be powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG), shipping's most advanced fuel technology, with the intention of reducing air emissions.[40] Adonia departed the fleet once again in 2018,[41] and Oriana followed in 2019.[42]

Golden Cockerel

P&O Cruises awards the company's Golden Cockerel trophy to the fastest ship in its fleet.[13] The trophy is currently held by Aurora, which achieved a speed of 25.7 knots in April 2019.[43] It was previously held by the first Oriana until her retirement in 1986,[13] Canberra until her retirement in 1997,[13] and the second Oriana until her retirement in 2019.[44]

Fleet

Current fleet

ShipBuiltBuilderIn service for
P&O Cruises
Gross tonnageFlag[45]NotesImage
Aurora2000Meyer Werft2000–present03 76,152 Bermuda
Oceana2000Fincantieri2002–present04 77,499 BermudaOcean Princess for Princess Cruises (2000–2002).
Arcadia2005Fincantieri2005–present05 84,342 Bermuda
Ventura2008Fincantieri2008–present07 116,017 Bermuda
Azura 2010Fincantieri2010–present06 115,055 Bermuda
Britannia2015Fincantieri2015–present143,730 United KingdomFlagship;[34] largest ever cruise ship built for P&O Cruises and the UK market.[46]

Future fleet

ShipBuiltBuilderIn service for
P&O Cruises
Gross Tonnage[47]FlagNotes
Iona2020Meyer Werft202007 183,900TBCDue to be the largest ever and first LNG-powered cruise ship built for P&O Cruises and the UK market.[39]
TBA2022Meyer Werft202206 183,900TBCDue to be the joint-largest ever cruise ship built for P&O Cruises and the UK market.[38]

Previous fleet

ShipBuiltBuilderIn service for
P&O Cruises
Gross tonnageFlagNotesImage
Arcadia1954John Brown & Company1977–197929,734 UKArcadia for P&O (1954–1977). Scrapped in 1979.
Uganda1952Barclay Curle1977–198314,430 UKUganda for the British India Steam Navigation Company (1952–1972), P&O (1972–1977) and the Royal Navy (1983–1985). Scrapped in 1992.
Oriana1960Vickers-Armstrong1977–198641,910 UKOriana for P&O (1960–1977); floating hotel/museum (1986–2004). Scrapped in 2005.
Canberra1961Harland and Wolff1977–199749,073 UKCanberra for P&O (1961–1977). Scrapped in 1997.
Sea Princess/Victoria1965John Brown & Company1979–1986 (as Sea Princess), 1995–2002 (as Victoria)27,670 UKKungsholm for Swedish America Line (1966–1975) and Flagship Cruises (1975–1978); Sea Princess for Princess Cruises (1986–1995); Mona Lisa for Holiday Kreuzfahrten (2002–2006); Oceanic II for Louis Cruises (2007), Pullmantur Cruises (2007) and The Scholar Ship (2007–2008); Mona Lisa for Lord Nelson Seereisen (2008), Peace Boat (2008–2009) and Lord Nelson Seereisen (2009–2010). Scrapped in 2016.
Arcadia1988Chantiers de l'Atlantique1997–200363,500 UKStar Princess for Princess Cruises (1989–1997); Ocean Village for Ocean Village (2003–2010); Pacific Pearl for P&O Cruises Australia (2010–2017); Columbus for Cruise & Maritime Voyages (2017–present).
Adonia1998Fincantieri2003–200577,499 UKSea Princess for Princess Cruises (1998–2003, 2005–present).
Artemis1984Wärtsilä2005–201144,348 BermudaRoyal Princess for Princess Cruises (1984–2005); Artania for Phoenix Reisen (2011–present).
Adonia2001Chantiers de l'Atlantique2011–2016, 2017–201830,277 BermudaR Eight for Renaissance Cruises (2001–2003); Minerva II for Swan Hellenic (2003–2007); Royal Princess for Princess Cruises (2007–2011); Adonia for Fathom (2016–2017); Azamara Pursuit for Azamara Club Cruises (2018–present).
Oriana1995Meyer Werft1995–201902 69,153 BermudaPiano Land for Astro Ocean (2019–present).[48]

References

  1. "From Liners to Leisure". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  2. "History of P&O". P&O Cruises Australia. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  3. "History of Our Fleet". P&O Cruises Australia. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  4. Coulter, Adam (21 December 2017). "P&O Cruises History". Cruise Critic. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  5. Bennett, Neil (23 July 2000). "P&O reshapes cruise float". Telegraph. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  6. "Carnival cruises towards P&O deal". BBC. 25 October 2002. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  7. "2018 Worldwide Cruise Line Market Share". Cruise Market Watch. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  8. "Men of Steam". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  9. "First Mail Contract". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  10. "Royal Charter". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  11. "The Threat from Above". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  12. Goossens, Reuben. "From Birth to Breakers". SS Maritime. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  13. Goossens, Reuben. "SS Canberra – Times Are 'a' Changing". SS Maritime. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  14. Messinger, Nick. "P&O ss Arcadia 1954". The Old Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  15. "Educational cruise ship service". SS Uganda Trust. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  16. Goossens, Reuben. "From P&O's Sea Princess, Victoria, Mona Lisa, Oceanic II and Hotel Veronca to the breakers in 2015". SS Maritime. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  17. "South to the Falklands". P&O Heritage. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  18. "SS Uganda Trust Home Page". SS Uganda Trust. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  19. "Ship Fact Sheet: Oriana (1960)" (PDF). P&O Heritage. November 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  20. "P&O Oriana – Cruise Ship". Ship Technology. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  21. "Oriana Ship History". Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  22. "Super-liner limps back to port". BBC. 3 May 2000. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  23. Boyle, Ian. "Oceana – Ocean Princess". Simplon Postcards. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  24. "CMV Columbus". CruiseMapper. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  25. Boyle, Ian. "Adonia – Sea Princess of P&O Princess Cruises". Simplon Postcards. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  26. Williamson, Jeannine. "Arcadia Review". Cruise Critic. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  27. Vass, Jacqueline (12 June 2004). "A great sea change". Telegraph. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  28. Archer, Jane (17 April 2008). "Helen Mirren's mission on the Ventura". Telegraph. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  29. Archer, Jane (23 November 2009). "Darcey Bussell named Godmother of Azura". Travel Weekly. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  30. Honeywell, John (22 September 2009). "P&O confirm sale of Artemis". Captain Greybeard. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  31. "Shirley Bassey names cruise ship Adonia in Southampton". BBC. 21 May 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  32. "P&O Cruises to mark its 175th with Grand Event". Travel Weekly. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  33. "P&O Cruises reveals new Union Flag livery". Travel Weekly. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  34. Thompson, Nigel (27 February 2015). "See inside P&O Cruises' new flagship Britannia and discover why it really is such a big deal". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  35. Sampson, Hannah (4 June 2015). "Carnival launches fathom, a new "social impact travel" brand". Miami Herald. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  36. Davies, Phil (24 November 2016). "Fathom to lose only ship as Adonia rejoins P&O fleet". Travel Weekly. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  37. Davies, Phil (6 September 2016). "P&O Cruises announces order for biggest ever ship". Travel Weekly. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  38. "P&O Orders New Ship for 2022 Delivery". Cruise Industry News. 25 January 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  39. Coulter, Adam (24 May 2018). "P&O Cruises Reveals Name of New Ship: Iona". Cruise Critic. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  40. "Carnival Corporation to Build Three New LNG-Powered Cruise Ships with Meyer Werft and Meyer Turku". Carnival Corporation & plc. 6 September 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  41. "P&O Respond And Apologise To Guests After News Of Selling Ship". Cruise. 27 September 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  42. Davies, Phil (29 June 2018). "Oriana to leave P&O Cruises fleet in August 2019". Travel Weekly. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  43. Ludlow, Paul (22 August 2019). "The passing of the P&O Cruises 'Golden Cockerel' trophy, from one captain to another". Twitter. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  44. "Oriana leaving P&O Cruises fleet" (PDF). Tom's Cruise Blog. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  45. "Vessel Database". FleetMon. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  46. "USA: Fincantieri Receives Order from Carnival Corps to Build New Cruise Ship". Shipbuilding Tribune. 2 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  47. "Cruise ship orderbook". Cruise Industry News. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  48. "Astro Ocean Takes Over Piano Land as Ship Sails for China". Cruise Industry News. 17 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
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