Outline of underwater diving

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to underwater diving:

Underwater diving as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment.

What type of thing is underwater diving?

Underwater diving can be described as all of the following:

  • A human activity intentional, purposive, conscious and subjectively meaningful sequence of actions. Underwater diving is practiced as part of an occupation, or for recreation, where the practitioner submerges below the surface of the water or other liquid for a period which may range between seconds to the order of a day at a time, either exposed to the ambient pressure or isolated by a pressure resistant suit, to interact with the underwater environment for pleasure, competitive sport, or as a means to reach a work site for profit or in the pursuit of knowledge, and may use no equipment at all, or a wide range of equipment which may include breathing apparatus, environmental protective clothing, aids to vision, communication, propulsion, maneuverability, buoyancy and safety equipment, and tools for the task at hand.

Diving activity, by type

Modes of underwater diving

There are several modes of diving distinguished by the equipment and procedures used:

  • Freediving  Underwater diving without breathing apparatus
  • Scuba diving  Using bottled air to swim underwater
  • Surface-supplied diving  Underwater diving breathing gas supplied from the surface
  • Saturation diving  Diving for periods long enough to bring all tissues into equilibrium with the partial pressures of the inert components of the breathing gas
  • Atmospheric pressure diving  Diving where the diver is isolated from the ambient pressure by an articulated pressure resistant diving suit.
  • Unmanned diving  Diving by mechanisms under the direct or indirect control of remote human operators for observation, data collection or manipulation of the environment using on-board actuator devices

Diving procedures

Diving procedures  Standardised methods of doing things that are known to work effectively and acceptably safely

  • Ascending and descending (diving)  Procedures for safe ascent and descent in underwater diving
  • Boat diving  Procedures specific to diving from boats
  • Decompression (diving)  The reduction of ambient pressure on underwater divers after hyperbaric exposure and the elimination of dissolved gases from the diver's tissues
    • Decompression practice  Techniques and procedures for safe decompression of divers
      • Pyle stop  A series of short deep decompression stops in addition to the standard profile
      • Ratio decompression  Rule of thumb for estimating a decompression schedule for a given set of breathing gases
  • Dive log  Record of diving history of an underwater diver
  • Dive planning  The process of planning an underwater diving operation
  • Diver communications  Methods used by underwater divers to communicate
  • Diver navigation  Underwater navigation by scuba divers
  • Diver rescue  Rescue of a distressed or incapacitated diver
  • Diver trim  Balance and orientation skills of an underwater diver
  • Drift diving  Scuba diving where the diver is intentionally transported by the water flow
  • Finning techniques  Techniques used by divers and surface swimmers using swimfins
    • Combat sidestroke  Variation of side-stroke swimming used by United States Navy SEALs
  • Scuba skills  The skills required to dive safely using self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
    • Buddy breathing  Technique for sharing breathing gas from a single mouthpiece
    • Buddy diving  Practice of mutual monitoring and assistance between two divers
      • Buddy check  Pre-dive safety checks carried out by two-diver dive teams
    • Gas blending for scuba diving  Mixing and filling cylinders with breathing gases for use when scuba diving
    • Low impact diving  Scuba diving that has minimal environmental effect
    • Penetration diving  Diving under a physical barrier to a direct vertical ascent to the surface
    • Rebreather diving  Underwater diving using self contained breathing gas recycling apparatus
    • Rule of thirds (diving)  Rule of thumb for scuba gas management
    • Sidemount diving  Diving using an equipment configuration where the scuba sets are clipped to the sides of the harness
    • Solo diving  Recreational diving without a dive buddy
  • Surface-supplied diving skills  Skills and procedures required for the safe operation and use of surface-supplied diving equipment
  • Underwater searches  Techniques for finding underwater targets

Underwater diving, by environment

Underwater diving environment  The underwater environment to which a diver may be exposed

  • Open-water diving  Diving in unrestricted water and in water when the diver has unrestricted vertical access to the surface
  • Altitude diving  Underwater diving at altitudes above 300 m
  • Cave diving  Underwater diving in water-filled caves
  • Deep diving  Underwater diving to a depth beyond the norm accepted by the associated community
  • Ice diving  Underwater diving under ice
  • Muck diving  Recreational diving on a loose sedimentary bottom
  • Night diving  Underwater diving during the hours of darkness
  • Recreational dive sites  Specific places that recreational divers go to enjoy the underwater environment or are used for training purposes
  • Wreck diving  Recreational diving on wrecks

Occupational diving

Professional diving, also known as Occupational diving  Underwater diving where divers are paid for their work

Recreational diving

Recreational diving  Diving for the purpose of leisure and enjoyment, usually when using scuba equipment

Diving and support equipment, tools and weapons

Diving equipment

Diving equipment  Equipment used to facilitate underwater diving

  • Autonomous underwater vehicle  Unmanned underwater vehicle with autonomous guidance system
  • Breathing gas  Gas used for human respiration
  • Buoyancy control device  Diving equipment for controlling buoyancy by volume adjustment
  • Decompression equipment  Equipment used by divers to facilitate decompression
  • Dive light  Light used underwater by a diver
  • Diver propulsion vehicle  Powered device for diver mobility and range extension
  • Diving bell  Chamber for transporting divers vertically through the water
  • Diving mask  Watertight air-filled face cover with view-ports for improving underwater vision
  • Diving safety equipment  Equipment carried or worn by a diver or provided by the dive team to reduce risk or mitigate incidents
  • Diving suit  Garment or device designed to protect a diver from the underwater environment
    • Atmospheric diving suit  Articulated pressure resistant anthropomorphic housing for an underwater diver
    • Dry suit  Watertight clothing that seals the wearer from cold and hazardous liquids
    • Hot water suit  A wetsuit with a supply of heated water to keep a diver warm
    • Rash vest  Stretch garment for protection from abrasion, UV and stings
    • Wetsuit  Garment for water activities, providing thermal insulation but not designed to prevent water entering
    • Standard diving dress  Rubberised canvas diving suit with copper helmet and weighted boots
  • Diving weighting system  Ballast carried by underwater divers to counteract buoyancy
    • Weight belt  A ballasted waist belt worn by a diver
    • Diving weight  Ballast carried by a diver to counteract buoyancy or adjust trim
  • Remotely operated underwater vehicle  A tethered underwater mobile device operated by a remote crew
  • Snorkeling  Swimming while breathing through a snorkel represented by Snorkeling#Snorkel Short curved tube used for face-down breathing at the surface
  • Swimfin  Finlike accessories worn on the feet, used for swimming, snorkeling and diving propulsion
    • Monofin  Single blade swimfin attached to both feet
  • Towboard  Underwater survey equipment used to tow a diver
  • Underwater breathing apparatus  Equipment which provides breathing gas to an underwater diver
    • Scuba set  Self contained underwater breathing apparatus
      • Diving cylinder  High pressure compressed gas cylinder used to store and supply breathing gas for diving
      • Diving regulator  Mechanism that reduces pressure of a gas supply and provides it to the diver at ambient pressure
      • Rebreather  Apparatus to recycle breathing gas
    • Surface-supplied diving equipment  Equipment used specifically for surface supplied diving
      • Diving helmet  Rigid head enclosure with breathing gas supply worn for underwater diving
      • Diver's umbilical  A hose and cable bundle which supplies breathing gas, communications and other services to a diver

Autonomous underwater vehicles

Autonomous underwater vehicle  Unmanned underwater vehicle with autonomous guidance system

  • Autonomous Robotics Ltd  UK company developing an autonomous underwater vehicle
  • AUV-150  An unmanned underwater vehicle in development in by Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute
  • AUV Abyss  An autonomous underwater vehicle for mapping of the seabed and water column data collection
  • Boaty McBoatface  Autonomous underwater vehicle
  • DeepC  Autonomous underwater vehicle powered by a fuel cell
  • DEPTHX  Autonomous underwater vehicle for exploring sinkholes in Mexico
  • Echo Ranger  A marine autonomous underwater vehicle built by Boeing
  • Eelume  Autonomous underwater vehicle being developed by Eelume AS
  • Explorer AUV  Autonomous underwater vehicle from People's Republic of China
  • Intelligent Water class AUV  Autonomous underwater vehicle for the People's Liberation Army Navy
  • Intervention AUV  Type of autonomous underwater vehicle capable of autonomous interventions
  • iRobot Seaglider  Deep diving autonomous underwater vehicle for long term missions
  • Maya AUV India  Autonomous underwater vehicle from National Institute of Oceanography, India
  • Nereus (underwater vehicle)  Hybrid remotely operated or autonomous underwater vehicle
  • REMUS (AUV)  Autonomous underwater vehicle series
  • Sentry (AUV)  Autonomous underwater vehicle made by Woods Hole Oceanographic institution
  • Spindle (vehicle)  Ice penetrating two-stage autonomous underwater vehicle
  • SPURV  Self propelled underwater research vehicle built in 1957 for the US Navy
  • SPURV II  Special purpose underwater research vessel built to srudy submarine wakes
  • Theseus (AUV)  Large autonomous underwater vehicle for laying fibre optic cable
  • Petrel HUG  A Chinese hybrid underwater glider

Breathing gas

Breathing gas  Gas used for human respiration

  • Bailout gas  Emergency breathing gas supply
  • Bottom gas  Gas breathed during the deep part of a dive
  • Breathing air  Air quality suitable for safe breathing
  • Decompression gas  Oxygen-rich gas used for accelerated decompression
  • Emergency gas supply  Alternative independent breathing gas supply carried by a diver
  • Heliox  A breathing gas mixed from helium and oxygen
  • Nitrox  Breathing gas, mixture of nitrogen and oxygen
  • Oxygen  Chemical element with atomic number 8
  • Travel gas  Gas breathed during the descent part of a dive
  • Trimix (breathing gas)  Breathing gas consisting of oxygen, helium and nitrogen
  • Electro-galvanic oxygen sensor  Device which produces a voltage by a chemical reaction with oxygen proportional to partial pressure
  • Gas blending  Producing special gas mixtures to specification

Decompression equipment

Decompression equipment  Equipment used by divers to facilitate decompression

  • Decompression buoy  Inflatable surface marker buoy deployed from underwater
  • Decompression cylinder  Scuba cylinder carrying decompression gas
  • Decompression trapeze  Horizontal bars suspended at decompression stop depths
  • Dive computer, also known as Decompression computer  Instrument to record dive profile and calculate decompression obligations in real time
  • Dive tables  Tabulated data that allow divers to determine a decompression schedule for a given dive profile and breathing gas
  • Diving bell  Chamber for transporting divers vertically through the water
  • Diving chamber  Hyperbaric pressure vessel for human occupation used in diving operations
  • Diving shot, also known as Shot line  Substantial weighted near-vertical line with buoy
  • Diving stage  A platform on which one or two divers stand which transports them vertically through the water
  • Jonline  A short line used by scuba divers to clip themselves to something
  • Recreational dive planner
  • Saturation system  A surface hyperbaric complex including a living chamber, transfer chamber, closed diving bell and the infrastructure to operate them

Diver propulsion vehicles

Diver propulsion vehicle  Powered device for diver mobility and range extension

Diving safety equipment

Diving safety equipment  Equipment carried or worn by a diver or provided by the dive team to reduce risk or mitigate incidents

  • Alternative air source  Emergency supply of breathing gas for an underwater diver
  • Buddy line  A line physically tethering two scuba divers together underwater to avoid separation in low visibility conditions
  • Decompression buoy, also known as DSMB  Inflatable surface marker buoy deployed from underwater
  • Distance line, also known as dive reel or guide line  Line deployed by scuba divers for navigation
  • Diver surface detection aids  Equipment to make a surfaced diver easier to find
  • Diver's cutting tool  A tool to assist in extricating the diver from entrapment by lines or nets
  • Diver's knife  A tool to assist in extricating the diver from entrapment by lines or nets
  • Diving safety harness, also known as bell harness  A harness by which the diver can safely be lifted
  • Jonline  A short line used by scuba divers to clip themselves to something
  • Lifeline, also known as tether  A rope connecting the diver to an attendant, usually at the surface
  • Line marker  Marker used on cave guide lines to provide safety information to divers
  • Shotline  Substantial weighted near-vertical line with buoy
  • Surface marker buoy  A buoy towed by a scuba diver to indicate the diver's position

Rebreathers

Rebreather  Apparatus to recycle breathing gas

  • Carbon dioxide scrubber  Device which absorbs carbon dioxide from circulated gas
  • Carleton CDBA  Military rebreather by Cobham plc
  • Clearance Divers Life Support Equipment  British military electronically controlled closed circuit rebreather
  • Cis-Lunar  Manufacturer of electronically controlled closed-circuit rebreathers for scuba diving
  • Counterlung  Variable volume component in a rebreather to take up and release gas during a breathing cycle
  • Cryogenic rebreather  Rebreather that removes CO2 by freezing it out using heat exchange with liquid oxygen
  • CUMA  Canadian military diving rebreather
  • Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus  Early submarine escape oxygen rebreather also used for shallow water diving.
  • Dräger Dolphin  Semi-closed circuit recreational diving rebreather
  • Dräger Ray  Semi-closed circuit recreational diving rebreather designed to use standard nitrox breathing gas mixtures
  • FROGS  Closed circuit oxygen diving rebreather
  • Halcyon RB80  Non-depth-compensated passive addition semi-closed circuit rebreather
  • Halcyon PVR-BASC  Semi-closed circuit depth compensated passive addition diving rebreather
  • IDA71  Russian military rebreather for underwater and high altitude use
  • Interspiro DCSC  Military semi-closed circuit passive addition diving rebreather
  • KISS  Manually controlled closed circuit diving rebreather
  • LAR-5, LAR-6, and LAR-V represented by Drägerwerk  German manufacturer of breathing equipment
  • Lambertsen Amphibious Respiratory Unit  Early closed circuit oxygen diving rebreather
  • Porpoise  Australian scuba manufacturer
  • Siebe Gorman CDBA  A type of diving rebreather used by the Royal Navy
  • Siva  Military diving rebreather
  • Viper  Electronically-controlled closed circuit mixed gas military rebreather

Remotely operated underwater vehicles

Remotely operated underwater vehicle  A tethered underwater mobile device operated by a remote crew

  • 8A4-class ROUV  A Chinese work class remotely operated underwater vehicle
  • ABISMO  A Japanese remotely operated underwater vehicle for deep sea exploration
  • Atlantis ROV Team  A high-school underwater robotics team from Whidbey Island, Washington, United States
  • CURV  Early remotely operated underwater vehicle
  • Épaulard  A French remotely operated underwater vehicle of the Ifremer
  • Global Explorer ROV  A deep water science and survey remotely operated vehicle
  • Goldfish-class ROUV  A light class of Chinese remotely operated underwater vehicle
  • Kaikō ROV  A Japanese remotely operated underwater vehicle for deep sea exploration
  • Long-Term Mine Reconnaissance System  An American torpedo tube-launched underwater search and survey unmanned undersea vehicle
  • Mini Rover ROV  A small, low cost observation class remotely operated underwater vehicle
  • OpenROV  Open-source remotely operated underwater vehicle
  • ROV KIEL 6000  A remotely operated vehicle built by Schilling Robotics, Davis, California for scientific tasks
  • ROV PHOCA  A remotely operated underwater vehicle of the COMANCHE type
  • Scorpio ROV  A work class remotely operated underwater vehicle
  • Sea Dragon-class ROV  A Chinese deep diving work class remotely operated underwater vehicle
  • Seabed tractor  A special purpose class of remotely operated underwater vehicle
  • Seafox drone  A remotely operated anti-mine marine drone
  • Seahorse ROUV  A Chinese scientific and maintenance remotely operated underwater vehicle
  • SeaPerch  A remotely operated underwater vehicle educational program
  • SJT-class ROUV  A series of Chinese remotely operated underwater vehicles
  • T1200 Trenching Unit  A remotely operated seabed trenching unit
  • VideoRay UROVs  A series of inspection class remotely operated underwater vehicles

Underwater breathing apparatus

Underwater breathing apparatus  Equipment which provides breathing gas to an underwater diver

  • Scuba set  Self contained underwater breathing apparatus
  • Surface-supplied diving equipment  Equipment used specifically for surface supplied diving
    • Air line, also known as air-line  A tube or hose carrying a compressed air supply
    • Bailout cylinder  Emergency gas supply cylinder carried by a diver
    • Bailout block  Valve block on diver's equipment for switching a diver's gas supply between main and emergency gas supply
    • Diving helmet  Rigid head enclosure with breathing gas supply worn for underwater diving
    • Diver's umbilical  A hose and cable bundle which supplies breathing gas, communications and other services to a diver
    • Diving stage  A platform on which one or two divers stand which transports them vertically through the water
    • Pneumofathometer  Gauge on the gas panel for indicating the depth of a surface-supplied diver
    • Sea Trek (diving system)  Recreational underwater diving system using helmets
    • Snuba  Limited depth airline breathing apparatus towed by the diver
    • Standard diving dress  Rubberised canvas diving suit with copper helmet and weighted boots

Diving support equipment

Diving support equipment  Equipment used in the support of an underwater diving operation

  • Booster pump  Machine to increase pressure of a fluid
  • Cascade filling system  Filling pressurised gas from a series of storage cylinders
  • Communications panel, also known as Diver's telephone  Surface control panel for underwater diving voice communications system
  • Diver down flag  Flag signal indicating divers are in the water nearby
  • Diver's pump  Manually powered surface air supply for divers
  • Diving air compressor, also known as Diving compressor  Machine used to compress breathing air for use by underwater divers
  • Diving chamber  Hyperbaric pressure vessel for human occupation used in diving operations
  • Diving spread  The topside base for commercial diving operations
    • Air spread  The topside base for surface-supplied air diving operations
    • Saturation spread  The topside base for saturation diving operations
      • Saturation system  A surface hyperbaric complex including a living chamber, transfer chamber, closed diving bell and the infrastructure to operate them
  • Diving support vessel  A ship used as a floating base for professional diving projects
    • HMS Challenger  Royal Navy saturation diving support vessel
    • Liveaboard  Way of using a boat
    • Dive boat  Boat used for the support of scuba diving operations
    • Diving ladder  Ladder to facilitate egress from the water by divers
    • Diving platform (scuba)  Low freeboard platform on a dive boat to give divers easy access to the water
    • Moon pool  An opening in the base of a hull, platform, or chamber giving access to the water below
  • Echo sounder, also known as fish finder  Measuring the depth of water by transmitting sound waves into water and timing the return
  • Gas panel, also known as Diving gas distribution manifold  Breathing gas distribution panel for surface-supplied diving
  • Helium analyzer  Instrument to measure the concentration of helium in a gas mixture
  • Marine VHF radio  Radios operating in the very high frequency maritime mobile band
  • Nitrox production  Methods of producing nitrox mixtures
  • Proton magnetometer, also known as metal detector
  • Recreational Dive Planner (RDP)  A PADI no-decompression dive table also available as a circular slide rule and electronic calculator
  • Remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV)  A tethered underwater mobile device operated by a remote crew
  • Satellite navigation  Any system that uses satellite radio signals to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning
  • Subsurface (software)  Open source dive log program
  • Trongle  Device used on submarines to help swimmers to locate a submerged submarine

Underwater work tools and equipment

Underwater work tools and equipment Tools and equipment used for underwater work

Underwater weapons

Underwater weapons Weapons that are intended for use underwater

Science of underwater diving

Physics of underwater diving

Physics of underwater diving  Aspects of physics which affect the underwater diver

  • Buoyancy  An upward force that opposes the weight of an object immersed in fluid
  • Diffusion  Net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential)
    • Molecular diffusion  The thermal motion of liquid or gas particles at temperatures above absolute zero
    • Permeation  The penetration of a liquid, gas, or vapor through a solid
  • Force  Any action that tends to maintain or alter the motion of an object
    • Weight  The force on a mass due to gravity
  • Ideal gas law  The equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas
    • Combined gas law  Combination of Charles', Boyle's and Gay-Lussac's gas laws
    • Amontons' law  Relationship between pressure and temperature of a gas at constant volume.
    • Boyle's law  Relationship between pressure and volume in a gas at constant temperature
    • Charles's law  Relationship between volume and temperature of a gas at constant pressure
    • Gay-Lussac's law  Relationship between pressure and temperature of a gas at constant volume.
  • Pressure  Force distributed continuously over an area
  • Psychrometric constant  Relation of the partial pressure of water in air to temperature
  • Solubility  Capacity of a designated solvent to hold a designated solute in homogeneous solution under specified conditions
    • Henry's law  Relation of equilibrium solubility of a gas in a liquid to its partial pressure in the contacting gas phase
    • Solution  A homogeneous mixture which assumes the phase of the solvent
    • Supersaturation  State of a solution that contains more solute than can be dissolved at equilibrium
  • Surface tension  Tendency of a liquid surface to shrink to reduce surface area
    • Hydrophobe  molecule or surface that has no attraction to water
    • Surfactant  Substance that lowers the surface tension between a liquid and another material
  • Underwater vision  Effects of the underwater environment on (human) vision
    • Snell's law, also known as Law of refraction  The relation between the angles of incidence and refraction of waves crossing the interface between isotropic media
  • Work of breathing (WoB)  The energy expended to inhale and exhale a breathing gas

The diving environment

Underwater diving environment  The underwater environment to which a diver may be exposed

Physiology of underwater diving

Physiology of underwater diving  Influences of the underwater environment on the physiology of air-breathing animals

Diving medicine, disorders and treatment

Diving medicine

Diving medicine  Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disorders caused by underwater diving

  • Fitness to dive, also known as Medical fitness to dive  Medical fitness of a person to function safely underwater under pressure
  • Diving medical examiner  A medical practitioner registered to assess medical fitness to dive
  • Diving medical practitioner  A medical practitioner registered to assess medical fitness to dive, manage diving accidents, plan safety for professional diving operations, provide advanced life support, acute trauma care and general wound care.
  • Diving medical technician  a member of a dive team who is trained in advanced first aid and fit to provide treatment in a hyperbaric chamber in an emergency
  • Hyperbaric medicine  Medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component

Diving disorders and treatment

Diving disorders  Physiological disorders resulting from underwater diving

  • List of signs and symptoms of diving disorders  The signs and symptoms of physiological disorders resulting from underwater diving
  • Drowning  Respiratory impairment resulting from being in or under a liquid
    • Laryngospasm  Involuntary contraction of the vocal folds restricting inhalation
  • Dysbarism  Medical conditions resulting from changes of ambient pressure.
  • Hypercapnia  Abnormally high tissue carbon dioxide levels
  • Hypothermia  A human body core temperature below 35.0°C
  • Hypoxia (medical)  A condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen at the tissue level
    • Freediving blackout  Loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoxia towards the end of a breath-hold dive
    • Latent hypoxia  Tissue oxygen concentration which is sufficient to support consciousness at depth, but not at surface pressure
  • Motion sickness, also known as seasickness  Nausea caused by motion
  • Oxygen therapy  Use of oxygen as medical treatment
  • Surfer's ear  The common name for an abnormal bone growth within the external ear canal
  • Toxicity  The ability of a chemical to cause damage to life
  • Vertigo  Type of dizziness where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving

Diving safety

Diving safety  Safety of underwater diving activities

  • Checklist  An aide-memoire to ensure consistency and completeness in carrying out a task
  • Code of practice (CoP)  A set of written rules which specifies how people working in a particular occupation should behave
  • Dive team  A group of people working together to enhance dive safety and achieve a task
    • Professional diving  Underwater diving where divers are paid for their work
    • Diving supervisor  Professional diving team leader responsible for safety
    • Stand-by diver  A member of a dive team who is ready to assist or rescue the working diver
    • Bellman (diving)  The member of a dive team who acts as stand-by diver and tender from the diving bell
    • Diver's attendant  The member of a dive team who assists the diver at the surface and tends the diver's umbilical or lifeline
    • Life support technician  A member of a saturation diving team who operates the surface habitat
    • Chamber operator  A person who operates a diving chamber
    • Diving systems technician  A competent person who maintains and repairs diving life-support equipment
  • Divemaster  Recreational dive leader certification and role
  • Diving hazards  The agents and situations that pose a threat to the underwater diver
    • Silt out  Reduction of underwater visibility by disturbing silt deposits
    • Task loading  The relationship between operator capacity and the accumulated activities than must be done
  • Diver rescue  Rescue of a distressed or incapacitated diver
    • Rescue Diver  Recreational scuba certification emphasising emergency response and diver rescue
  • Doing It Right (scuba diving) (DIR)  Technical diving safety philosophy
  • Human factors in diving safety  The influence of physical, cognitive and behavioral characteristics of divers on safety
  • Hazardous Materials Identification System  A numerical hazard rating using colour coded labels
  • Occupational safety and health, also known as Occupational health and safety
    • Safety culture  The attitude, beliefs, perceptions and values that employees share in relation to risks in the workplace
  • Operations manual  Authoritative document of how things should be done in an organisation
    • Emergency response plan
    • Evacuation plan  Removal of personnel from a high risk area or a developing incident to a safer place
    • Standard operating procedure (SOP)  A set of detailed instructions compiled by an organization to help workers carry out operations safely and effectively
  • Risk management  Set of measures for the systematic identification, analysis, assessment, monitoring and control of risks
    • Hazard identification and risk assessment (HIRA)
      • Hazard analysis (HAZID)  The identification of present hazards as the first step in a process to assess risk
      • Job safety analysis (JSA)  Procedure to integrate safety practices into a particular task
      • Risk assessment  Estimation of risk associated with exposure to a given set of hazards
    • Risk control  Process in which identified risks are reduced or mitigated
    • Incident pit  Conceptual model for explaining incident development and recovery
    • Lockout-tagout (LOTO)  A safety procedure to isolate dangerous equipment and render it inoperative during maintenance or repair work
    • Permit To Work  Work safety management system
    • Redundancy  Duplication of critical components to increase reliability of a system
    • Safety data sheet, also known as Material safety data sheet  System for cataloging information, potential hazards and instructions for safe use associated with a material or product
  • Scuba diving fatalities  Deaths occurring while scuba diving or as a consequence of scuba diving.
  • Single point of failure  A part of a system that, if it fails, will stop the entire system from working
  • Water safety  Human safety in the vicinity of bodies of water

Notable diving incidents rescues and fatalities

Legal aspects of diving how underwater diving and divers are affected by law

Geography of diving

Recreational dive sites are specific places that recreational scuba divers go to enjoy the underwater environment. They include recreational diver training sites and technical diving sites beyond the range generally accepted for recreational diving. In this context all diving done for recreational purposes is included. Professional diving tends to be done where the job is, and with the exception of the recreational diving service industry, does not generally occur at specific sites chosen for their easy access, pleasant conditions or interesting features.

Recreational dive sites may be found in a wide range of bodies of water, and may be popular for various reasons, including accessibility, biodiversity, spectacular topography, historical interest and artifacts (such as shipwrecks), and water clarity. Tropical waters of high biodiversity and colourful sea life are popular recreational diving vacation destinations. South-east Asia, the Caribbean islands, the Red Sea and the Great Barrier Reef of Australia are regions where the clear, warm, waters and colourful and diverse sea life have made recreational diving an economically important tourist industry.

Recreational divers may accept a relatively high level of risk to dive at a site perceived to be of special interest. Wreck diving and cave diving have their adherents, and enthusiasts will endure considerable hardship, risk and expense to visit caves and wrecks where few have been before. Some sites are popular almost exclusively for their convenience for training and practice of skills, such as flooded quarries. They are generally found where more interesting and pleasant diving is not locally available, or may only be accessible when weather or water conditions permit.

History of underwater diving

History of underwater diving  History of the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment

Frogman operations

Notable underwater salvage operations

Diver training, certification, registration and standards

Diver training

  • Diver training  Processes by which people develop the skills and knowledge to dive safely underwater
  • Recreational diver certification represented by Diver certification  Certification as competent to dive to a specified standard
    • Advanced Open Water Diver  Recreational scuba diving certification slightly above minimum entry level
    • Autonomous diver  International minimum standard for entry level recreational scuba diver certification
    • CMAS* SCUBA Diver
    • Divemaster  Recreational dive leader certification and role
    • Diving instructor  Person who trains and assesses underwater divers
    • Open Water Diver  An entry-level autonomous diver certification for recreational scuba diving
    • Master Instructor  A certificate given in recognition of a minimum level of experience in training divers after certification as a Diving Instructor, issued by PADI and SSI
    • Master Scuba Diver  The highest non-leadership recreational scuba diver certification issued by some agencies
    • Rescue Diver  Recreational scuba certification emphasising emergency response and diver rescue
    • Supervised diver  Minimum requirements for a recreational diver to dive in open water under direct supervision
    • Introductory diving  Introductory scuba diving experience
    • Universal Referral Program  A system to complete recreational scuba training with another instructor

Diver certification organisations

List of diver certification organizations  Agencies which issue certification for competence in diving skills

Organisations setting international standards and codes of practice for diving and diver training

Commercial diving schools

Underwater diving organisations

Diver membership organisations

Diver membership organisations

Diver nature conservation organisations

Diving industry trade associations

Underwater environmental research organisations

Diving medical research organisations

Underwater diving publications

Books and manuals

  • The Darkness Beckons  A history of UK cave diving by Martyn Farr
  • Goldfinder  Autobiography of British diver and treasure hunter Keith Jessop
  • The Last Dive  Non-fiction book by Bernie Chowdhury about a double wreck diving fatality
  • Shadow Divers  Book by Robert Kurson recounting the discovery of a World War II German U-boat wreck
  • The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure  Book by Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Frédéric Dumas
  • Basic Cave Diving: A Blueprint for Survival  Book on cave diving safety by Sheck Exley
  • Exploration and Mixed Gas Diving Encyclopedia
  • Deep diving: an advanced guide to physiology, procedures and systems
  • Diving manual A document providing extensive general information on the equipment, procedures and theoretical basis of underwater diving.
    • NOAA Diving Manual  Training and operations manual for scientific diving Scientific diving manual published by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
    • Professional Diver's Handbook John Bevan Ed. A manual of offshore diving
    • U.S. Navy Diving Manual  Training and operations handbook
  • Diving Medicine for Scuba Divers
  • Bennett and Elliott's physiology and medicine of diving
  • The Underwater Handbook: A Guide to Physiology and Performance for the Engineer

Legislation

  • Diving at Work Regulations 1997

Codes of practice

(National or international codes of practice for diving)

  • Code of practice  A set of written rules which specifies how people working in a particular occupation should behave
  • IMCA Code of Practice for Offshore Diving A voluntary code of industry best practice followed by members of the International Marine Contractors Association.
  • Code of Practice for Scientific Diving: Principles for the Safe Practice of Scientific Diving in Different Environments

Standards

(National or international standards relating to diving equipment or practices)

Breathing apparatus

  • EN 14143-2003 Respiratory equipment - Self-contained re-breathing diving apparatus
  • BS EN 1802:2002 Transportable gas cylinders. Periodic inspection and testing of seamless aluminium alloy gas cylinders
  • BS EN 1968:2002 Transportable gas cylinders. Periodic inspection and testing of seamless steel gas cylinders

Swim fins

  • MIL-S-82258:1965 Military specification. Swim fins, rubber.
  • GOST 22469:1977 Ласты резиновые для плавания. Общие технические условия. Swimming rubber flippers. General specifications.
  • DIN 7876:1980 Tauchzubehör. Schwimmflossen. Maße, Anforderungen und Prüfung. Diving accessories for skin divers. Flippers. Dimensions, requirements and testing.
  • MS 974:1985 Specification for rubber swimming fins.
  • ÖNORM S 4224:1988 Tauch-Zubehör; Schwimmflossen; Abmessungen, sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen, Prüfung, Normkennzeichnung. Diving accessories; fins; dimensions, safety requirements, testing, marking of conformity.
  • MS 974:2002 Specification for rubber swimming fins. First revision.
  • EN 16804:2015 Diving equipment. Diving open heel fins. Requirements and test methods.

Diving masks

  • BS 4532:1969 Specification for snorkels and face masks. Amended 1977.
  • GOST 20568:1975 Маски резиновые для плавания под водой. Общие технические условие. Rubber masks for submarine swimming. General specifications.
  • DIN 7877:1980 Tauch-Zubehör. Tauchbrillen. Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen und Prüfung. Diving accessories for skin divers. Diver’s masks. Requirements and testing.
  • ANSI Z87.11:1985 Underwater Safety. Recreational Skin and Scuba Diving. Lenses for Masks.
  • ÖNORM S 4225 Tauch-Zubehör; Tauchmasken (Tauchbrillen); Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen, Prüfung, Normkennzeichnung. Diving accessories; divers’ masks; safety requirements, testing, marking of conformity.
  • CNS 12497:1989 潛水鏡. Diving mask.
  • CNS 12498:1989 潛水鏡檢驗法. Method of test for diving mask.
  • EN 16805:2015 Diving equipment. Diving mask. Requirements and test methods.

Snorkels

  • BS 4532:1969 Specification for snorkels and face masks. Amended 1977.
  • DIN 7878:1980 Tauch-Zubehör; Schnorchel; Maße, Anforderungen, Prüfung. Diving accessories for skin divers. Snorkel. Technical requirements of safety, testing.
  • ÖNORM S 4223:1988 Tauch-Zubehör; Schnorchel; Abmessungen, sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen, Prüfung, Normkennzeichnung. Diving accessories; snorkels; dimensions, safety requirements, testing, marking of conformity.
  • DIN 7878:1991 Tauch-Zubehör; Schnorchel; Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen und Prüfung. Diving accessories for skin divers. Snorkel. Safety requirements and testing.
  • EN 1972:1997 Diving accessories. Snorkels. Safety requirements.
  • EN 1972:2015 Diving equipment. Snorkels. Requirements and test methods.

Buoyancy compensators

  • EN 1809:1998 Diving accessories. Buoyancy compensators. Functional and safety requirements, test methods.
  • EN 1809:2014+A1:2016 Diving equipment. Buoyancy compensators. Functional and safety requirements, test methods.

Wet suits

  • CNS 11251:1985 濕式潛水衣. Diving Wet Suit.
  • EN 14225-1:2005 Diving suits. Wet suits. Requirements and test methods.
  • EN 14225-1:2017 Diving suits. Wet suits. Requirements and test methods.

Dry suits

  • EN 14225-2:2002 Diving suits. Dry suits. Requirements and test methods.
  • EN 14225-2:2017 Diving suits. Dry suits. Requirements and test methods.

Depth gauges

  • EN 13319:2000 Diving accessories. Depth gauges and combined depth and time measuring devices. Functional and safety requirements, test methods.

Diver training

  • ISO 24801 Recreational diving services – Requirements for the training of recreational scuba divers
  • ISO 21417 Recreational diving services – Requirements for training on environmental awareness for recreational divers

Recreational diving practices

  • ISO 21416 Recreational diving services – Requirements and guidance on environmentally sustainable practices in recreational diving

Journals and magazines

  • AquaCorps Magazine on technical diving, founded and edited by Michael Menduno
  • Alert Diver Quarterly magazine of DAN om diving safety and recreational diving matters
  • South Pacific Underwater Medical Society Journal
  • Journal of Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine

Repositories

  • Rubicon Research Repository  On-line repository of documents relating to research on diving physiology, medicine, safety, equipment and procedures

Recreational dive site guides

Notable dive site guides with Wikipedia article.

Authors of publications about diving

Authors of general non-fiction works on diving topics who are the subjects of Wikipedia articles.

Documentaries

Documentary movies focused on underwater diving.

Movies, novels, TV series and shows, comics, graphic art, sculpture, games, myths, legends, and misconceptions. Fiction in general relating to all forms of diving, including hypothetical and imaginary methods, and other aspects of underwater diving which have become part of popular culture.

Researchers in diving medicine and physiology

Underwater divers

Underwater divers are people who take part in underwater diving activities Underwater diving is practiced as part of an occupation, or for recreation, where the practitioner submerges below the surface of the water or other liquid for a period which may range between seconds to order of a day at a time, either exposed to the ambient pressure or isolated by a pressure resistant suit, to interact with the underwater environment for pleasure, competitive sport, or as a means to reach a work site for profit or in the pursuit of knowledge, and may use no equipment at all, or a wide range of equipment which may include breathing apparatus, environmental protective clothing, aids to vision, communication, propulsion, maneuverability, buoyancy and safety equipment, and tools for the task at hand.

Pioneers of diving

  • James F. Cahill  American scuba diving pioneer
  • Alphonse and Théodore Carmagnolle French inventors of the first anthropomorphic armoured diving suit
  • Charles Condert Inventor of an unsuccessful early scuba system
  • Jacques Cousteau  French inventor of open circuit scuba, pioneer diver, author, film-maker and marine researcher
  • Charles Anthony Deane  Pioneering diving engineer and inventor of a surface supplied diving helmet
  • Guglielmo de Lorena Italian inventor of a diving bell used for archaeological work on the Roman ships of lake Nemi
  • Auguste Denayrouze  French inventor of a demand air supply regulator for underwater diving
  • Frédéric Dumas  French pioneer of scuba diving
  • Ted Eldred  Australian inventor of the single hose diving regulator
  • Maurice Fernez  French inventor and pioneer in underwater breathing apparatus, respirators and gas masks
  • Émile Gagnan  French engineer and co-inventor of the open circuit demand scuba regulator
  • Bret Gilliam  Pioneering technical diver and author.
  • Edmond Halley  English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist
  • Hans Hass  Austrian biologist, film-maker, and underwater diving pioneer
  • Stig Insulán Inventor of an adjustable automatic exhaust valve for variable volume dry suits
  • Jim Jarret Diver who test dived the first successful atmospheric diving suits
  • Yves Le Prieur  French naval officer and inventor of a free-flow scuba system
  • John Lethbridge  English wool merchant who invented a diving machine in 1715
  • William Hogarth Main  Cave diver and scuba configuration experimentalist
  • Phil Nuytten  Canadian deep-ocean explorer, scientist, and inventor of the Newtsuit
  • Joseph Salim Peress  Pioneering British diving engineer, inventor of some of the first truly usable atmospheric diving suits
  • Benoît Rouquayrol  French inventor of an early diving demand regulator
  • Dick Rutkowski  American pioneer in hyperbaric and diving medicine and use of mixed breathing gases for diving
  • Joe Savoie Inventor of the neck dam for lightweight helmets
  • Augustus Siebe  German-born British engineer mostly known for his contributions to diving equipment
  • Charles Spalding  Scottish confectioner and amateur diving bell designer
  • Robert Sténuit  Belgian journalist, writer, underwater archeologist and the first aquanaut.
  • Arne Zetterström  Diver involved in experimental work with Hydrox breathing gas

Underwater art and artists

Miscellaneous

Awards and events

See also

References

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