Ormoc, officially the City of Ormoc (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Ormoc; Waray: Syudad han Ormoc) or simply referred to as Ormoc City, is a 1st class independent component city in the province of Leyte in the region of Eastern Visayas of the Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 215,031 inhabitants,[3] making it the second most-populous city in the province after the provincial capital, Tacloban City. Ormoc is the economic, cultural, commercial and transportation hub of western Leyte.

City of Ormoc
View of Ormoc from Ormoc Bay

Map of Leyte with Ormoc highlighted
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 11°01′N 124°37′E
Country Philippines
RegionEastern Visayas (Region VIII)
ProvinceLeyte (geographically only)
District4th district of Leyte
FoundedFebruary 26, 1834
CityhoodJune 21, 1947
Barangays110 (see Barangays)
  TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
  MayorRichard Gomez
  Vice MayorLeo Carmelo "Toto" Locsin, Jr.
  CongresswomanLucy Torres-Gomez
  Electorate134,487 voters (2019)
  Total613.60 km2 (236.91 sq mi)
 (2015 census)[3]
  Density350/km2 (910/sq mi)
  Income class1st city income class
  Poverty incidence29.36% (2015)[4]
  Revenue (₱)1,103,766,795.39 (2016)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63(0)53
Climate typetropical rainforest climate
Native languagesCebuano

Ormoc City is an independent component city, not subject to regulation from the Provincial Government of Leyte. However, the city is part of the 4th Congressional District of Leyte together with Albuera, Kananga, Merida, Palompon and Isabel, and statistically grouped under the province by the Philippine Statistics Authority. On November 8, 2013, the city was extensively damaged by Super Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan), having previously suffered severe destruction and loss of life in 1991 from torrential flooding during Tropical Storm Thelma (Uring).[5]

The city's name is derived from ogmok, an archaic Visayan term for "lowland" or "depressed plain".[6] The city also celebrates an annual thanksgiving festival called the Piña Festivalin honor to Sts. Peter and Paul for the bountiful harvest of Pineapple .[7]


Ormoc City is a port city and is the largest city in Leyte by land area and the second largest in Eastern Visayas after Calbayog City in Samar. At the head of Ormoc Bay, the city's terrain is mostly of gently rolling plains. It is bounded on the northwest by the towns of Matag-ob and Merida, in the north by Kananga, in the northeast by the towns of Jaro, Pastrana and Dagami, and in the south by the town of Albuera. High mountain ranges separate Ormoc from the eastern portion of Leyte. Numerous rivers and streams traverse Ormoc. Among them are the Bao River in the north, Pagsangahan River in the west, the Bagong-bong River in the south, the Panilahan River also in the south and the Anilao and Malbasag Rivers which border the eastern and western flanks of Ormoc City Proper.[8]


Ormoc City is politically subdivided into 110 barangays.

  • Airport
  • Alegria
  • Alta Vista
  • Bagongbong
  • Bagong Buhay
  • Bantigue
  • Barangay 1 (Pob.)
  • Barangay 2 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 3 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 4 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 5 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 6 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 7 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 8 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 9 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 10 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 11 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 12 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 13 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 14 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 15 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 16 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 17 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 18 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 19 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 20 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 21 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 22 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 23 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 24 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 25 (Malbasag) (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 26 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 27 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 28 (Poblacion)
  • Barangay 29 (Nadongholan) (Poblacion)
  • Batuan
  • Bayog
  • Biliboy
  • Cabaon-an
  • Cabintan
  • Cabulihan
  • Cagbuhangin
  • Camp Downes
  • Can-adieng
  • Can-untog
  • Catmon
  • Cogon Combado
  • Concepcion
  • Curva
  • Danhug (Lili-on)
  • Dayhagan
  • Dolores
  • Domonar
  • Don Carlos B. Rivilla Sr. (Boroc)
  • Don Felipe Larrazabal
  • Don Potenciano Larrazabal
  • Doña Feliza Z. Mejia
  • Donghol
  • Esperanza
  • Gaas
  • Green Valley
  • Guintigui-an
  • Hibunawon
  • Hugpa
  • Ipil
  • Juaton
  • Kadaohan
  • Labrador (Balion)
  • Lake Danao
  • Lao
  • Leondoni
  • Libertad
  • Liberty
  • Licuma
  • Liloan
  • Linao
  • Luna
  • Mabato
  • Mabini
  • Macabug
  • Magaswi
  • Mahayag
  • Mahayahay
  • Manlilinao
  • Margen
  • Mas-in
  • Matica-a
  • Milagro
  • Monterico
  • Nasunogan
  • Naungan
  • Nueva Sociedad
  • Nueva Vista
  • Patag
  • Punta
  • Quezon, Jr.
  • Rufina M. Tan (Rawis)
  • Sabang Bao
  • Salvacion
  • San Antonio
  • San Isidro
  • San Jose
  • San Juan
  • San Pablo (Simangan)
  • San Vicente
  • Santo Niño
  • Sumangga
  • Tambulilid
  • Tongonan
  • Valencia


Kananga was created in 1950 from the barrios of Lonoy, Kananga, Rizal, Tugbong, Montebello, Aguiting, Tagaytay, Montealegre, Libungao, Naghalin, and Masarayao which all used to be part of Ormoc City.[9]

1991 Flash Flood

On the morning of 5 November 1991, the Ormoc region was inundated by Tropical Storm Uring. The city government recorded 4,922 deaths, 3,000 missing persons, 14,000 destroyed houses and more than P600 million worth of damaged property.[10] None of the 3,000 missing persons were ever found and are now presumed dead.[11] Illegal logging and kaingin (slash-and-burn farming) were blamed as the reasons of the flood.[10] Heavy rainfall caused water to collect upstream the Anilao and Malbasag rivers until it poured to the lowlands in Ormoc, particularly District 26, also known as Isla Verde.[10]

According to Roderick Caballero Deiparine, on 5 November 2011, a monument by national artist Francis Cinco commemorating the 20th anniversary of the event was inaugurated.[12] It sits on top of the mass grave at the Ormoc City Public Cemetery where an estimated 4,900 victims are buried.[13] The sculpture, entitled "Gift of Life", is an abstract depicting a life taken to heaven.[10][12]

2006 Store Fire

A fire at the Unitop store killed 25[14] people on Christmas day. The fire started from firecrackers and pyrotechnics that were ignited near the entrance door. The store did not have a permit to sell firecrackers and emergency exits were locked. The charred remains of the victims were found inside a bathroom, where they tried to escape from the blaze.[15][16]


Population census of Ormoc
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 16,126    
1918 38,174+5.91%
1939 77,349+3.42%
1948 72,733−0.68%
1960 62,764−1.22%
1970 84,563+3.02%
1975 89,466+1.14%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1980 104,978+3.25%
1990 129,456+2.12%
1995 143,186+1.91%
2000 154,297+1.62%
2007 177,524+1.95%
2010 191,200+2.74%
2015 215,031+2.26%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[3][17][18][19]

The natives of this city are called Ormocanons, with most being Cebuano speakers, as with the whole western and southern parts of the island of Leyte. A definite number of Waray speakers is also present within the city.

Like most Filipinos, Ormocanons are predominantly Roman Catholic, and the city celebrates its annual fiesta in honour of the patron saints Saint Peter and Saint Paul on June 28 and 29. Other main Catholic holy days, including the local fiestas of barangays, are observed throughout the year. There is also a visible Muslim minority within the city and all over the island, evidenced by the mosques within the cityscape and most of them are Maranaos from the twin provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur in Mindanao.


Aviles Street, 2016
Real Street, 2016

Ormoc City's economic base is a mix of agriculture, aquaculture, industry, tourism, and commercial services. Sugar cane, rice and pineapple are the major agricultural production.

The city enjoys economic growth because it supplies a large part of the country's power needs with its abundant geothermal power resources from the Tongonan Geothermal Power Plant in Barangay Tongonan and the neighbouring Kananga town. Ormoc is also the gateway to the Leyte Industrial Development Estate in the nearby town of Isabel, home of the Philippine Phosphate Fertilizer Plant, the largest fertilizer factory in Asia, and the Philippine Associated Smelter and Refining Company, the country's biggest copper processing plant, among other industries.


Ormoc is the educational center for western Leyte. It has a range of primary and secondary schools, both public and private. Tertiary education was originally offered by St. Peter's College of Ormoc, a Benedictine-run Catholic college and the oldest, followed by Western Leyte College of Ormoc City, Inc.,[20] a private non-sectarian college. In the 1990s, the city saw the establishment of Santo Niño College of Ormoc, St. Paul's School of Ormoc Foundation, Inc. and the STI Computer College - Ormoc. In the 2000s, tertiary institutions founded were AMA Computer Learning Center (ACLC) - Ormoc, San Lorenzo Ruiz College of Ormoc, Ormoc City Institute of Technology (OCIT) and the Ormoc campus of the Eastern Visayas State University.

Ormoc also has their own Chinese school which is Ormoc Se San School.


Among sites visited by the city's tourist are:

  • Lake Danao is a violin shaped lake 3 km long at an elevation of 2,100 feet (640 m) above sea level. There are floating cottages, and boats are available for hire and a future zipline. Lake Danao was formerly called as Lake Imelda. On February 3, 1998 it was renamed and declared as Lake Danao National Park and is protected by the National Integrated Protected Area System Act of 1992.[21]
  • Tongonan Hotsprings National Park is located at an elevation of 2,000 ft. amid densely forested hills. It is a 272-hectare park at the west end of the Leyte Mountain Trail, 18 kms. northeast of Ormoc City. It also has a cool climate, lush tropical vegetation and underbrush, a warm medicinal pool, a cavernous hillside geyser that spouts boiling water and steam hourly and formations exuding sulfuric vapors. It is a valley of geothermal power source that can supply electricity to the whole region. The first geothermal plant to operate in the Philippines.
  • Pineapple Plantation lies in 210 hectares in rolling terrain located north of the city Barangay Hibunawon. Ormoc's Queen Pineapple is famous for its sweetness, a favourite pasalubong, and the unofficial icon of the city. The plantation is owned by the Locsins (family of the city vice mayor). Ormoc is known for its famous “Queen Pineapple."[22]
  • Centennial Park The Veteran's Park was constructed in early 1990s in honor of the Filipino soldiers who fought for the liberation of Leyte and the Philippines. The Centennial Marker was erected in 1998 to commemorate the 100th year of Philippine independence.The park is located in the city, it is a leisure and picnic ground for the young and old alike.[23]
  • Lake Kasudsuran is just one of the three beautiful lakes of Ormoc. It is located at Barangay Gaas, Ormoc City in Leyte. The 5-hectare Lake Kasudsuran is located 27 km (a 45-hr. drive) northeast of Ormoc City on the virgin forest of Barangay Ga-as and Mt. Janagdan, a plateau 1,000 m above sea level. The lake is only accessible by foot. Lake Kasudsuran is also a place to explore in Ormoc City. The lake is a beauty to behold with surrounding fresh green trees and vegetation, and a calm and serene atmosphere.
  • Alto Peak is known as the highest mountain in Eastern Visayas(Region VIII). The domain is also a home to farming communities that has vegetable plantations and etc.[24] It is also known as Mt. Amindueuen and is technically part of the Municipality of Jaro, Leyte but its jump off is in Barangay Cabintan, Ormoc City.
  • Sayahan Falls The Sayahan Falls is a newly discovered spot that is located at Sitio Maglahug, Barangay Gaas, Ormoc City. The Sayahan Falls started gaining attention when a local tourist uploaded pictures of it in social media and became viral.[25]
  • Puente dela Reina is known as the oldest bridge in the city. Its cobblestones still intact, relic of an age long gone. It was built in the early 1800s but was completed in 1861. In Spanish era, the bridge was used as docking area for sailboats, vintas of Chinese, Javans and Indonesians who frequented the island to sell their produce. The bridge is still in use to this day.[26]
  • Western Leyte Guerrilla Warfare Forces Monument The Monument commemorates the Filipino resistance fighters who fought in the guerilla war against the Japanese occupiers in the Second World War[27]
  • Ruins of Cong. Dominador Tan Residence The Tan Mansion Ruins was built during the 1930s. In World War II, the mansion became a Japanese garrison in Leyte. It was destroyed during the bombing of Ormoc before liberation day, known as the “Battle of Ormoc Bay.”The Tan Mansion Ruins is like a memorial to the Japanese that visits the place. Treated like a shrine as it has a significant part of history of both countries—Japan and Philippines. It serves as a monument representing not only Dominador's young love but also as witness to Ormoc's history.[28]



Port of Ormoc
Ormoc Airport
Bus transport in Ormoc

The Port of Ormoc serves as the seaport of the city. For air transport, Ormoc Airport serves the city.


Ormoc hosts the biggest geothermal power plant in Southeast Asia - the Tongonan Geothermal Power in Barangay Tongonan which supplies electricity not only in the Eastern Visayas Region but power demand in Luzon as well.


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  2. "Province: Leyte". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  3. Census of Population (2015). "Region VIII (Eastern Visayas)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  4. "PSA releases the 2015 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Quezon City, Philippines. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  5. . FINWAZE.com https://www.finwaze.com/cebu-ceo-visits-ormoc-city-engages-financial-literacy-common-people/. Retrieved December 13, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. . Filipino Homes https://filipinohomes.com/ormoc. Retrieved November 22, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. bastaigatsikat.com http://www.bastaigatsikat.com/2013/10/tugob-ormoc-city-festival.html. Retrieved November 22, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
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  9. "An act creating the municipality of Kananga, Leyte, in the province of Leyte". LawPH.com. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  10. "Ormoc rises from flash flood tragedy". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  11. "Tortured by Typhoons". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  12. "Monument marks 20th year of Ormoc flashflood tragedy". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  13. "Mass Grave". Fran-Con Viaje International. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  14. Dejon, Robert (December 29, 2006). "Death toll in Ormoc fire increases to 25". Philstar. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
  15. Legaspi, Amita (December 26, 2006). "Christmas Day fire hits Ormoc dep't store; 24 killed, 21 injured". GMA News Online. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
  16. Sollano, Jose; Lao, Garry (December 27, 2006). "24 people die in Ormoc store fire". Philstar. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
  17. Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region VIII (Eastern Visayas)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  18. Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region VIII (Eastern Visayas)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
  19. "Province of Leyte". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  20. WLC-Website
  21. . Choose Philippines http://www.choosephilippines.com/go/water-forms/4285/lake-danao-ormoc-leyte. Retrieved October 26, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. "Ormoc City: Beauty beyond tragedy". Philippine Star. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  23. . Viaje International http://www.viajeintl.com/2012/07/wwii-veterans-centennial-park.html. Retrieved October 25, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. . Pinoy Mountaineer http://www.pinoymountaineer.com/2008/02/alto-peak-1332.html. Retrieved October 23, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. . Makoys World https://makoysworld.wordpress.com/2017/03/17/traversing-sayahan-falls-to-lake-kasudsuran/. Retrieved November 12, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  26. . WikiMapia http://ormoc.islandsphilippines.com/heritagesite.php. Retrieved October 17, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  27. . Traces of War https://www.tracesofwar.com/sights/8412/Memorial-Guerilla-Warriors.htm. Retrieved October 29, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  28. . Choose Philippines http://www.choosephilippines.com/do/history-and-culture/4291/tan-mansion-ruins-ormoc-leyte. Retrieved October 24, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
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