Ordu (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈoɾdu]) is a port city on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, historically also known as Cotyora or Kotyora (Greek: Κοτύωρα), and the capital of Ordu Province with a population of 213,582 in the city center. The city is the world's largest hazelnut producer. While hazelnut is the main source of the economy, the city has developed small-sized industries and a rapidly growing tourism sector in recent years, which started, because Ordu is deemed as one of the most beautiful city in Turkey.
View of Ordu from Boztepe hill
Location of Ordu within Turkey
|Coordinates: 40°59′N 37°53′E|
|• Mayor||Hilmi Güler (AKP)|
|• District||303.55 km2 (117.20 sq mi)|
|Elevation||5 m (16 ft)|
|• District density||610/km2 (1,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
In the 8th century BC, Cotyora (Κοτύωρα) was founded by the Miletians as one of a string of colonies along the Black Sea coast. Xenophon's Anabasis relates that the Ten Thousand rested there for 45 days before embarking for home. Strabo also mentions it. Under Pharnaces I of Pontus, Cotyora was united in a synoikismos with Cerasus. Arrian, in the Periplus of the Euxine Sea (131 CE), describes it as a village "and not a large one."
The area came under the control of the Danishmends, then the Seljuk Turks in 1214 and 1228, and the Hacıemiroğulları Beylik in 1346. Afterwards, it passed to the dominion of the Ottomans in 1461 along with the Empire of Trabzon.
The modern city was founded by the Ottomans as Bayramlı near Eskipazar as a military outpost 5 km (3 mi) west of Ordu.
In 1869, the city's name was changed to Ordu and it was united with the districts of Bolaman, Perşembe, Ulubey, Hansamana (Gölköy), and Aybastı. At the turn of the 20th century, the city was more than half Christian (Greek and Armenian), and was known for its Greek schools.
On 17 April 1920, Ordu province was created by separating from Trebizond Vilayet.
The Sağra factory shop, selling many varieties of chocolate-covered hazelnuts, is one of the town's attractions.
The Boztepe aerial tramway is another popular attraction which is set to become a modern symbol for the city.
Local music is typical of the Black Sea region, including the kemençe. The cuisine is primarily based on local vegetables and includes both typical Turkish dishes — such as pide and kebab — and more interesting fare such as plain or caramel 'burnt ice-cream'.
The city is world's largest hazelnut producer and home to Turkey's 50% of hazelnut production. Today the city is the centre of a large hazelnut processing industry, including Sağra, chocolate and hazelnut manufacturer and the largest hazelnut exporter in Turkey and Fiskobirlik, the largest hazelnut co-operative brand in the world.
Places of interest
- Paşaoğlu Konağı and Ethnographic museum - an ethnographic museum.
- Taşbaşı Cultural Centre - a cultural centre
- Boztepe - a hill of 550 m (1,800 ft) overlooking the town from the west. Since June 2012, an aerial lift system provides an easy way of transportation between the city's coastline and the hilltop. The Ordu Boztepe Gondola can transport hourly 900 passengers up to the hilltop in 6.5 minutes.
- Old Houses of Ordu in the old city center
- Yalı Camii, also called Aziziye Camii - a mosque
- Atik İbrahim Paşa Camii, also called Orta Cami - a mosque built in 1770
- Eski Pazar Camii - a mosque with adjoining Turkish baths
- Efirli Camii - a mosque
The city is the home of the Orduspor football club. Its base is the 19 Eylül Stadium in the heart of the city. Orduspor football team has played in the Super League of Turkey several seasons. The club also has a basketball team.
Ordu has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa), like most of the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey, with warm and humid summers and cool and damp winters. Ordu has a high and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. Precipitation is heaviest in autumn and spring.
Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, and it can be heavy once it snows.
The water temperature, like in the rest of the Black Sea coast of Turkey, is always cool and fluctuates between 8 and 20 °C (46 and 68 °F) throughout the year.
|Climate data for Ordu (1959–2017)|
|Record high °C (°F)||25.4
|Average high °C (°F)||10.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.8
|Average low °C (°F)||3.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||97.2
|Average precipitation days||14.0||13.7||15.3||14.5||13.4||11.1||9.6||9.7||11.8||14.2||13.0||14.4||154.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||77.5||87.6||102.3||129.0||170.5||210.0||195.3||186.0||156.0||127.1||102.0||74.4||1,617.7|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||2.5||3.1||3.3||4.3||5.5||7.0||6.3||6.0||5.2||4.1||3.4||2.4||4.4|
|Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service|
People from Ordu
- Ertuğrul Günay - politician who is a former Minister for Culture and Tourism
- Kadir İnanır - film actor
- Mehmet Hilmi Güler - politician who was Minister of Energy and Natural Resources
- Arif Hikmet Onat - politician who represented Ordu
- Bahriye Üçok - writer and activist
- Oktay Ekşi - politician representing Ordu
- Ümit Tokcan - folk musician
- Kamil Sönmez - folk musician
- İbrahim Fırtına - former military commander
- Soner Arıca - musician
- Ery Kehaya (1885-1964) - Ottoman-Greek businessman founder and president of the Standard Commercial Tobacco Company
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- Anabasis V.5.3f
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- 16.3 Translated in Arrian: Periplus Ponti Euxini, edited and translated by Aidan Liddle (London: Bristol Classical Press, 2003), p. 75
- Dionysus, Pan sculptures found at site of 2,100-year-old goddess Kybele in northern Turkey
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- May 25, 1964, NY Times archives