Orders of magnitude (pressure)
|Magnitude||Pressure||lbf/in2 or dB||Item|
|10−17 Pa||10 aPa||Pressure in outer space in intergalactic voids|
|10−15 Pa||1–10 fPa||Pressure in outer space between stars in the Milky Way|
|10−12 Pa||< 1 pPa||Lowest pressure obtained in laboratory conditions|
|40 pPa||Atmosphere of the Moon at lunar day, very approximately (4×10−11 Pa)|
|10−10 Pa||100 pPa||Atmosphere of Mercury, very approximately (1×10−10 Pa)|
|800 pPa||Atmosphere of the Moon at lunar night, very approximately (8×10−10 Pa)|
|10−9 Pa||< 1 nPa||Vacuum expected in the beam pipe of the Large Hadron Collider's Atlas experiment|
|~1 nPa||Approximate solar wind pressure at Earth's distance from the Sun (variable)|
|10−8 Pa||10 nPa||Pressure inside a vacuum chamber for laser cooling of atoms (magneto-optical trap)|
|10–700 nPa||Atmospheric pressure in low Earth orbit, around 500 km altitude|
|10−7 Pa||100 nPa||Highest pressure still considered ultra-high vacuum|
|10−6 Pa||0.1 - 10 µPa||Pressure inside a cathode ray tube (approximate)|
|1 µPa||Reference pressure for sound in water|
|1 µPa||Pressure inside a vacuum tube (very approximate)|
|10−5 Pa||10 µPa||Radiation pressure of sunlight on a perfectly reflecting surface at the distance of the Earth.|
|20 µPa||0 dB||Reference pressure for sound in air|
|±20 µPa||0 dB||Threshold of human hearing|
|10−3 Pa||1–100 mPa||Vacuum pressures used for molecular distillation|
|10−1 Pa||100 mPa||Upper limit of high vacuum|
|~200 mPa||Atmospheric pressure on Pluto (1988 figure; very roughly)|
|1 Pa||1 Pa||Pressure exerted by a US dollar bill resting flat on a surface|
|1 Pa||Upper limit of molecular distillation, where the mean free path of molecules is larger than the equipment size|
|10 Pa||10 Pa||Pressure increase per millimeter of a water column at Earth mean sea level|
|10 Pa||Pressure due to direct impact of a gentle breeze (~9 mph or 14 km/h)|
|86 Pa||Pressure from the weight of a U.S. penny lying flat|
|102 Pa||100 Pa||Pressure due to direct impact of a strong breeze (~28 mph or 45 km/h)|
|120 Pa||Pressure from the weight of a U.S. quarter lying flat|
|133 Pa||1 torr ≈ 1 mmHg|
|±200 Pa||~140 dB||Threshold of pain pressure level for sound. Prolonged exposure may lead to hearing loss.|
|±300 Pa||±0.043 psi||Lung air pressure difference moving the normal breaths of a person (only 0.3% of standard atmospheric pressure)|
|400–900 Pa||0.06–0.13 psi||Atmospheric pressure on Mars, < 1% of atmospheric sea-level pressure on Earth|
|610 Pa||0.089 psi||Partial vapour pressure at the triple point of water (611.657 Pa).|
|103 Pa||1–10 kPa||Typical explosion peak overpressure needed to break glass windows (approximate)|
|2 kPa||Pressure of popping popcorn (very approximate)|
|2.6 kPa||0.38 psi||Pressure to make water boil at room temperature (22 °C) (20 mmHg)|
|5 kPa||0.8 psi||Blood pressure fluctuation (40 mmHg) between heartbeats for a typical healthy adult|
|6.3 kPa||0.9 psi||Pressure where water boils at normal human body temperature (37 °C), the pressure below which humans absolutely cannot survive (Armstrong limit).|
|+9.8 kPa||+1.4 psi||Lung pressure that a typical person can exert (74 mmHg)|
|104 Pa||10 kPa||1.5 psi||Pressure increase per meter of a water column|
|10 kPa||1.5 psi||Decrease in air pressure when going from Earth sea level to 1000 m elevation|
|+13 kPa||+1.9 psi||High air pressure for human lung, measured for trumpet player making staccato high notes|
|< +16 kPa||+2.3 psi||Systolic blood pressure in a healthy adult while at rest (< 120 mmHg) (gauge pressure)|
|+19.3 kPa||+2.8 psi||High end of lung pressure, exertable without injury by a healthy person for brief times|
|+34 kPa||+5 psi||Level of long-duration blast overpressure (from a large-scale explosion) that would cause most buildings to collapse|
|34 kPa||Atmospheric pressure at the summit of Mount Everest|
|+70 kPa||+10 psi||Pressure for paint exiting an HVLP (low-pressure) paint spray gun|
|70 kPa||Pressure inside an incandescent light bulb|
|75 kPa||Minimum airplane cabin pressure and lowest pressure for normal breathing (at 2440 m). Also the limit stated by the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR).|
|80 kPa||12 psi||Pressure inside vacuum cleaner at sea level on Earth (80% of standard atmospheric pressure)|
|87 kPa||13 psi||Record low atmospheric pressure for typhoon/hurricane (Typhoon Tip in 1979) (only 86% of standard atmospheric pressure)|
|105 Pa||100 kPa||15 psi||1 bar (14.5 psi), approximately equal to the weight of one kilogram (1 kilopond) acting on one square centimeter|
|101.325 kPa||15 psi||Standard atmospheric pressure for Earth sea level (14.7 psi)|
|150 to > 550 kPa||25 to > 80 psi||Impact pressure of a fist punch (approximate)|
|+180 to +250 kPa||+26 to +36 psi||Air pressure in an automobile tire relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure)|
|+210 to +900 kPa||+30 to +130 psi||Air pressure in a bicycle tire relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure)|
|300 kPa||50 psi||Water pressure of a garden hose|
|300 to 700 kPa||50–100 psi||Typical water pressure of a municipal water supply in the US|
|400 to 600 kPa||60–90 psi||Carbon dioxide pressure in a champagne bottle|
|520 kPa||75 psi||Partial vapour pressure at the triple point of carbon dioxide|
|+690 to +830 kPa||+100 to +120 psi||Air pressure in a heavy truck/bus tire relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure)|
|800 kPa||Vapor pressure of water in a kernel of popcorn when the kernel ruptures|
|106 Pa||0.8–2 MPa||120–290 psi||Pressure used in boilers of steam locomotives|
|1.1 MPa||162 psi||Pressure of an average human bite|
|2.8–8.3 MPa||400–1200 psi||Pressure of carbon dioxide propellant in a paintball gun|
|5 MPa||700 psi||Water pressure of the output of a coin-operated car wash spray nozzle|
|5 MPa||700 psi||Military submarine max. rated pressure (est.) of Seawolf-class nuclear submarine, at depth of 500 m|
|10-21 MPa||1500-3000 psi||Chamber pressure of a high-powered (non-carbon dioxide) air gun|
|6.9–27 MPa||1000–4000 psi||Water spray pressure used by pressure washers|
|9.2 MPa||1300 psi||Atmosphere of Venus|
|107 Pa||> 10 MPa||> 1500 psi||Pressure exerted by a 45 kg woman wearing stiletto heels when a heel hits the floor|
|20 MPa||2900 psi||Typical pressure used for hydrogenolysis reactions|
|21 MPa||3000 psi||Pressure of a typical aluminium scuba tank of pressurized air (210 bar)|
|21 MPa||3000 psi||Ballistic pressure exerted as high-power bullet strikes a solid bulletproof object|
|22 MPa||3200 psi||Critical pressure of water|
|25 MPa||3600 psi||Record diesel engine common rail fuel system pressure.|
|28 MPa||4100 psi||Overpressure caused by the bomb explosion during the Oklahoma City bombing|
|69 MPa||10000 psi||Water pressure withstood by the DSV Shinkai 6500 in visiting ocean depths of > 6500 meters|
|70 to 280 MPa||10000 to 40000 psi||Maximal chamber pressure during a pistol firing|
|110 MPa||16000 psi||Pressure at bottom of Mariana Trench, about 11 km below ocean surface (1100 bar)|
|100 to 300 MPa||15000 to 44000 psi||Pressure inside reactor for the synthesis of high-pressure polyethylene (HPPE)|
|400 MPa||58000 psi||Chamber pressure of late 1910s .50 Browning machine gun discharge|
|240–620 MPa||35000–90000 psi||Water pressure used in a water jet cutter|
|109 Pa||1 GPa||Extremely high-pressure chemical reactors (10 kbar)|
|1.5 GPa||Diamond melts using a 3 kJ laser without turning into graphite first.|
|1.5 GPa||220,000 psi||tensile strength of Inconel 625 according to Aircraft metal strength tables and the Mil-Hdbk-5|
|5.8 GPa||840,000 psi||Ultimate tensile strength of the polymer Zylon|
|1010 Pa||10 GPa||Pressure at which octaoxygen forms at room temperature (100,000 bar)|
|18 GPa||Pressure needed for the first commercially successful synthesis of diamond|
|24 to 110 GPa||Stability range of enstatite in its perovskite-structured polymorph, possibly the most common mineral inside the Earth|
|40 GPa||Quantum-mechanical electron degeneracy pressure in a block of copper|
|48 GPa||Detonation pressure of pure CL-20, the most powerful high explosive in mass production.|
|69 GPa||10,000,000 psi||Highest water jet pressure attained in research lab|
|96 GPa||Pressure at which metallic oxygen forms (960,000 bar)|
|1011 Pa||100 GPa||Theoretical tensile strength of a carbon nanotube (CNT)|
|130 GPa||Ultimate tensile strength of monolayer graphene|
|360 GPa||Pressure inside Earth's inner core (3.64 million bar)|
|495 GPa||Lower bound at which metallic hydrogen theoretically forms|
|> 600 GPa||Pressure attainable with a diamond anvil cell|
|1012 Pa||5 TPa||Pressure generated by the National Ignition Facility fusion reactor|
|1013 Pa||10 TPa||solid matter changes to the metastable inner-shell molecular state|
|1014 Pa||540 TPa||Pressure inside an Ivy Mike-like nuclear bomb detonation (5.3 billion bar)|
|1015 Pa||6.5 PPa||Pressure inside a W80 nuclear warhead detonation (64 billion bar)|
|1016 Pa||25 PPa||Pressure inside Sun's core (250 billion bar)|
|1023 Pa||(0.001–1000)×1023 Pa||Pressure inside the core of a white dwarf at the Chandrasekhar limit|
|1034 Pa||(0.32–16)×1033 Pa||Pressure range inside a neutron star|
|1035 Pa||1.0×1035 Pa||Approximate pressure at the center of a proton|
|10113 Pa||4.6×10113 Pa||6.7×10109 psi||The Planck pressure (4.63×10108 bar)|
- Li, Yulin. "The ins and out of man-made and natural vacuums". Ask A Scientist!. Cornell Center for Materials Research. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Calculated: 10−19 torr × 133 Pa/torr = 10−17 Pa
- Calculated: 10−17 torr × 133 Pa/torr = 10−15 Pa
- Thompson, W. (1977). "Characteristics of a cryogenic extreme high-vacuum chamber". Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. 14 (1): 643–645. Bibcode:1977JVST...14..643T. doi:10.1116/1.569168.
- "The lunar environment". Lunar sourcebook. Cambridge University Press. 1991. ISBN 978-0-521-33444-0.
The undisturbed gas concentration is only about 2x10^5 molecules/cm^3 during the lunar night, falling to perhaps 10^4 molecules/cm^3 during the lunar day.
- "Mercury Fact Sheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 2008-07-24.
- "Bringing the vacuum to its lowest value". ATLAS e-News. CERN. 28 July 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
we expect pressures below 10^-9 Pa
- "Explanation of Solar Wind Dials". NASA. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- Altin, P. A.; Robins, N. P. (2010). "Rubidium-85 tunable-interaction Bose–Einstein condensate machine". Review of Scientific Instruments. 81 (6): 063103–063103–9. arXiv:1003.4819. Bibcode:2010RScI...81f3103A. doi:10.1063/1.3430538. PMID 20590221.
- "Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft Charging Design Handbook". NASA. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
ambient pressure is in the range of 10^-10 to 5x10^-8 Torr.
- Calculated: 10−10 Torr × 133.3 Pa/Torr = 1.3×10−8 Pa. 5×10−8 Torr × 133.3 Pa/Torr = 6.7×10−6 Pa.
- American Vacuum Society. "Glossary". AVS Reference Guide. Archived from the original on 2006-03-04. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- Calculated unit conversion: 1e-9 torr * 101325/760 Pa/torr = 1.33e-7 Pa
- Topic 7 |The Cathode-Ray Tube. aw.com. 2003-08-01
- Jump up ^ repairfaq.org – Sam's Laser FAQ – Vacuum Technology for Home-Built Gas Lasers. repairfaq.org. 2012-08-02
- "Terminology". SURTASS LFA EIS. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- G. Vulpetti, L. Johnson, G. L. Matloff, Solar Sails: A Novel Approach to Interplanetary Flight, Springer, August 2008
- "Appendix I:A-3. Sound Propagation". Noise and Hearing Conservation Technical Manual Chapter. OSHA. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- Sattler, Klaus; Feindt, Hans (1995). Thermal separation processes: principles and design. p. 116. ISBN 978-3-527-28622-5.
operating pressures in the range 0.1–0.001 Pa
- Calculated unit conversion: 1e-3 torr * 101325/760 Pa/torr = 0.133 Pa
- "Pluto expanding atmosphere". Observatoire de Paris, LESIA. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
deepest layers reach pressures of no more than a few microbars
- Bala Maheswaran. "Fluid" (PDF). Physics 1222 Lecture Notes. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
- "Pressure". Engineering Toolbox. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
10 kPa - the pressure below 1 m of water
- "Beaufort Scales (Wind Speed)". How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
- "Wind speed and wind pressure". KNMI HYDRA Project. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
- Exact calculation: P = 1/2 * density of air * (wind speed)^2. wind speed = 9 mph * 0.447 (m/s)/mph = 4.02 m/s. P = 1/2 * (1.25 kg/m^3) * (4.0 m/s)^2 = 10.1 Pa.
- "Get an intuition for pressure values". Physics. Stack Exchange. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- Exact calculation: P = 1/2 * density of air * (wind speed)^2. wind speed = 28.3 mph * 0.447 (m/s)/mph = 12.7 m/s. P = 1/2 * (1.25 kg/m^3) * (12.7 m/s)^2 = 101 Pa.
- "Coin specifications". United States Mint. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- Calculated: pressure = mass * g / (pi * diameter^2 / 4) = (5.670e-3 kg) * (9.807 m/s^2) / (3.142 * (19.05e-3 m)^2 / 4) = 120.3 Pa
- "Appendix B8—Factors for Units Listed Alphabetically". NIST Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). NIST. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "The lung as a low-pressure air pump". Lung Introduction Fundamentals. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
a normal inspiratory breath of say 500ml in an adult requires a distending pressure of under 3cm H2O
- Calculated: 3 cm H2O * 98.0 Pa/cm H2O = 294 Pa = 3e2 Pa
- "Mars Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
variable from 4.0 to 8.7 mb
- International Equations for the Pressure along the Melting and along the Sublimation Curve of Ordinary Water Substance W. Wagner, A. Saul and A. Pruss (1994), J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 23, 515.
- Murphy, D. M. (2005). "Review of the vapour pressures of ice and supercooled water for atmospheric applications". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 131 (608): 1539–1565. Bibcode:2005QJRMS.131.1539M. doi:10.1256/qj.04.94.
- Lee's loss prevention in the process industries: hazard identification, assessment, and control, Volume 1. Elsevier. 2005. ISBN 978-0-7506-7555-0.
Iverson (1968) gives the range of breaking pressures as 1-10 kPa
- Episode 124: Car vs. Rain. mythbustersfanclub.com. June 17, 2009
- "Transcript". MythBusters - Car vs. Rain - Friday, Dec 25, 2009. Livedash. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
force ... which turns out to be 0.22 psi
- "Vapor Pressure of Water". Science Help Online for Chemistry. Fordham Preparatory School. Archived from the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Categories for Blood Pressure Levels in Adults". NIH. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- Calculated as the difference between a typical systolic pressure of < 120mm Hg and diastolic pressure of < 80mm Hg.
- NAHF - Harry Armstrong Archived 2007-11-18 at the Wayback Machine
- Fletcher, N. H.; Tarnopolsky, A. (1999). "Blowing pressure, power, and spectrum in trumpet playing" (PDF). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 105 (2): 874–881. Bibcode:1999ASAJ..105..874F. doi:10.1121/1.426276. PMID 9972572. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
- Zipf, Jr, R. Karl; Cashdollar, Kenneth. "Effects of blast pressure on structures and the human body" (PDF). Retrieved 3 January 2012.
- "Barometric pressures on Mt. Everest: new data and physiological significance". 1999-03-01. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
- "Time For HVLP?". Sharpe Manufacturing Company. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
paint exiting the gun at 10 PSI
- uigi.com - Argon (Ar) Properties, Uses, Applications Argon Gas and Liquid Argon, 2007
- Council, National Research; Studies, Division on Earth Life; Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and; Aircraft, Committee on Air Quality in Passenger Cabins of Commercial (2002-01-03). The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew. ISBN 9780309082891. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
- "Which is the most intense tropical cyclone on record?". Hurricane Research Division Frequently Asked Questions. NOAA. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- Gershtein, Sergey; Anna Gershtein. "bar. Metric. Stress and Pressure Conversion Chart". Retrieved 2009-09-26.
- Typical force may total 150 to 500 pounds-force (670 to 2,220 N), applied to area of ~6 square inches (39 cm2). Actual impact pressure depends on strike to bone, soft tissue, padded surface, or brick wall. Also depends upon deflection or resistance of object struck. Heavyweight boxing champions have been shown to strike with over 1,000 pounds-force (4,400 N) of force, which would imply ~170 psi (> 1100 kPa) over same area.
- "This Is Your...Tire's Air". Retrieved 25 Jun 2013.
Road tires typically require 80 to 130 psi, mountain tires 30 to 50 psi and hybrid tires 50 to 70 psi.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Power Washers. Generac Power Systems. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
A typical garden hose dispenses water at about 50 PSI, and a coin-operated car wash provides about 700 PSI.
- "How Water Towers Work". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
A typical municipal water supply runs at between 50 and 100 PSI
- "Pressure in a Champagne Bottle". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Carbon dioxide". NIST Chemistry WebBook. NIST. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
5.185 bar ... uncertainty ... 0.005 bar
- Byrd, J. E.; Perona, M. J. (2005). "Kinetics of Popping of Popcorn" (PDF). Cereal Chemistry. 82: 53–59. doi:10.1094/CC-82-0053.
- Choi, Young. "Beginner's guide to paintball tanks". PaintBall.com. Archived from the original on 2009-02-19.
Co2 pressure output can range from 400 psi up to 1200 psi
- "Run Silent, Run Deep". US Navy Ships. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
a normal operating depth of "greater than 800 feet", ... it may be assumed that the ... depth ... is roughly double the official figure
- Calculated: assume depth of 2x800 ft = 1600 ft. 1600 ft * 0.3048 m/ft = 488 m. Pressure at 488 m = density * g * depth * area = 1025 kg/m^3 * 9.81 m/s^2 * 488 m * 1 m^2 = 4.90e6 Pa. 4.90e6 Pa * 1.45e-4 psi/Pa = 711 psi.
- "How to Select a Pressure Washer". New York Times. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
range from about 1,000 p.s.i. to 4,000 or more
- Williams, David R. (2010-11-17). "Venus Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
- "Pressure Under High Heels". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
- For hydrogenolysis esters with copper chromite. Paquette, L.A. Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. Vol. 2, pp. 1337–1339. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1995.
- "Scuba Tanks". TheScubaGuide. Archived from the original on 2010-03-09. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
when you get your tank filled it will be filled to 3000 psi
- "DENSO Develops a New Diesel Common Rail System With the World's Highest Injection Pressure | News | DENSO Global Website". DENSO Global Website. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
- Wong, Henry (2002). "Blast-Resistant Building Design Technology Analysis of its Application to Modern Hotel Design". WGA Wong Gregerson Architects, Inc. p. 5.
- "SHINKAI 6500". Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
Pressure at a depth of 6,500 m reaches around 680 atmospheres
- "SAAMI Pistol Pressure Specifications". SAAMI pressures. Leverguns.Com. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
.45 Colt ... 14,000 ... 9.mm Luger +P ... 38,500
- George, V. T.; Brooks, G.; Humphrey, T. C. (2007). "Regulation of Cell Cycle and Stress Responses to Hydrostatic Pressure in Fission Yeast". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 18 (10): 4168–4179. doi:10.1091/mbc.E06-12-1141. PMC 1995737. PMID 17699598.
- The manufacture of polyethylene. nzic.org.nz
- "Water Jet Cutting Pumps". KMT Waterjet. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
a pump that delivers up to 90,000 PSI ... pumps that deliver 35,000 PSI to 55,000 PSI
- National Geographic Channel, The known universe (treasure hunt in space)
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Substance ... GPa ... CL-20 ... 48.23
- Summers, David (2012). "Waterjetting 3b: pumps, intensifiers, and cannons". Retrieved 14 November 2012.
the highest pressure jet that we generated in the MS&T [Missouri University of Science and Technology] Laboratories was at around 10 million psi.
- Lee, C.; Wei, X.; Kysar, J. W.; Hone, J. (2008). "Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene" (PDF). Science. 321 (5887): 385–388. Bibcode:2008Sci...321..385L. doi:10.1126/science.1157996. PMID 18635798.
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- "Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) (Dziewonski & Anderson, 1981)". Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- Improved diamond anvil cell allows higher pressures Physics World November 2012
- "4.4 Elements of Thermonuclear Weapon Design". Nuclear Weapons Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
Mike... Ivy... radiation pressures are 73 and 1400 megabars ... respectively ... Mike ... 5.3 x 10^9 bars ... Ivy ... 6.4 x 10^10 bars
- Calculated: ablation pressure = 5.3e9 bar * 1.01325e5 Pa/bar = 5.44e14 Pa
- Calculated: ablation pressure = 6.4e10 bar * 1.01325e5 Pa/bar = 6.48e14 Pa
- Williams, David R. (September 1, 2004). "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 2008-01-23.
- Camenzind, Max (2007). Compact objects in astrophysics. Compact Objects in Astrophysics : White Dwarfs. Astronomy and Astrophysics Library. Bibcode:2007coaw.book.....C. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-49912-1. ISBN 978-3-540-25770-7.
- Ozel, Feryal; Freire, Paulo (2016). "Masses, Radii, and the Equation of State of Neutron Stars". Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 54 (1): 401–440. arXiv:1603.02698. Bibcode:2016ARA&A..54..401O. doi:10.1146/annurev-astro-081915-023322.
- V. D. Burkert; L. Elouadrhiri; F. X. Girod (16 May 2018). "The pressure distribution inside the proton". Nature. 557 (7705): 396–399. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0060-z. PMID 29769668.