Orders of magnitude (frequency)

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various frequencies, which is measured in hertz.

Multiple Value Item
10−181 attohertz (aHz)~2.29 aHzThe Hubble Constant (once in 13.8 billion years)
10−1710 aHz~79 aHzSupercontinent cycle
10−151 femtohertz (fHz)~3 fHzSound waves created by a supermassive black hole in the Perseus cluster[1]
10−121 picohertz (pHz)
10−1110 pHz~31.71 pHzThrice per millennium
10−10100 pHz~317.1 pHzOnce per century
10−9 1 nanohertz (nHz) ~1 nHzOnce per generation
~3.171 nHzOnce per decade
10−8 10nHz 11.6699016 nHzOnce in a blue moon[2]
~31.71 nHzYearly (or Earth's orbital frequency)
10−7 100 nHz ~380.5 nHzMonthly (or the Moon's orbital frequency)
~413 nHzAverage menstrual cycle (28 days)
10−61 microhertz (µHz)~1.653 µHzWeekly
10−510 µHz~11.57 µHzDaily (or Earth's rotation frequency)
10−4100 µHz~277.8 µHzHourly
10−31 millihertz (mHz)
10−21 centihertz (cHz)~16.667 mHzOne rpm
10−11 decihertz (dHz)189 mHZAcoustic —frequency of G−7, the lowest note sang by the singer with the deepest voice in the world, Tim Storms. His vocal cords vibrate 1 time every 5.29 seconds.
100 1 hertz 1 to 1.66 HzApproximate frequency of an adult human's resting heart beat
1 Hz60 bpm, common tempos in music.
2 Hz120 bpm, common tempos in music.
101 10 hertz (daHz) 10 HzCyclic rate of a typical automobile engine at idle (equivalent to 600 rpm)
12 HzAcoustic — the lowest possible frequency that a human can hear[3]
27.5 HzAcoustic — the lowest musical note (A) playable on a normally-tuned standard piano
50 HzElectromagnetic — standard AC mains power (European AC, Tokyo AC)
Refresh Rate of PAL and SECAM CRT Televisions
60 HzElectromagnetic — standard AC mains power (American AC, Osaka AC)
Refresh Rate of NTSC CRT Televisions and Standard Refresh Rate of Computer Monitors
102 100 hertz (hHz) 100 HzCyclic rate of a typical automobile engine at redline (equivalent to 6000 rpm)
261.626 HzAcoustic — the musical note middle C
440 HzAcoustic — concert pitch (A above middle C), used for tuning musical instruments
103 1 kilohertz (kHz) 4.186 kHzAcoustic — the highest musical note (C8) playable on a normally-tuned standard piano
8 kHzISDN sampling rate
104 10 kHz 14 kHzAcoustic — the typical upper limit of adult human hearing
17.4 kHzAcoustic — a frequency known as The Mosquito, which is generally only audible to those under the age of 24.
25.1 kHz Acoustic — G10, The highest pitch sang by Georgia Brown (Brazilian singer), who has a vocal range of 8 octaves.
105100 kHz740 kHzThe clock speed of the world's first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004 (1971)
106 1 megahertz (MHz) 530 kHz to 1.710 MHzElectromagnetic — AM radio broadcasts
1 MHz to 8 MHzClock speeds of early home/personal computers (mid-1970s to mid-1980s)
10710 MHz13.56 MHzElectromagnetic — Near field communication
108 100 MHz 88 MHz to 108 MHzElectromagnetic — FM radio broadcasts
902 to 928 MHzElectromagnetic — common cordless telephone frequency in the US
109 1 gigahertz (GHz) 1.42 GHzElectromagnetic — the hyperfine transition of hydrogen, also known as the hydrogen line or 21 cm line
2.4 GHzElectromagneticmicrowave ovens, Wireless LANs and cordless phones (starting in 1998).
2.6-3.8 GHzA common desktop processor speed as of 2014
4.7 GHzAMD FX-9790 clock speed, fastest commercial processor as of 2013
5.8 GHzElectromagnetic — cordless phone frequency introduced in 2003
8.8 GHzHighest ever CPU frequency after overclocking, set on an AMD FX-8350 on 19 November 2012[4]
1010 10 GHz3 GHz to 30 GHzElectromagneticsuper high frequency
60 GHzElectromagnetic — 60 GHz Wi-Fi (WiGig) introduced in 2010
1011 100 GHz 160.2 GHzElectromagnetic — peak of cosmic microwave background radiation
845 GHzFastest transistor (Dec. 2006).[5][6]
10121 terahertz THzThe Terahertz gap
1013 10 THz 21 THz to 33 THzElectromagneticinfrared light used in thermal imaging, for example for night vision
31.5 THzElectromagnetic — peak of Black-body radiation emitted by human body
1014100 THz428 THz to 750 THzElectromagnetic — visible light, from red to violet
10151 petahertz PHz2.47 PHzElectromagneticLyman-alpha line
101610 PHz30 PHzElectromagneticX-rays
1017100 PHz
10181 exahertz EHz
101910 EHz
1020100 EHz300 EHz +ElectromagneticGamma rays
10211 zettahertz ZHz
10241 yottahertz YHz
10271000 yottahertz YHz3.9×1027 HzHighest energy (16 TeV) gamma ray detected, from Markarian 501.[7]
10 quintillion Yottahertz (YHZ) 10 quintillion YHz1.85×1043 HzPlanck frequency, the inverse of the Planck time

See also


  1. "Black Hole Sound Waves - NASA Science".
  2. Google Calculator Result for "once in a blue moon"
  3. 20 Hz is considered the normal low frequency limit of human hearing. When pure sine waves are reproduced under ideal conditions and at very high volume, a human listener will be able to identify tones as low as 12 Hz. Olson, Harry F. (1967). Music, Physics and Engineering. Dover Publications. p. 249. ISBN 0-486-21769-8.
  4. "CPU-Z Validator World Records".
  5. highbeam.com - Fastest Transistor Approaches Terahertz Speed.(Brief article), 2007-01-01
  6. World's fastest transistor approaches goal of terahertz device, Illinois News Bureau, Dec 11, 2006
  7. Ultra-high-energy gamma ray
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