Orange Bowl

The Orange Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game played in the Miami metropolitan area. It has been played annually since January 1, 1935, making it, along with the Sugar Bowl and the Sun Bowl, the second-oldest bowl game in the country, behind the Rose Bowl (first played 1902, played annually since 1916). The Orange Bowl is one of the New Year's Six, the top bowl games for the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision.

Orange Bowl
Capital One Orange Bowl
StadiumHard Rock Stadium
LocationMiami Gardens, Florida (Dec. 1996–1998, 2000–present)
Previous stadiumsMiami Field (1935–1937)
Miami Orange Bowl (1938–Jan. 1996, 1999)
Previous locationsMiami, Florida (1935–Jan. 1996, 1999)
Conference tie-insACC (1999–present)
SEC/Big Ten/Notre Dame (Dec. 2014–present)
CFP (Dec. 2014–present)
Previous conference tie-insBig Eight (1976–Jan. 1996)
Big East (1999–2006)
BCS (1999–Jan. 2014)
PayoutUS$35 million/conference (As of 2009)
FedEx (1989–2010)
Discover Financial (2011–Jan. 2014)
Capital One (Dec. 2014–present)
Former names
Orange Bowl (1935–1988)
Federal Express Orange Bowl (1989–1993)
FedEx Orange Bowl (1994–2010)
Discover Orange Bowl (2011–Jan. 2014)
2018 matchup
Alabama vs. Oklahoma (Alabama 45–34)
2019 matchup
Virginia vs. Florida (December 30, 2019)

The Orange Bowl was originally held in the city of Miami at Miami Field before moving to the Miami Orange Bowl stadium in 1938. In 1996, it moved to Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida. Since December 2014, the game has been sponsored by Capital One and officially known as the Capital One Orange Bowl. Previous sponsors include Discover Financial (2011–January 2014) and Federal Express/FedEx (1989–2010).

In its early years, the Orange Bowl had no defined conference tie-ins; it often pitted a team from the southeastern part of the country against a team from the central or northeastern states. From the 1950s until the mid-1990s, the Orange Bowl had a strong relationship with the Big Eight Conference. The champion (or runner-up in years in which the “no-repeat” rule was invoked) was invited to the bowl game in most years during this time; the 1979 Orange Bowl even had two representatives from the Big Eight. Opponents of the Big Eight varied; but were often major independents, runners-up in the Southeastern Conference (SEC), or champions of the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC). Since 2007, the Orange Bowl has hosted the ACC champion—unless they are involved in the national championship playoff, in which case another high-ranking ACC team team takes their place)[1]—and has used the brand Home of the ACC Champion.

In the 1990s, the Orange Bowl was a member of the Bowl Coalition, but kept its Big Eight tie-in. It was later a member of the Bowl Alliance. From 1998 to 2013, The Orange Bowl was a member of the now-defunct Bowl Championship Series (BCS). The Orange Bowl served as the BCS National Championship Game in 2001 and 2005. However, beginning with the 2006 season, the BCS National Championship Game became a stand-alone event, hosted by the local bowl organization about one week following the New Year's Day bowl games (including the Orange Bowl). Under that format, the Orange Bowl Committee hosted two separate games in both 2009 (the 2009 Orange Bowl on January 1 and the 2009 BCS National Championship Game on January 8) and in 2013 (the 2013 Orange Bowl on January 1 and the 2013 BCS National Championship Game on January 7) at all the same venue. The BCS ended after the 2013 season, being replaced by the current College Football Playoff (CFP). The Orange Bowl has served as one of six bowls in the CFP since the 2014 season; it hosted a national semifinal following the 2015 and 2018 seasons.


Early roots

In 1890, Pasadena, California held its first Tournament of Roses Parade to showcase the city's mild weather compared to the harsh winters in northern cities. As one of the organizers said: "In New York, people are buried in snow. Here, our flowers are blooming and our oranges are about to bear. Let's hold a festival to tell the world about our paradise." In 1902, the annual festival was enhanced by adding an American football game.[2]

In 1926, leaders in Miami, Florida, decided to do the same with a "Fiesta of the American Tropics" that was centered around a New Year's Day football game. Although a second "Fiesta" was never held, Miami leaders, including Earnest E. Seiler, later revived the idea with the "Palm Festival" (with the slogan "Have a Green Christmas in Miami").[3]

Palm Festival Game

In 1932, George E. Hussey, official greeter of Miami, organized the first Festival of Palms Bowl, a predecessor of the Orange Bowl. With Miami suffering from both the Great Depression and the preceding Florida land bust, Hussey and other Miamians sought to help its economy by organizing a game similar to Pasadena's Rose Bowl.

Two games were played in this series at Moore Park in Miami, both pitting an invited opponent against a local team, the University of Miami. In the first game, played on January 2, 1933, Miami defeated Manhattan College 7–0. In the second game, played on New Year's Day 1934, Duquesne defeated Miami 33–7. Duquesne was coached by Elmer Layden, one of the Four Horsemen of Notre Dame.

These games are not recognized as bowl games by the NCAA because one team was guaranteed a berth regardless of record. However, following the success of these games, backers organized another game for New Year's Day 1935 under the Orange Bowl name. This game, unlike the Palm Festival Games, did not automatically grant a berth to one team, although the University of Miami was again a participant. For this reason, the 1935 Orange Bowl was later recognized by the NCAA as an official bowl game.[4]

Modern game

The Orange Bowl was played at Miami Field[5] (located where Miami Orange Bowl was later built) from 1935 to 1937, the Miami Orange Bowl from 1938 to 1996, and again in 1999, and was moved to its current site, Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida, in December 1996. The game was played back at the namesake stadium in 1999 (which would be the final bowl game ever in the Miami Orange Bowl) because the game was played on the same day the Miami Dolphins hosted an NFL Wild Card Playoff game. Coincidentally, both of those games were aired on ABC.

On January 1, 1965, the Texas vs. Alabama Orange Bowl was the first college bowl game to be televised live in prime time.[6]

From 1968, the game usually featured the champion of the former Big Eight Conference. When the Big Eight Conference absorbed four members of the defunct Southwest Conference in 1996, the newly formed Big 12 Conference moved its conference champion tie-in to the Fiesta Bowl. Since 1998, however, with the creation of the Bowl Championship Series system, team selection for the Orange Bowl is now tied into the other three BCS Bowls.

From 1998 to 2005, the game hosted the champion of either the ACC or Big East conferences, unless they were invited to the National Championship game, or if the Orange Bowl itself was hosting the national championship matchup.

Starting with the 2006 season, the Orange Bowl has been exclusively tied with the ACC and has used the brand Home of the ACC Champion. As one of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) bowl games, the site of the Orange Bowl also hosted the national championship game one week after the Orange Bowl game; it did so on a four-year rotating basis with the other three BCS games (the others being the Sugar, Fiesta, and Rose Bowls).

King Orange Jamboree Parade

From 1936 to 2001, the Orange Bowl Committee also sponsored a parade. In its heyday, the parade was a nighttime New Year's Eve tradition, televised nationally with lighted floats and displays going down part of Biscayne Boulevard in downtown Miami. However ratings dropped and the national television contract was lost in 1997, causing the parade to quickly become a shell of its former self since there were no sponsors for the elaborate floats. As a result, the committee chose to bring this tradition to an end in early 2002.[7]

The very first King Orange Jamboree Parade was held the day before the 1936 game with 30 floats at an expense of $40,000 ($653,933 in 2012 dollars[8]).[9] Babs Beckwith was chosen as the first Orange Bowl queen.[9][10]

Conference tie-ins

The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) is locked into a 12-year deal (2014–2025) with the Orange Bowl, so if the ACC champion qualifies for the playoffs in a year when the Orange Bowl is not a semifinal host, the next-highest ranked ACC team will play in the Orange Bowl. For the secondary tie-ins, the Southeastern Conference (SEC) and the Big Ten Conference are guaranteed three appearances each, and the University of Notre Dame can play in a maximum of two games, but is not guaranteed any appearances. The ACC team's opponent in a given year will be the highest-ranked available team from the SEC, Big Ten, and Notre Dame, subject to several constraints: the SEC and Big Ten champions are always excluded, and when an SEC and/or Big Ten team qualifies for the College Football Playoff, the next available team would also be excluded from participating in the Orange Bowl due to contractual obligations with the Sugar Bowl and Rose Bowl, respectively. Also, should a highest-ranked team create a rematch with the ACC team, the Orange Bowl has the option of passing over that team for the next-highest ranked team among the Big Ten, SEC, and Notre Dame, again subject to the noted constraints. Rankings are based on the College Football Playoff committee's rankings. ESPN holds the television rights for 12 years as well.[11]

Game results

Rankings are based on the AP Poll prior to the game being played.

Date played Winning team Losing team Venue Attendance[12] Notes
January 1, 1935Bucknell26Miami (Florida)0Miami Field5,134notes
January 1, 1936Catholic20Mississippi196,568notes
January 1, 1937#14 Duquesne13Mississippi State129,210notes
January 1, 1938Auburn6Michigan State0Miami Orange Bowl18,972notes
January 2, 1939#2 Tennessee17#4 Oklahoma032,191notes
January 1, 1940#16 Georgia Tech21#6 Missouri729,278notes
January 1, 1941#9 Mississippi State14#13 Georgetown729,554notes
January 1, 1942#14 Georgia40TCU2635,786notes
January 1, 1943#10 Alabama37#8 Boston College2125,166notes
January 1, 1944LSU19Texas A&M1425,203notes
January 1, 1945Tulsa26#13 Georgia Tech1223,279notes
January 1, 1946Miami (Florida)13#16 Holy Cross635,709notes
January 1, 1947#10 Rice8#7 Tennessee036,152notes
January 1, 1948#10 Georgia Tech20#12 Kansas1459,578notes
January 1, 1949Texas41#8 Georgia2860,523notes
January 2, 1950#15 Santa Clara21#11 Kentucky1364,816notes
January 1, 1951#10 Clemson15#15 Miami (Florida)1465,181notes
January 1, 1952#6 Georgia Tech17#9 Baylor1465,839notes
January 1, 1953#9 Alabama61#14 Syracuse666,280notes
January 1, 1954#4 Oklahoma7#1 Maryland068,640notes
January 1, 1955#14 Duke34Nebraska768,750notes
January 2, 1956#1 Oklahoma20#3 Maryland676,561notes
January 1, 1957#20 Colorado27#19 Clemson2173,280notes
January 1, 1958#4 Oklahoma48#16 Duke2176,561notes
January 1, 1959#5 Oklahoma21#9 Syracuse675,281notes
January 1, 1960#5 Georgia14#18 Missouri072,186notes
January 2, 1961#5 Missouri21#4 Navy1472,212notes
January 1, 1962#4 LSU25#7 Colorado768,150notes
January 1, 1963#5 Alabama17#8 Oklahoma072,880notes
January 1, 1964#6 Nebraska13#5 Auburn772,647notes
January 1, 1965#5 Texas21#1 Alabama1772,647notes
January 1, 1966#4 Alabama39#3 Nebraska2872,214notes
January 2, 1967Florida27#8 Georgia Tech1272,426notes
January 1, 1968#3 Oklahoma26#2 Tennessee2477,993notes
January 1, 1969#3 Penn State15#6 Kansas1477,719notes
January 1, 1970#2 Penn State10#6 Missouri377,282notes
January 1, 1971#3 Nebraska17#5 LSU1280,699notes
January 1, 1972#1 Nebraska38#2 Alabama678,151notes
January 1, 1973#9 Nebraska40#12 Notre Dame680,010notes
January 1, 1974#6 Penn State16#13 LSU960,477notes
January 1, 1975#9 Notre Dame13#2 Alabama1171,801notes
January 1, 1976#3 Oklahoma14#5 Michigan676,799notes
January 1, 1977#11 Ohio State27#12 Colorado1065,537notes
January 2, 1978#6 Arkansas31#2 Oklahoma660,987notes
January 1, 1979#4 Oklahoma31#6 Nebraska2466,365notes
January 1, 1980#5 Oklahoma24#4 Florida State766,714notes
January 1, 1981#4 Oklahoma18#2 Florida State1771,043notes
January 1, 1982#1 Clemson22#4 Nebraska1572,748notes
January 1, 1983#3 Nebraska21#13 LSU2068,713notes
January 2, 1984#5 Miami (Florida)31#1 Nebraska3072,549notes
January 1, 1985#4 Washington28#2 Oklahoma1756,294notes
January 1, 1986#3 Oklahoma25#1 Penn State1074,178notes
January 1, 1987#3 Oklahoma42#9 Arkansas852,717notes
January 1, 1988#2 Miami (Florida)20#1 Oklahoma1474,760notes
January 2, 1989#2 Miami (Florida)23#6 Nebraska379,480notes
January 1, 1990#4 Notre Dame21#1 Colorado681,190notes
January 1, 1991#1 Colorado10#5 Notre Dame977,062notes
January 1, 1992#1 Miami (Florida)22#11 Nebraska077,747notes
January 1, 1993#3 Florida State27#11 Nebraska1457,324notes
January 1, 1994BC#1 Florida State18#2 Nebraska1681,536notes
January 1, 1995BC#1 Nebraska24#3 Miami (Florida)1781,753notes
January 1, 1996#6 Florida State31#8 Notre Dame2672,198notes
December 31, 1996#6 Nebraska41#10 Virginia Tech21Pro Player Stadium@63,297notes
January 2, 1998BA#2 Nebraska42#3 Tennessee1774,002notes
January 2, 1999#7 Florida31#18 Syracuse10Miami Orange Bowl67,919notes
January 1, 2000#8 Michigan35#5 Alabama34Pro Player Stadium@70,461notes
January 3, 2001BCS#1 Oklahoma13#3 Florida State276,835notes
January 2, 2002#5 Florida56#6 Maryland2373,640notes
January 2, 2003#5 USC38#3 Iowa1775,971notes
January 1, 2004#10 Miami (Florida)16#9 Florida State1476,739notes
January 4, 2005BCS#1 USC55#2 Oklahoma1977,912notes
January 3, 2006#3 Penn State26#22 Florida State23Dolphins Stadium@77,773notes
January 2, 2007#5 Louisville24#15 Wake Forest13Dolphin Stadium@74,470notes
January 3, 2008#8 Kansas24#5 Virginia Tech2174,111notes
January 1, 2009#21 Virginia Tech20#12 Cincinnati773,602notes
January 5, 2010#10 Iowa24#9 Georgia Tech14Land Shark Stadium@66,131notes
January 3, 2011#5 Stanford40#12 Virginia Tech12Sun Life Stadium@65,453notes
January 4, 2012#17 West Virginia 70#22 Clemson3367,563notes
January 1, 2013#13 Florida State 31#16 Northern Illinois1072,073notes
January 3, 2014#12 Clemson 40#7 Ohio State3572,080notes
December 31, 2014#10 Georgia Tech 49#8 Mississippi State3458,211notes
December 31, 2015CFP#1 Clemson 37#4 Oklahoma1767,615notes
December 30, 2016#10 Florida State33#6 Michigan32Hard Rock Stadium67,432notes
December 30, 2017#6 Wisconsin34#11 Miami (Florida)2465,326notes
December 29, 2018CFP#1 Alabama45#4 Oklahoma3466,203notes
December 30, 2019#6 Florida vs. Virginianotes
^BC Denotes Bowl Coalition Championship Game
^BA Denotes Bowl Alliance Championship Game
^BCS Denotes BCS National Championship Game
^CFP Denotes College Football Playoff semifinal game
^@ Denotes a historical name for what is now Hard Rock Stadium
Due to an NFL scheduling conflict, the 1999 game was played at the Miami Orange Bowl
USC vacated their 2005 victory due to NCAA sanctions

Future games


Future game dates[13][14]
2019December 30, 2019Monday
2020January 2, 2021Saturday
2021December 31, 2021Friday
2022December 30, 2022Friday
2023December 30, 2023Saturday
2024December 28, 2024Saturday
2025December 30, 2025Tuesday

denotes game is a College Football Playoff semifinal


Appearances by team

Only teams with at least three appearances are listed.

Rank Team Appearances Record Win pct.
T3Miami (FL)106–4.600
T3Florida State105–5.500
6Georgia Tech74–3.571
T8Penn State54–1.800
T8Notre Dame52–3.400
T12Virginia Tech41–3.250
T15Mississippi State31–2.333

Appearances by conference

Updated through the December 2018 edition (85 games, 170 total appearances).

Rank Conference Appearances Record Win % # of
1Big Eight4220–22.4765Oklahoma (11–5)[A 1]
Nebraska (6–9)[A 1]
Colorado (2–3)
Missouri (1–3)
Kansas (0–2)[A 1]
2SEC3518–17.51410Alabama (5–4)
LSU (2–3)
Georgia Tech (3–1)[A 2]
Tennessee (1–3)
Florida (3–0)
Georgia (2–1)
Auburn (1–1)
Mississippi State (1–2)
Kentucky (0–1)
Ole Miss (0–1)
3Independent2813–15.46415Miami (FL) (4–1)[A 3]
Notre Dame (2–3)
Penn State (3–1)[A 4]
Florida State (0–2)[A 5]
Syracuse (0–2)[A 6]
Bucknell (1–0)
Catholic (1–0)
Duquesne (1–0)
Santa Clara (1–0)
Boston College (0–1)
Georgia Tech (0–1)[A 2]
Georgetown (0–1)
Holy Cross (0–1)
Michigan State (0–1)
Navy (0–1)
4ACC2511–14.4408Florida State (5–3)*[A 5]
Clemson (3–2)[A 7]
Georgia Tech (1–1)[A 2]
Duke (1–1)
Virginia Tech (1–2)[A 8]
Wake Forest (0–1)
Maryland (0–3)
Miami (FL) (0–1)
5Big Ten95–4.5565Iowa (1–1)
Ohio State (1–1)
Michigan (1–2)
Penn State (1–0)[A 4]
Wisconsin (1–0)
T6Big East84–4.5006Miami (FL) (2–1)[A 3]
Louisville (1–0)
West Virginia (1–0)
Cincinnati (0–1)
Syracuse (0–1)[A 6]
Virginia Tech (0–1)[A 8]
T6SWC84–4.5006Texas (2–0)
Arkansas (1–1)
Rice (1–0)
Baylor (0–1)
TCU (0–1)
Texas A&M (0–1)
8Big 1274–3.5713Nebraska (2–0)[A 1]
Kansas (1–0)[A 1]
Oklahoma (1–3)[A 1]
9Pac-1244–01.0003USC (2–0)
Stanford (1–0)
Washington (1–0)
T10SoCon11–01.0001Clemson (1–0)[A 7]
T10MVC11–01.0001Tulsa (1–0)
T10MAC10–1.0001Northern Illinois (0–1)*
T10SIAA10–1.0001Miami (FL) (0–1)[A 3]
  1. As members of the Big Eight, Oklahoma played in 16 Orange Bowls, Nebraska played in 15 Orange Bowls, and Kansas played in 2 Orange Bowls. As members of the Big 12 (after the Big Eight merged with 4 schools in the SWC to form the Big 12), Oklahoma and Nebraska each played in 2 more Orange Bowls and Kansas played in 1 more Orange Bowl.
  2. Georgia Tech was a member of the SEC during the 1940, 1945, 1948, and 1952 Orange Bowls. It was an independent team during the 1967 Orange Bowl and a member of the ACC during the 2010 and 2014 Orange Bowls.
  3. Miami was a member of the SIAA during the 1935 Orange Bowl. It was an independent team during the 1946, 1951, 1984, 1988, and 1989 Orange Bowls. It was a member of the Big East during the 1992, 1995, and 2004 Orange Bowls. It was a member of the ACC during the 2017 Orange Bowl.
  4. Penn State was an independent team during the 1969, 1970, 1974, and 1986 Orange Bowls. It was a member of the Big Ten during the 2006 Orange Bowl.
  5. Florida State was an independent team during the 1980 and 1981 Orange Bowls and was a member of the ACC during the 1993, 1994, 1996, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2013 and 2016 Orange Bowls.
  6. Syracuse was an independent team during the 1953 and 1959 Orange Bowls and was a member of the Big East during the 1999 Orange Bowl.
  7. Clemson was a member of the Southern Conference during the 1951 Orange Bowl and a member of the ACC during the 1957, 1982, 2012 and 2014 Orange Bowls (Clemson was one of seven SoCon schools to split off to form the ACC).
  8. Virginia Tech was a member of the Big East during the 1996 Orange Bowl and a member of the ACC during the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Orange Bowls.

Game Records

Team Record, Team vs. Opponent Year
Most points scored (one team) 70, West Virginia vs. Clemson 2012
Most points scored (losing team) 35, Ohio State vs. Clemson Jan. 2014
Most points scored (both teams) 103, West Virginia (70) vs. Clemson (33) 2012
Fewest points allowed 0, 8 times, most recent:
Miami (FL) vs. Nebraska
Largest margin of victory 55, Alabama (61) vs. Syracuse (6) 1953
Total yards
Rushing yards
Passing yards
First downs
Fewest yards allowed
Fewest rushing yards allowed
Fewest passing yards allowed
Individual Record, Player, Team vs. Opponent Year
All-purpose yards
Touchdowns (all-purpose)
Rushing yards
Rushing touchdowns
Passing yards
Passing touchdowns
Receiving yards
Receiving touchdowns
Long Plays Record, Player, Team vs. Opponent Year
Touchdown run
Touchdown pass
Kickoff return
Punt return
Interception return
Fumble return
Field goal


The game was previously officially known as the Discover Orange Bowl, since Discover Financial was announced as title sponsor on August 26, 2010 as part of a new four-year agreement.[15] The game had been called the FedEx Orange Bowl from 1989 to 2010, as FedEx sponsored the event during that period. Starting with the 2010–11 season, ESPN carried the Orange Bowl, replacing Fox after four seasons.[16] ABC aired the game from 1999 to 2006, with CBS (1995–1998) and NBC (1964–1994) previously carrying the game.

Discover stated that they would not renew their sponsorship of the game further on June 9, 2014; the game will be a part of the College Football Playoff in the future, and CFP rightsholder ESPN has asked for higher sponsorship fees, in return.[17] On September 22, 2014, Capital One was announced as the new title sponsor of the Orange Bowl, transferring their bowl game sponsorship from the Citrus Bowl.[18][19] Subsequently, the company's "Capital One Mascot Challenge" winner naming ceremony also moved to the Orange Bowl.


ESPN is the current rightsholder of the Orange Bowl, a relationship that began in 2011 as part of the contract to broadcast the Bowl Championship Series games. In anticipation of the transition to the College Football Playoff in the 2014–15 season, ESPN reached a new deal with the game's organizers in November 2012 to extend its rights through 2026, paying $55 million yearly.[20] The game is also broadcast nationally by ESPN Radio.

Prior to that, Fox held the rights to the event (along with the other BCS bowls) since 2007, preceded by ABC (1999–2006 and 1962–64), CBS (1996–98 and 1953–61), and NBC (1965–95). This game, along with the Fiesta Bowl, is one of only two bowl games ever to air on all the "big 4" U.S. television networks. ESPN Deportes added a Spanish language telecast of the game in 2013.[21]

See also


  1. "Bowl projections, predictions: Playoff set, Michigan vs. Florida State a big-time game". Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  2. "Tournament of Roses History". Pasadena Tournament of Roses. Archived from the original on December 2, 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2006.
  3. "History of the Orange Bowl". FedEx Orange Bowl. Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2006.
  4. Ours, Robert (2004). Bowl Games: College Football's Greatest Tradition, pg. 28
  5. History of the Orange Bowl
  6. "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  7. Archived March 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  8. "The Inflation Calculator". WestEgg. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
  9. "1936 Orange Bowl". The Catholic University of America. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
  10. "She's Orange Bowl Queen". The Milwaukee Journal. 1935-12-31. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
  11. Daily Press (15 November 2012). "Teel Time: ACC, Orange Bowl announce ties with SEC, Big Ten, Notre Dame, ESPN". Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  13. "Dates Announced for College Football Playoff Games Through 2026". (Press release). August 30, 2018. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  14. "86th Capital One Orange Bowl now Scheduled for Primetime". (Press release). May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
  15. "Discover to sponsor Orange Bowl title slot". ESPN. 2010-08-26.
  16. Fox pulls out of bidding for next round of BCS games,
  17. Michael Smith; John Ourand; Terry Lefton (9 June 2014). "Discover, Tostitos to end bowl title deals". Sports Business Journal. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  18. "CAPITAL ONE BECOMES TITLE SPONSOR OF THE ORANGE BOWL". Orange Bowl Committee. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  19. "Capital One Becomes Title Sponsor of the Orange Bowl". Atlantic Coast Conference. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  20. "ESPN Reaches 12-Year College Football Agreement With Orange Bowl". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
  21. "BCS National Championship and Bowl Games on ESPN Deportes". ESPN. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
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