Operation Safari

Operation Safari (German: Unternehmen Safari) was a German military operation during World War II involving 9,000 troops.[6] Launched to disarm the Danish military, it led to the scuttling of the Royal Danish Navy and internment of all Danish soldiers. On the Danish side it resulted in 23–26 dead and around 40–50 injured; 4,600 Danish personnel were captured.[1][7] German losses were reported as one killed and eight wounded, although they may have been as high as 11 killed and 59 wounded.[4][1][3]

Operation Safari
Unternehmen Safari
Part of the Occupation of Denmark

Danish officers being detained on 29 August 1943
Date29 August 1943 (1943-08-29)
Location
Result German victory
Belligerents
 Germany  Denmark
Commanders and leaders
Hermann von Hanneken
Hans-Heinrich Wurmbach
Aage H. Vedel
Ebbe Gørtz
Strength
9,000 soldiers
1 mine warfare ship
2 torpedo boats
2,200 soldiers[1]
1,100 auxiliary troops
4,300 sailors
2 coastal defence ships
10 torpedo boats
7 minelayers
18 minesweepers
2 floating workshops
12 submarines
4 large patrol ships
2 survey ships
2 station vessels
1 Royal yacht
59 patrol cutters
1 transport ship
Casualties and losses
1–11 killed[1][2]
8–59 wounded[1][3][4]
At least 1 aircraft damaged
23–26 killed, 40–50 wounded[5]
1 coastal defence ship grounded
1 coastal defence ship scuttled
4 torpedo boats scuttled
1 torpedo boat blown up
4 torpedo boats captured
7 minelayers scuttled
6 minesweepers scuttled
9 minesweepers captured
1 floating workshop torched
1 floating workshop captured
9 submarines scuttled
3 submarines captured
1 large patrol ship scuttled
3 large patrol ships captured
1 survey ship partly destroyed
1 survey ship captured
2 station vessels captured
50 patrol cutters captured
1 transport ship captured

Background

During the early years of the war, Denmark had been known as the model protectorate, earning the nickname the Cream Front (German: Sahnefront), due to the relative ease of the occupation and copious amount of dairy products.[8] General Hermann von Hanneken, the head of German land forces in Denmark, had wanted the Danish Army to be disarmed; if the Allies invaded, Danish forces could interfere with German supplies and communications. Plans to disarm the Danish Army were initially drafted in June 1943 and by July they were nearly ready.[9]

Vice Admiral Hans-Heinrich Wurmbach, the senior German naval officer in Denmark, was opposed to the plan. The Danes were cooperative and the Danish Navy met many maritime responsibilities that would cost the German Navy resources and manpower to replace.[9] The situation in Denmark deteriorated over the summer; on 28 July a Danish worker bombed a German freighter at the Odense shipyard. Tensions between the Germans—who had wanted to guard the ship—and Danish labourers increased, culminating in the "August uprising"; by the end of the month German and Danish authorities were unable to control the civil unrest in many cities across the country.[10]

The Germans resolved at a late stage to disarm the Danish Navy; Wurmbach was unable to inform his subordinates of the operation until 16 August. Planning lasted until 26 August.[9] The Germans declared Denmark "enemy territory" on 28 August.[11][6] The Danish government was dissolved, Hanneken's plan was implemented and martial law was imposed.[6]

Operation

The objective of the operation was simultaneously to capture and disarm the Danish forces, to prevent them from assisting a possible Allied invasion.[7]

Army

The operation started at 04:00 and saw action taking place at every army base in Denmark. The army was taken by surprise and resistance was sporadic. At many places the soldiers surrendered peacefully but at others there was fighting. At the barracks in Næstved, where future Prime Minister Anker Jørgensen was stationed, two Danish soldiers lost their lives.[12] When German forces tried to enter the armoury at the Shooting School for Handguns, an exchange of fire took place and three Germans were killed.[13][14] The Danish royal family was at Sorgenfri Palace when the Germans, under the command of Lieutenant General Eduard Ritter von Schleich, attacked the palace, resulting in another skirmish and the death of seven Germans.[3]

Following an incident, where the navy were forced to give six torpedo-boats to the Germans, the navy had planned the scuttling of its ships on 5 February 1941.[2][15] Vice Admiral A. H. Vedel, the chief Danish naval officer, issued orders that in the event the Germans attempted to seize the fleet, crews were to attempt to sail for Sweden or—if this was not possible—scuttle their ships.[16] At 04:08, the message K N U was sent from the Danish Naval High Command, warning their crews that the German operation was about to begin. The first explosion occurred at 04:13 as the navy scuttled their ships in harbour, while ships at sea tried to escape to neutral or Allied waters. Niels Juel was intercepted and led to the Battle of Isefjord.[17] Following their capture most naval personnel were interned at KB Hallen.[18] Of the fifty-two vessels in the Danish Navy on 29 August, two were in Greenland, thirty-two were scuttled, four reached Sweden and fourteen were taken undamaged by the Germans.[19] Nine Danish sailors were killed and ten were wounded.[20][21][22]

Bases and facilities attacked

Aftermath

A total of 4,600 Danish personnel were captured, although some were later able to escape.[7] Between 23 and 26 Danish personnel were killed and another 40 to 50 were injured.[1] The Danes were able to scuttle 32 vessels, while six to thirteen escaped and fourteen were captured by the Germans.[7][20][21] The Germans reported their own losses as one killed and eight wounded, although they may have been as high as 11 killed and 59 wounded.[4][1][3]

"The Danish fleet has been sunk with honour. Long live the Danish Fleet"

– Commander Paul Ipsen, Head of the Danish Coastal Forces[24]

The Germans had taken control of Denmark and could extend the Final Solution to the country, leading to the deportation and eventual rescue of the Danish Jews.[25] Vice Admiral Vedel continued his service as Director of the Ministry of the Navy in the permanent secretaries' administration until liberation in 1945.[26]

The Small General Staff was created, a Danish resistance movement composed of officers, with the aim of intelligence gathering. The soldiers that escaped to Sweden created the Danish Brigade in Exile, where they trained until the end of the war and returned to fight during the liberation. The ships that managed to escape became a part of the Danish Flotilla, while the Germans managed to refloat many of the ships sunk. The Germans also captured Horserød camp, where Danish communists were imprisoned. Approximately 150 of these were sent to Stutthof concentration camp in Germany.[6]

Legacy

On 29 August 2003, the Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen delivered a speech before staff and students of the Royal Danish Naval Academy. He praised the scuttling of the navy and the resignation of the government during Operation Safari, asserting that the actions elevated the Allies' opinions of Denmark.[27]

See also

Citations

  1. Hillingsøe 2003b.
  2. Nørby 2013b.
  3. Otzen 2015.
  4. Nørby 2013a.
  5. Thomas 2014, p. 6.
  6. Larsen 2003.
  7. Christensen n.d.
  8. Poulsen 1991, p. 379.
  9. Grooss 2017, p. 198.
  10. Grooss 2017, p. 196.
  11. Voorhis 1972, pp. 174-6, 179, 181, 183.
  12. "NEKROLOG: Hele Danmarks Anker er død". Dagbladet Information (in Danish). Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  13. "Tender documents for Christian Voldgade 8" (PDF). forsvaret.dk/ (in Danish). Defence Estates and Infrastructure Organisation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  14. Laier 2003.
  15. Balsved, Johnny E. "The Order to Scuttle the Navy's Ship". navalhistory.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  16. Koburger 1994, p. 60.
  17. Balsved, Johnny E. (10 February 2002). "Artillery-ship Niels Juel Attacked Multiple Times by German Bombers". Naval History (in Danish). Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  18. Nørby, Søren. "29 august 1943 was a turningpoint". navalhistory.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  19. Danish Military History website Archived 13 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine in English, with further sources in Danish listed. This includes a full list of the ships involved.
  20. Nørby, Søren (27 November 2013). "Scuttling of U-boat Havfruen 29 August 1943". Dansk Militærhistorie (in Danish). Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  21. Nørby 2013c.
  22. Nielsen 2013.
  23. Hillingsøe 2003.
  24. Lyngby et al. 2010, p. 254.
  25. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "King Christian X of Denmark". ushmm.org. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  26. Grooss 2017, p. 200.
  27. Holbraad 2017, pp. 209–210.

References

Further reading

  • Ramsing, Bob (1993). Operation Safari – 29. August 1943 (in Danish). Atlantsammenslutningen. ISBN 87-87008-16-5.

Operation Safari (in Danish)

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.