Operation Dawn (1997)

Operation Dawn (Turkish: Şafak Harekâtı) was a cross-border operation by the Turkish Armed Forces into northern Iraq between 25 September and 15 October 1997 against the Kurdistan Workers' Party.

Operation Dawn
Part of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict and Iraqi Kurdish Civil War
Date25 September – 15 October 1997
Result Turkish victory (Turkish claim) [1]


Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP)

Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)

Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK)[2]
Commanders and leaders
Ali Haydar Kaytan[3]

 Turkey: 15,000
KDP: 8,000

Total: 27,000
Casualties and losses
31 killed, 91 wounded 865 killed, 37 captured (According to Turkey)

The unsuccessful result of Operation Hammer (1997) led to this operation.[4]


Turkey announced fatalities of a total of 31 personnel of 3 commissioned officers, 24 soldiers, and 4 village guards; the injured at a total of 91 personnel out of 5 commissioned officers, 7 noncommissioned officers, 77 soldiers, and 2 village guards; and the total number of militants neutralized at 902, with 865 being killed and 37 being captured.[5] Clashes between the PKK and KDP resulted in 'considerable losses' for the KDP.[6]


  1. Deterring Terrorism: Theory and Practice. Stanford University Press.
  2. "THE ARAB SPRING, ITS EFFECTS ON THE KURDS, AND THE APPROACHES OF TURKEY, IRAN, SYRIA, AND IRAQ ON THE KURDISH ISSUE". Archived from the original on 17 September 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  3. Gunter, M.M. (1997). The Kurds and the Future of Turkey. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 35. ISBN 9780312172657. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  4. "Hitting the Kurds from All Sides". TIME. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  5. "Şafak harekatı (25 Eylül - 15 Ekim 1997)". Hürriyet. Retrieved 11 October 2007.
  6. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld | Chronology for Kurds in Turkey". unhcr.org. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2014.

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