Once Were Warriors (film)

Once Were Warriors is a 1994 New Zealand drama film based on New Zealand author Alan Duff's bestselling 1990 first novel.[3] The film tells the story of the Hekes, an urban Māori family, and their problems with poverty, alcoholism, and domestic violence, mostly brought on by the patriarch Jake. The film was directed by Lee Tamahori and stars Rena Owen, Temuera Morrison and Cliff Curtis.[4]

Once Were Warriors
Theatrical release poster
Directed byLee Tamahori
Produced byRobin Scholes
Written byRiwia Brown
Based onOnce Were Warriors by Alan Duff
StarringRena Owen
Temuera Morrison
Cliff Curtis
Julian Arahanga
Mamaengaroa Kerr-Bell
Music byMurray Grindlay
Murray McNabb
CinematographyStuart Dryburgh
Edited byMichael J. Horton
Distributed byFine Line Features
Release date
  • 2 September 1994 (1994-09-02)
Running time
102 minutes
CountryNew Zealand
Box officeNZ$6.7 million[1][2]


Beth leaves her small town and much to her parents' chagrin, she marries Jake "The Muss" (named for his big muscles) Heke. After 18 years, they live in an unkempt state house in South Auckland, New Zealand, and have five children. Their interpretations of life and being Māori are tested.

Jake is fired from his job, but remains satisfied with receiving unemployment benefit and spending most days getting drunk at a nearby pub with his friends. He has a violent streak that he displays by savagely beating a muscular patron who dares disrupt a female singer's (Mere Boynton) performance. He often invites crowds of friends from the bar to his home for drunken parties. When his wife "gets lippy," he brutally beats her in front of their friends, who are too intimidated to interfere. Beth turns to booze when things go wrong, and has angry outbursts and occasional violence of her own on a much smaller scale. Her children fend for themselves, resignedly cleaning the blood-streaked house after their father beats their mother.

Nig, the Hekes' eldest son, moves out to join a gang whose rituals include getting facial tattoos (in Māori culture called tā moko). He undergoes an initiation beating by gang members, passes and is then embraced as a new brother. Nig later sports the gang's tattoos. He cares about his siblings but despises his father. He is angered when his mother is beaten but does not intervene.

Jake's middle son, Mark aka "Boogie," has a history of petty criminal offences. He is placed in a foster home as a ward of the state due to his parents' home life. Jake is unconcerned with Boogie's incarceration and hopes it will toughen him up. Despite his initial anger, Boogie finds a new niche for himself after the foster home's manager, Mr. Bennett, helps him embrace his Māori heritage.

Grace, the Hekes' 13-year-old daughter, keeps a journal in which she chronicles events, as well as stories she tells her younger siblings. Her best friend is a homeless boy named Toot, who lives in a wrecked car. She dreads a future she believes is inevitable and is constantly reminded of getting married and playing the role of a wife, which she believes comprises catering to a husband's demands and enduring beatings. She dreams of leaving and living an independent and single life.

Grace is raped in her bed by Uncle Bully, a friend of her father's who tells her it is her fault for "turning him on" by wearing her "skimpy little nighty." She falls into a deep depression and seeks support from Toot, with whom she smokes marijuana for the first time. Toot kisses her but she reacts violently and storms out, believing he is "just like the rest of them." Confused, Grace eventually goes home to an angry Jake with his friends. Bully asks for a goodnight kiss to test his power over her. She refuses and Jake sees it as a sign of disrespect and rips her journal in two and nearly beats her up. Beth returns home from searching for Grace, and then screams hysterically after finding her daughter has hanged herself from a tree branch in the backyard.

Jake deals with the tragedy in his usual selfish way, going to the pub with his mates while the rest of his family takes Grace's body to a tangihanga. Beth stands up to him for the first time when he refuses to let her be taken to the marae. The film cross-cuts between the mourning, Jake drinking with his friends at the pub and the family on the marae. Boogie impresses Beth with his Māori singing at the funeral, and Toot says his goodbyes, telling Grace the gentle kiss was all his gesture meant. Boogie reassures Toot that Grace loved him, and Beth invites him to live with them.

Reading Grace's diary later that day, Beth finds out about the rape and confronts Bully at the pub. Jake initially threatens Beth for accusing his friend, but Nig steps between them, protecting his mother. Nig hands his father Grace's diary, and after glancing at it, Jake explodes in a rage, nearly beating Bully to death and castrating him with a broken bottle. Beth blames Jake just as much as Bully because of his violent lifestyle, and decides to leave him.

Beth tells Jake of her intention to take their children back to her Māori village and traditions, defiantly telling him that her Māori heritage gives her the strength to resist his control over her. Jake cusses and yells at her on a curb outside the pub as the family leaves, with police sirens wailing in the background.


  • Rena Owen as Beth Heke, the matriarch of the Heke family. She cares for her family's welfare and shows them the love that Jake will not, even though she is not present at Boogie's court hearing. Much like Jake, she too is an alcoholic although she is less abusive.
  • Temuera Morrison as Jake "the Muss" Heke. The abusive, alcoholic husband of Beth Heke. In addition to abusing his wife and his family, he is a selfish, lazy, and arrogant man who will tear anyone down if he feels they stand in his way. He tends to spend a lot of time at the pub getting drunk with his mates and often hosts "drunken parties."
  • Julian Arahanga as Nig Heke. The oldest son of Jake and Beth Heke. He despises his father, and he eventually joins a gang to make up for the missing father figure in his life, though this gang is revealed to be just as violent as Jake himself.
  • Mamaengaroa Kerr-Bell as Grace Heke, the cynical daughter of Beth and Jake. She enjoys writing stories to make up for all of the craziness in her life and eventually hangs herself as a result of being raped by Bully and the constant violence around her.
  • Taungaroa Emile as Mark "Boogie" Heke, the middle son of Beth and Jake, he is something of a juvenile delinquent as he is sent to a borstal since none of his parents were able to show up to his court hearing on his behalf, though Grace was present. At the borstal, he soon finds himself a new niche as he grows very fond of his Māori heritage.
  • Rachael Morris Jr. as Polly Heke
  • Joseph Kairau as Huata Heke
  • George Henare as Mr. Bennett, the man at the borstal who takes Boogie under his wing after he is seen smashing windows in the gymnasium with a Taiaha.
  • Cliff Curtis as Uncle Bully, Jake's friend who is revealed to be a pedophile after he rapes Grace in her bed at one of Jake's "drunken parties."
  • Pete Smith as Dooley, Jake and Bully's happy-go-lucky friend.
  • Calvin Tuteao as Taka
  • Shannon Williams as Toot, Grace's best friend who is revealed to have a crush on her. He tries to kiss Grace, but she angrily storms off as she is reminded of Bully raping her the night before. He lives in a car under a motorway overpass, and is known to be a drug addict as well. Yet he remains very optimistic about the future.
  • Mere Boynton as Mavis


Once Were Warriors is the first feature film produced by Communicado Productions. The production won Best Film at the Durban International Film Festival, Montreal Film Festival, New Zealand Film & Television Awards, and Rotterdam Film Festival. It also became at the time the highest-grossing film in New Zealand, surpassing The Piano (1993). Once Were Warriors was nominated for the Grand Prix of the Belgian Syndicate of Cinema Critics.

The film was shot at a local state house, located at 33 O'Connor Street, Otara, in the Auckland metropolitan area. The neighbours of the house used for filming complained on numerous occasions due to the film's late night party scenes.


Once Were Warriors was critically lauded on release, and the film currently has a rating of 93% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 44 reviews with an average rating of 7.8 out of 10.[5]

Roger Ebert gave the film three and a half stars out of four and observed: "Once Were Warriors has been praised as an attack on domestic violence and abuse. So it is. But I am not sure anyone needs to see this film to discover that such brutality is bad. We know that. I value it for two other reasons: its perception in showing the way alcohol triggers sudden personality shifts, and its power in presenting two great performances by Morrison and Owen. You don't often see acting like this in the movies. They bring the Academy Awards into perspective."[6]

In The Movie Show review of 1994, Margaret Pomeranz called Once Were Warriors "a very impressive big screen debut from director Lee Tamahori," while also praising the cinematography of Stuart Dryburgh and the performances of the films leads, Morrison and Owen. Co-host David Stratton described the film as "astonishing," "absolutely devastating," and "a really, really, really good film." Stratton also compared Once Were Warriors favourably with New Zealand's Heavenly Creatures of the same year. Pomeranz gave Once Were Warriors four stars out of five while Stratton gave it four point five.[7]

A 2014 New Zealand survey voted Once Were Warriors the best New Zealand film of all time.[8]


In other media

Once Were the Cast of Warriors (2014) is a documentary film made for the 20th anniversary of the original release of Once Were Warriors.[9] [10]


  1. Martens, Emiel, "Once Were Warriors: The Aftermath", 28 November 2007.
  2. https://www.stuff.co.nz/entertainment/tv-radio/94258650/the-new-zealand-tv-shows-we-loved-the-most
  3. Maslin, Janet (24 February 1995). "Once Were Warriors (1994) FILM REVIEW; For a Family, the War at Home". The New York Times.
  4. Thompson, K. M., & J. Stringer, eds. (2003). "Once Were Warriors: New Zealand's first indigenous blockbuster". Movie Blockbusters. London: Routledge. pp. 230–241.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  5. "Once Were Warriors". Rotten Tomatoes.
  6. "Once Were Warriors". Roger Ebert. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  7. "The Movie Show Reviews Once Were Warriors". SBS. 10 December 1994. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  8. "Kiwis pick their favourite movie". Stuff/Fairfax. 19 August 2014.
  9. "Once were the cast of Warriors". Stuff/Fairfax. 19 August 2014.
  10. "What became of Grace Heke". Stuff/Fairfax. 19 August 2014.
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