Official romanisation scheme for Taiwanese Hokkien

The official romanisation system for Taiwanese Hokkien in Taiwan is locally known as Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an,[upper-roman 1][1] often referred to as Tâi-lô. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī and since 2006 has been one of the officially promoted phonetic notation system by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.[2] The system is used in the MoE's Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan. It is nearly identical to Pe̍h-ōe-jī apart from using ts tsh j instead of ch chh j for the fricatives /ts tsʰ dz/, the substitution of o for u in vowel combinations such as oa and oe, the substitution of e for i in eng, using oo instead of , and the substitution of nn for n in nasalized vowels like an and on.

Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an
Traditional Chinese臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案
Simplified Chinese台湾闽南语罗马字拼音方案
Tâi-lô
Traditional Chinese臺羅拼音
Simplified Chinese台罗拼音

Alphabet

Taiwanese Romanization System uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones.

Capital letter ABEGHIJKKhLMNNgNNOOoPPhSTThTsTshU
Lower case abeghijkkhlmnngnnooopphstthtstshu
IPA [a][b][e][ɡ][h, ʔ][i][d͡z][k][kʰ][l][m][n][ŋ][◌̃][o][ɔ][p][pʰ][s][t][tʰ][t͡s][t͡sʰ][u]
  • "nn" is only used after a vowel to express nasalization, so it only appears capitalised in all-caps texts.
  • Palatalization occurs when "j, s, ts, tsh" are followed by "i", so "ji, si, tsi, tshi" are sometimes governed as trigraphs and tetragraphs.
  • Of the 10 unused basic Latin letters, "R" is sometimes used to express dialectal vowels (somewhat similar to erhua), while the others (C, D, F, Q, V, W, X, Y, Z) are only used in loanwords.

Sample texts

Tâi-lô
Pe̍h-uē-jī (PUJ) sī 1 khuán iōng Latin (Lô-má) phìng-im hē-thóng lâi siá Tâi-uân ê gí-giân ê su-bīn bûn-jī. In-uī tong-tshoo sī thuân-kàu-sū ín--jı̍p-lâi ê, sóo-í ia̍h-ū-lâng kā PUJ kiò-tsò Kàu-huē Lô-má-jī, he̍k-tsiá sī kán-tshing Kàu-lô. Put-jî-kò hiān-tāi ê sú-iōng-tsiá bē-tsió m̄-sī kàu-tôo, kàu-tôo mā tsin tsē bē-hiáu PUJ.
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ) sī 1 khoán iōng Latin (Lô-má) phèng-im hē-thóng lâi siá Tâi-ôan ê gí-giân ê su-bīn bûn-jī. In-ūi tong-chho͘ sī thôan-kàu-sū ín--jı̍p-lâi ê, só͘-í ia̍h-ū-lâng kā POJ kiò-chò Kàu-hōe Lô-má-jī, he̍k-chiá sī kán-chheng Kàu-lô. Put-jî-kò hiān-tāi ê sú-iōng-chiá bē-chió m̄-sī kàu-tô͘, kàu-tô͘ mā chin chē bē-hiáu POJ.
Hàn-jī
白話字(POJ)是1款用Latin(羅馬)拼音系統來寫臺灣的語言的書面文字。因為當初是傳教士引入來的,所以也有人共POJ叫做教會羅馬字,或者是簡稱教羅。不而過現代的使用者袂少毋是教徒,教徒嘛真濟袂曉POJ。
IPA
[peʔued͡ʑi ɕi t͡ɕiʔkʰuan ioŋ latin (loma) pʰiŋim hetʰoŋ lai ɕa taiuan e gigiɛn e subin bund͡ʑi ‖ inui toŋt͡sɔ ɕi tʰuankausu ind͡ʑiʔlai e sɔi iaʔulaŋ ka peʔued͡ʑi kiot͡so kauhue lomad͡ʑi hiʔt͡ɕia ɕi kant͡ɕʰiŋ kaulo ‖ puʔd͡ʑiko hiɛntai e suioŋt͡ɕia bet͡ɕio m̩ɕi kautɔ kautɔ ma t͡ɕin t͡se behiau peʔued͡ʑi ‖]

Values

Consonants

Initials
BilabialAlveolar Alveolo-palatalVelarGlottal
VoicelessVoicedVoicelessVoiced VoicelessVoicedVoicelessVoiced Voiceless
Nasal m [m]
ㄇ 毛(moo)
n [n]
ㄋ 耐(nāi)
ng [ŋ]
ㄫ 雅(ngá)
PlosiveUnaspirated p [p]
ㄅ 邊(pian)
b [b]
ㆠ 文(bûn)
t [t]
ㄉ 地(tē)
k [k]
ㄍ 求(kiû)
g [g]
ㆣ 語(gí)
Aspirated ph [pʰ]
ㄆ 波(pho)
th [tʰ]
ㄊ 他(thann)
kh [kʰ]
ㄎ 去(khì)
AffricateUnaspirated ts [ts]
ㄗ 曾(tsan)
j [dz]
ㆡ 熱(jua̍h)
tsi [tɕ]
ㄐ 尖(tsiam)
ji [dʑ]
ㆢ 入(ji̍p)
Aspirated tsh [tsʰ]
ㄘ 出(tshut)
tshi [tɕʰ]
ㄑ 手(tshiú)
Fricative s [s]
ㄙ 衫(sann)
si [ɕ]
ㄒ 寫(siá)
h [h]
ㄏ 喜(hí)
Lateral l [l]
ㄌ 柳(liú)
Finals
BilabialAlveolar VelarGlottal
Nasal consonant -m [m]
-n [n]
-ng [ŋ]
Stop consonant -p [p̚]
-t [t̚]
-k [k̚]
-h [ʔ]
Syllabic consonant
BilabialVelar
Nasal m [m̩]
ㆬ 姆(ḿ)
ng [ŋ̍]
ㆭ 酸(sng)

Vowels & Rhymes

Simple & Nasal
FrontCentralBack
SimpleNasalSimpleSimpleNasal
Close i [i]
ㄧ 衣(i)
inn [ĩ]
ㆪ 圓(înn)
u [u]
ㄨ 污(u)
unn [ũ]
ㆫ 張(tiunn)
Mid e [e]
ㆤ 禮(lé)
enn [ẽ]
ㆥ 生(senn)
o[ə]
ㄜ 高(ko)
oo [ɔ]
ㆦ 烏(oo)
onn [ɔ̃]
ㆧ 翁(onn)
Open a [a]
ㄚ 查(tsa)
ann [ã]
ㆩ 衫(sann)
Dialect
Tâi-lôIPABopomofo
ir[ɨ]
er[ə]
ee[ɛ]
ere[əe]ㄜㆤ[lower-alpha 1]
Vowel(s)Open syllabusNasalPlosive
[m][n][ŋ][p̚][t̚][k̚][ʔ]
[a] aannamanangapatakahannh
[ai] aiainnaihainnh
[au] auauh
[e] eennehennh
[i] iinniminingipitikihinnh
[ia] iaianniamianiangiapiatiakiahiannh
[iau] iauiaunniauh
[iə] ioioh
[iɔ] iongiok
[iu] iuiunniuhiunnh
Vowel(s)Open syllabusNasalPlosive
[m][n][ŋ][p̚][t̚][k̚][ʔ]
[ə] ooh
[ɔ] ooonnomongopokoohonnh
[u] uunutuh
[ua] uauannuanuatuah
[uai] uaiuainn
[ue] ueueh
[ui] ui
[m̩] mmh
[ŋ̍] ngngh
  • ing pronounced [ɪəŋ], ik pronounced [ɪək̚].

Tones

Tone No. 12 (= 6)34578
Name 陰平上聲陰去陰入陽平陽去陽入
im-pîngsiōng-siannim-khìim-ji̍piông-pîngiông-khìiông-ji̍p
Symbol NoneAcuteGraveNone (-p, -t, -k, -h)CircumflexmacronVertical line above (-p, -t, -k, -h)
´`ˆˉ̍
Pitch ˥˥˩˧˩˧ʔ˨˦˧˥ʔ
5551312433
Example tong (東)tóng (黨)tòng (棟)tok (督)tông (同)tōng (洞)to̍k (毒)

A hyphen links elements of a compound word. A double hyphen indicates that the following syllable has a neutral tone and therefore that the preceding syllable does not undergo tone sandhi.

Notes

  1. In version of Ngoo Siu-le, /ɘe/ [ere] is spelled as [oe] while the Phonetic Symbol "ㄜ" is replaced with "".

Words in native languages

    • Chinese script: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案
    • Mandarin Pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn
    • Hokkien: Tâi-uân Bân-lâm-gí Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn

References

  1. "臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案" (PDF). language.moe.edu.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  2. Cheng Jei-cheng (2008). Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an Shiyong Shouce 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案使用手冊 [Practical Manual for the Taiwan Southern Min Romanization System] (PDF) (in Chinese) (2nd ed.). ROC Ministry of Education. ISBN 978-986-01-6637-8.
  3. 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案使用手冊 (PDF) (in Chinese). 2007. ISBN 978-986-00-7755-1.
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